Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
Speak thou (λάλει)
See on Mat 28:18; see on Joh 8:26.
Originally, to stand out; be conspicuous. Thus Homer, Od. viii. 172: μετὰ δὲ πρέπει ἀγρομένοισιν he is conspicuous among those who are assembled. Eurip. Hel. 215; Ζεὺς πρέπων δἰ αἰθερος Zeus shining clearly through the aether. Hence, to become conspicuously fit; to become; beseem. In N.T. in the impersonal forms πρέπον ἐστὶν it is becoming (Mat 3:15); πρέπει it becometh (Eph 5:3); ἔπρεπεν it became (Heb 2:10). With a subject nominative, Ti1 2:10; Heb 7:26.
Aged men (πρεσβύτας)
Only here, Luk 1:18; Plm 1:9. To be understood of natural age, not of ecclesiastical position. Note that 1 Timothy 3, in treating of church officers, deals only with Bishops and Deacons. Nothing is said of Presbyters until chapter verse, where Timothy's relations to individual members of the church are prescribed. These church members are classified in this and the following verses as old men, old women, younger men, servants. In lxx πρεσβύτης is occasionally interchanged with πρεσβευτής ambassador. See Ch2 32:31; 1 Macc. 13:21; 14:21, 22; 2 Macc. 11:34.
Aged women (πρεσβύτιδας)
N.T.o. See on πρεσβύτεραι, Ti1 5:2.
N.T.o. See on καταστολή apparel, Ti1 2:9. It means, primarily, condition or state. Once in lxx, 3 Macc 5:45, κατάστημα μανιῶδες the maddened state into which the war-elephants were excited. Hence the state in which one habitually bears himself - his deportment or demeanor.
As becometh holiness (ἱεροπρεπεῖς)
N.T.o. lxx, 4 Macc. 9:25; 11:20. In the Theages (wrongly ascribed to Plato), τῷ υἱεῖ τὸ ὄνομα ἔθου καὶ ἱεροπρεπές you have given your son (Theages) an honorable and reverend name (122 D). It means beseeming a sacred place, person, or matter. Thus Athenaeus, vii, of one who had given a sacred banquet, says that the table was ornamented ἱεροπρεπέστατα in a manner most appropriate to the sacred circumstances. The meaning here is becoming those who are engaged in sacred service. This is the more striking if, as there is reason to believe, the πρεσβύτιδες represented a quasi-official position in the church. See on Ti1 5:3, and comp. Ti1 2:10; Eph 5:3.
False accusers (διαβόλους)
Better, slanderers. See on Mat 4:1, and see on Ti1 3:6, Ti1 3:11.
Given to much wine (οἴνῳ πολλῷ δεδουλωμένας)
More correctly, enslaved to much wine. The verb only here in Pastorals. Comp. Ti1 3:8.
Teachers of good things (καλοδιδασκάλους)
N.T.o. olxx, oClass.
They may teach (σωφρονίζωσι)
Better, school or train. N.T.o. olxx. The verb means to make sane or sober-minded; to recall a person to his senses; hence, to moderate, chasten, discipline.
To love their husbands, to love their children (φιλάνδρους εἶναι, φιλοτέκνους)
Lit. to be husband-lovers, children-lovers. Both adjectives N.T.o. olxx. Φίλανδρος in Class. not in this sense, but loving men or masculine habits; lewd. In the better sense often in epitaphs. An inscription at Pergamum has the following: Ἱούλιος Βάσσος Ὁτακιλίᾳ Πώλλῃ τῇ γλυκυτάτῃ γυναικί, φιλάνδρῳ καὶ φιλοτέκνῳ συμβιωσάσῃ ἀμέμπτως ἔτη λ, Julius Bassus to Otacilia Polla my sweetest wife, who loved her husband and children and lived with me blamelessly for thirty years.
Keepers at home (οἰκουργούς)
Wrong. Rend. workers at home. N.T.o. olxx, oClass.
Not attributive of workers at home, but independent. Rend. kindly. The mistress of the house is to add to her thrift, energy, and strict discipline, benign, gracious, heartily kind demeanor. Comp. Mat 20:15; Pe1 2:18; Act 9:36. See on Act 11:24; see on Rom 5:7.
Better, subject or in subjection. Frequent in Paul, but not often in the active voice. See on Jam 4:7; see on Rom 8:7; see on Phi 3:21; and comp. Co1 14:34; Eph 5:22; Col 3:18.
In all things (περὶ πάντα)
Lit. concerning all things. The exact phrase, N.T.o. For analogous use of περὶ comp. Luk 10:40, Luk 10:41; Act 19:25; Ti1 1:19; Ti1 6:4, Ti1 6:21; Ti2 3:8.
Shewing thyself (σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος)
See on Ti1 1:4. The phrase N.T.o. but occurs in Class., as, to show one's self holy or righteous; wise or skillful; παρέχειν to make himself scarce.
Const. with shewing. N.T.o. oClass. lxx once, Hag 2:18. Omit sincerity.
Sound speech (λόγον ὑγιῆ)
Ὑγιής sound, only here in Pastorals. The usual form is the participle, as ὑγιαινόντων λόγων, Ti2 1:13; ὑγιαίνουσι λόγοις, Ti1 6:3.
That cannot be condemned (ἀκατάγνωστον)
N.T.o. oClass. See 2 Macc. 4:47.
He that is of the contrary part (ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας)
The phrase N.T.o. See Mar 15:39. The heathen opposer is meant. Comp. blasphemed, Tit 2:5, and Ti1 6:1. Ἑναντίος contrary, in Paul only Th1 2:15.
May be ashamed (ἐντραπῇ)
Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Co1 4:14, note; Th2 3:14, note, and see on Mat 21:37.
Evil thing (φαῦλον)
Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Rom 9:11; Co2 5:10. See on Joh 3:20.
To please them well in all things (ἐν πᾶσιν εὐαρέστους εἶναι)
Wrong. Const. in all things with to be in subjection. Note the position of ἐν πᾶσιν in Ti1 3:11; Ti1 4:15; Ti2 2:7; Ti2 4:5, and comp. ὑπακούειν κατὰ πάντα obey in all things, Col 3:20, Col 3:22; and ὑποτάσσεται - ἐν παντί is subject in everything, Eph 5:24. Ἑυάρεστος well pleasing, only here in Pastorals. Almost exclusively in Paul. See also Heb 13:21. Ευαρέστως acceptably, Heb 12:28.
Only here and Act 5:2, Act 5:3. lxx, Jos 7:1; 2 Macc. 4:32. Often in Class. From νόσφι apart. The fundamental idea of the word is to put far away from another; to set apart for one's self; hence to purloin and appropriate to one's own use. Purloin is akin to prolong: prolongyn or purlongyn "to put fer awey." Old French porloignier or purloignier.
Shewing all good fidelity (πᾶσαν πίστιν ἐνδεικνομένος ἀγαθήν)
The phrase N.T.o. This is the only instance in N.T. of ἀγαθός with πίστις.
Adorn the doctrine (τὴν διδασκαλίαν κοσμῶσιν)
The phrase N.T.o. For κοσμῶσιν adorn, see on Ti1 2:9.
This teaching or doctrine which is to be adorned by the lives of God's servants - the teaching of the gospel - is now stated in Tit 2:11-15.
The grace of God (ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ)
A common Pauline phrase. The exact phrase only here in Pastorals. It is the ultimate ground of salvation. Comp. Ti2 1:9; Eph 2:5, Eph 2:8; Gal 1:15.
That bringeth salvation (σωτήριος)
Lit. saving. N.T.o. Const. with χαρις grace. The saving grace of God.
Hath appeared (ἐπεφάνη)
Only in Pastorals, Luke, and Acts. In the active voice, to bring to light, show. See on ἐπιφάνεια appearing, Ti1 6:14.
To all men
Const. with that bringeth salvation, not with hath appeared.
The grace of God which is saving for all men
Comp. Ti1 2:4.
Better, instructing or training. The saving economy of God is educative. Comp. Heb 12:4-11, and see on Ti1 1:20.
In Pastorals only here and Ti2 2:16. The contrary of εὐσέβεια, for which see on Ti1 2:2.
Worldly lusts (κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας)
The phrase N.T.o. Κοσμικὸς worldly, only here and Heb 9:1. On the ethical sense in κόσμος the world, see on Act 17:24, and see on Joh 1:9.
Looking for (προσδεχόμενοι)
In Pastorals only here. Comp. Mar 15:43; Luk 2:25; Luk 12:36. In this sense not in Paul. Primarily, to receive to one's self, admit, accept. So Luk 15:2; Rom 16:2; Phi 2:29. That which is accepted in faith, is awaited expectantly.
That blessed hope (τὴν μακαρίαν ἐλπίδα)
The phrase N.T.o. Μακάριος blessed, very often in the Gospels. See on Mat 5:3. In Pastorals, with the exception of this passage, always of God. In Paul, only of men, and so usually in the Gospels. Ἑλπίδα hope, the object of hope. Why the hope is called blessed, appears from Ti2 4:8; Phi 3:20, etc. Comp. Jde 1:21, and Pe1 1:13.
And the glorious appearing (καὶ ἐπιφάνειαν τῆς δόξης)
Καὶ is explanatory, introducing the definition of the character of the thing hoped for. Looking for the object of hope, even the appearing, etc. Glorious appearing is a specimen of the vicious hendiadys by which the force of so many passages has been impaired or destroyed in translation. Rend. appearing of the glory.
Of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ (τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ καὶ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Χριστοῦ Ἱησοῦ)
For Jesus Christ rend. Christ Jesus. Μέγας great with God, N.T.o , but often in lxx. According to A.V. two persons are indicated, God and Christ. Revelations with others rend. of our great God and Savior Christ Jesus, thus indicating one person, and asserting the deity of Christ. I adopt the latter, although the arguments and authorities in favor of the two renderings are very evenly balanced.
Gave himself for us (ἔδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν)
See on Ti1 2:6, and comp. Gal 1:4. Ὑπὲρ on behalf of; not instead of.
Might redeem (λυτρώσηται)
Only here, Luk 24:21; Pe1 1:18. See on Ti1 2:6. Neither λύτρον ransom, λύτρωσις redemption, nor λυτρωτής redeemer occur in Paul. He has the figure of purchase (ἀγοράζεσθαι, ἐξαγοράζεσθαι), Co1 6:20; Co1 7:23; Gal 3:13; Gal 4:5. Comp. Rev 5:9; Rev 14:3, Rev 14:4; Pe2 2:1.
Only here in Pastorals. Lit. lawlessness. See on Jo1 3:4.
Might purify (καθαρίσῃ)
In Pastorals only here. Mostly in Synoptic Gospels and Hebrews. In Paul, Co2 7:1; Eph 5:26. oClass. Often in lxx.
A peculiar people (λαὸν περιούσιον)
Λαός people only here in Pastorals. In Paul ten times, always in citations. Most frequently in Luke and Acts; often in Hebrews and Revelation. Περιούσιος N.T.o. A few times in lxx, always with λαός. See Exo 19:5; Exo 23:22; Deu 7:6; Deu 14:2; Deu 26:18. The phrase was originally applied to the people of Israel, but is transferred here to believers in the Messiah - Jews and Gentiles. Comp. Pe1 2:10. Περιούσιος is from the participle of περιεῖναι to be over and above: hence περιουσία abundance, plenty. Περιούσιος also means possessed over and above, that is, specially selected for one's own; exempt from ordinary laws of distribution. Hence correctly represented by peculiar, derived from peculium, a private purse, a special acquisition of a member of a family distinct from the property administered for the good of the whole family. Accordingly the sense is given in Eph 1:14, where believers are said to have been sealed εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως with a view to redemption of possession, or redemption which will give possession, thus = acquisition. So Pe1 2:9, where Christians are styled λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν a people for acquisition, to be acquired by God as his peculiar possession. Comp. Th1 5:9; Th2 2:14, and περιποιεῖσθαι to acquire, Act 20:28. The phrase καθαρίζειν λαὸν to purify the people, in lxx, Neh 12:30; Judith 16:18.
Lit. a zealot. Comp. Act 21:20; Act 22:3; Pe1 3:13. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Co1 14:12; Gal 1:14. For the word as a title, see on the Canaanite, Mat 10:4, and see on Mar 3:18.
See on Ti1 1:1.
N.T.o. Occasionally in Class. From περὶ beyond, φρονεῖν to be minded. To set one's self in thought beyond; hence; contemn, despise. Comp. Ti1 4:12. The exhortation is connected with authority. Titus is to claim respect for his office and for himself as bearing it.