Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
An apostle - according to the faith of God's elect, etc.
The norm of the apostolate in each of the three Epistles is unique, and not Pauline. In 1 Timothy, according to the commandment of God: in 2 Timothy, according to the promise of life in Christ Jesus. Κατὰ according to, not for the faith, but corresponding to the norm or standard of faith which is set for God's elect.
And acknowledging of the truth (καὶ ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας)
For acknowledging rend. knowledge. For the phrase, see on Ti1 2:4. Governed, like πίστιν faith, by κατὰ. The writer is an apostle according to the faith of God's elect, and according to the truth which is contained in the faith, as that truth is intelligently apprehended and held.
Which is after godliness (τῆς κατ' εὐσέβειαν)
Or according to godliness. Comp. Ti1 6:3. This addition describes the peculiar and essential character of the truth which is held and known by God's elect, namely, that it is concerned with the fear and obedience of God - all that constitutes true piety. See on Ti1 1:10.
In hope of eternal life (ἐπ' ἐλπίδι ζωῆς αἰωνίου)
Const. with Apostle, Tit 1:1. Ἑπὶ resting upon.
God that cannot lie (ὁ ἀψευδὴς θεὸς)
Ἁψευδὴς N.T.o. Once in lxx, Wisd. 7:17. Comp. Rom 3:4; Heb 6:18. Paul expresses the idea positively, by ἀληθής truthful, Rom 3:4.
Before the world began (πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων)
Lit. before eternal times. Before time began to be reckoned by aeons. See on Ti2 1:9, and additional note on Th2 1:9.
In due times (καιροῖς ἰδίοις)
Better, in his (or its) own seasons. See on Ti1 2:6.
Through preaching (ἐν κηρύγματι)
Rather, in a proclamation. See on Ti2 4:17.
Which is committed unto me (ὃ ἐπιστεύθην ἐγὼ)
Betters wherewith I was intrusted. See on Ti1 1:11.
See on Ti1 1:2.
According to the common faith (κατὰ κοινὴν πίστιν)
The phrase N.T.o. Κοινός common, usually in contrast with καθαρός pure or ἅγιος holy, as Act 10:14; Act 11:8; Rev 21:27. In the sense of general as here, Act 2:44; Act 4:32; Jde 1:3. Comp. Pe2 1:1. The "catholic" faith. Κατὰ according to, as Tit 1:1.
Crete is one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean. By the mythological writers it was called Aeria, Doliche, Idaea, Telchinia. According to tradition, Minos first gave laws to the Cretans, conquered the Aegean pirates, and established a navy. After the Trojan war the principal cities of the island formed themselves into several republics, mostly independent. The chief cities were Cnossus, Cydonia, Gortyna, and Lyctus. Crete was annexed to the Romans Empire b.c. 67. About Paul's visiting the island we have no information whatever beyond the hints in this Epistle. There is no absolute proof that Paul was ever there before the voyage to Rome. Although on that voyage some time appears to have been spent at Crete, there is no notice of Paul having received any greeting from the members of the Christian churches there. According to this Epistle, Paul and Titus had worked there together. Paul went away, and left Titus to organize the churches founded by himself. He sent this letter by Zenas and Apollos (Tit 3:13), and announced in it the coming of Artemas or of Tychicus. On their arrival Titus was to join Paul at Nicopolis, where Paul was proposing to winter.
Shouldst set in order (ἐπιδιορθώσῃ)
N.T.o. Lit. to set straight besides or farther; that is, should arrange what remained to be set in order after Paul's departure. Used by medical writers of setting broken limbs or straightening crooked ones. Διόρθωσις reformation, Heb 9:10 : διόρθωμα correction, Act 24:3.
Ordain elders (καταστήσῃς πρεσβυτέρους)
Καθιστάναι appoint or constitute. In Paul only Rom 5:19. For the sense here comp. Mat 24:45, Mat 24:47; Luk 12:14; Act 6:3. The meaning of the injunction is, that Titus should appoint, out of the number of elderly men of approved Christian reputation, certain ones to be overseers (ἐπίσκοποι) of the churches in the several cities. The eldership was not a distinct church office. See on Ti1 5:1.
I had appointed (διεταξάμην)
Better, I gave thee charge. Mostly in Luke and Acts.
Faithful children (τέκνα πιστά)
Better, believing children; or, as Rev., children that believe. Comp. Ti1 3:4.
Not accused of riot (μὴ ἐν κατηγορίᾳ ἀσωτίας)
Lit. not in accusation of profligacy. For κατηγορία see on Ti1 5:19. Ἁσωτία, lit. unsavingness; hence, dissoluteness, profligacy. Comp. Luk 15:13, of the prodigal son, who lived unsavingly (ἀσώτως). Only here, Eph 5:18, and Pe1 4:4 (note).
A bishop (τὸν ἐπίσκοπον)
See on Ti1 3:1; see on Ti1 5:1. Rend. the bishop. It will be observed that the qualifications of the elders are fixed by those of the bishop. Appoint elders who shall be unaccused, etc. for the bishop must be unaccused, etc. The overseers must have the qualifications of approved presbyters.
Steward of God (θεοῦ οἰκονόμον)
Comp. Co1 4:1, Co1 4:2; Pe1 4:10; and see on Rom 16:23; see on Luk 16:1. The phrase N.T.o.
Only here and Pe2 2:10 (note).
Soon angry (ὀργίλον)
N.T.o. Rarely in lxx and Class. Irascible.
A lover of hospitality (φιλόξενον)
Better, hospitable. See on Ti1 3:2.
A lover of good men (φιλάγαθον)
N.T.o. Better, lover of good.
N.T.o. Originally, having power over; possessed of; hence, controlling, keeping in hand. Ἑγκράτεια temperance, Act 24:25; Gal 5:23; Pe2 1:6. Εγκρατεύεσθαι to contain one's self, Co1 7:9; Co1 9:25.
Holding fast (ἀντεχόμενον)
Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Th1 5:14 (note).
The faithful word (τοῦ πιστοῦ λόγου)
The trustworthy, reliable word. Comp. Ti1 1:15 (note).
As he hath been taught (κατὰ τὴν διδαχὴν)
Lit. according to the teaching. Const. with word. Agreeing with the apostolic teaching. For διδαχή teaching see on Ti2 4:2.
May be able by sound doctrine both to exhort (δυνατὸς ῇ καὶ παρακαλεῖν ἐν τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ τῇ ὐγιαινούσῃ)
Rend. "may be able both to exhort in the sound teaching." For δυνατὸς able or powerful, see on Ti2 1:12. Used by Paul in the phrase εἰ δυνατόν if it be possible, Rom 12:18; Gal 4:15 : τὸ δυνατόν that which is possible, Rom 9:22 : of God, Rom 4:21; Rom 11:23 : of men, in the ethical sense, Rom 15:1; Co2 12:10; Co2 13:9.
Better, convict. See on Joh 3:20, and see on ἐλεγμὸν, Ti2 3:16.
The gainsayers (τοὺς ἀντιλέγοντας)
In Pastorals only here and Tit 2:9. Once in Paul, Rom 10:21, cit. Mostly in Luke and Acts. Gainsay, Angl. Sax. gegn (Germ. gegen) "against," and "say." Wiclif, Luk 21:15 : For I schal gyue to you mouth and wysdom, to whiche alle youre aduersaries schulen not mowe agenstonde, and agenseye."
Vain talkers (ματαιολόγοι)
N.T.o. olxx, oClass. See on vain jangling, Ti1 1:6.
N.T.o. olxx, oClass. See on φρεναπατᾶν to deceive, Gal 6:3.
They of the circumcision (οἱ ἐκ τῆς περιτομῆς)
The phrase only here in Pastorals. Ὁι ἐκ περιτομῆς Act 10:45; Act 11:2; Rom 4:12; Gal 2:12; Col 4:11. There can be no doubt of the presence of Jews in Crete. Tacitus (Hist. v. 2) even makes the absurd statement that the Jews were Cretan exiles; and that from their residence in the vicinity of the Cretan Mount Ida they were called Idaei, whence Judaei. There appears to have been some confusion between the Palestinians and the Philistines - the Cherethim or Cherethites, who, in Eze 25:16; Zep 2:5 are called in lxx Κρῆτες Jews were in the island in considerable numbers between the death of Alexander and the final destruction of Jerusalem. In 1 Macc. 15:23 the Cretan city of Gortyna is mentioned among the places to which letters were written by Lucius, the Roman consul, on behalf of the Jews when Simon Maccabaeus renewed the treaty which his brother Judas had made with Rome. Josephus (Ant. 17:12, 1; Bell. Jud. 2:7, 1) says that Herod's pseudo-son Alexander imposed on the Cretan Jews on his way to Italy. Philo (Leg. ad Cai. 36) makes the Jewish envoys say to Caligula that all the principal islands of the Mediterranean, including Crete, were full of Jews.
Whose mouths must be stopped (οὓς δεὶ ἐπιστομίζειν)
Lit. whom it is necessary to silence. Ἑπιστομίζειν, N.T.o. olxx. Originally, to put something into the mouth, as a bit into a horse's mouth. Ἑπιστόμιον is the stop of a water-pipe or of a hydraulic organ. Comp. φιμοῦν Ti1 5:18.
Who subvert (οἵτινες ἀνατρέπουσιν)
The double relative is explanatory of must; in as much as they, etc. For subvert rend. overthrow. See on Ti2 2:18.
One of themselves (τις ἐξ αὐτῶν)
Ἁυτῶν refers to the gainsayers, Tit 1:9, Tit 1:10. Τις refers to Epimenides, contemporary with Solon, and born in Crete b.c. 659. A legend relates that, going by his father's order in search of a sheep, he lay down in a cave, where he fell asleep and slept for fifty years. He then appeared with long hair and a flowing beard, and with an astonishing knowledge of medicine and natural history. It was said that he had the power of sending his soul out of his body and recalling it at pleasure, and that he had familiar intercourse with the gods and possessed the power of prophecy. He was sent for to Athens at the request of the inhabitants, in order to pave the way for the legislation of Solon by purifications and propitiatory sacrifices, intended to allay the feuds and party discussions which prevailed in the city. In return for his services he refused the Athenians' offers of wealth and public honors, and asked only a branch of the sacred olive, and a decree of perpetual friendship between Athens and his native city. He is said to have lived to the age of 157 years, and divine honors were paid him by the Cretans after his death. He composed a Theogony, and poems concerning religious mysteries. He wrote also a poem on the Argonautic Expedition, and other works. Jerome mentions his treatise On Oracles and Responses, from which the quotation in this verse is supposed to have been taken. According to Diogenes Laertius (i. 10) Epimenides, in order to remove a pestilence from Athens, turned some sheep loose at the Areopagus, and wherever they lay down sacrificed to the proper God: whence, he says, there are still to be found, in different demes of the Athenians, anonymous altars. Comp. Act 17:22, Act 17:23.
The Cretans, etc.
The words Κρῆτες - ἀργαί form a hexameter line.
In Pastorals here and Ti1 1:10. Once in Paul, Rom 3:4. Mostly in John. The Cretan habit of lying passed into a verb, κρητίζειν to speak like a Cretan = to lie: also into a noun, κρητισμός Cretan behavior = lying. Similarly, the licentiousness of Corinth appeared in the verb κορινθιάζεσθαι to practice whoredom, and in the noun κορινθιαστής a whoremonger. Comp. Ov. Artis Amat. i. 296.
"non hoc, centum quae sustinet urbes
Quamvis sit mendax, Creta negare potest."
"Crete, which a hundred cities doth maintain,
Cannot deny this, though to lying given."
A familiar saying was τρία κάππα κάκιστα the three worst K's, Κρῆτες, Καππάδοκαι, Κίλικες Cretans, Cappadocians, Cilicians.
Evil beasts (κακὰ θηρία)
Rude, cruel, and brutal.
Slow-bellies (γαστέρες ἀργαί)
Better, idle-bellies. Rev. gives the correct idea, idle gluttons. They are so given to gluttony that they are mere bellies. Comp. Phi 3:19. Γαστὴρ, elsewhere in N.T. always in connection with childbearing. So mostly in lxx, but in a few instances as here. See Job 20:23; Psa 17:14; Sir. 37:5. In Job 20:14 as the rendering of קֶרֶב, bowels. Ἁργός idle, oP. However such words may have befitted the pagan seer, it is not pleasant to regard them as taken up and endorsed by the great Christian apostle, who thus is made to stigmatise as liars, beasts, and gluttons a whole people, among whom he had himself so successfully labored that several churches had been founded in a short time. They are strange words from a venerable Christian minister to a younger minister to whom he had intrusted the care of those very souls; and, in any case, are superfluous, as addressed to one who must have known the characteristics of the Cretans quite as well as the writer himself.
Only here and Co2 13:10 (note). Paul has ἀποτομία severity, Rom 11:22 (note). lxx, ἀποτόμως severely, only Wisd. 5:22; ἀποτόμος severe (not in N.T.), Wisd. 5:20; 11:10; 12:9. From ἀποτέμνειν to cut off. It signifies abrupt, harsh, summary dealing.
Not giving heed (μὴ προσέχοντες)
Reprove sharply, that they may be sound in the faith, and may show their soundness by not giving heed, etc. See on Ti1 1:4.
To Jewish fables (Ἱουδαΐκοῖς μύθοις)
See on Ti1 1:4. Note Jewish. The nature of these we do not know.
Commandments of men (ἐντολαῖς ἀνθρώπων)
See on Ti1 6:14. Comp. Col 2:22. Prescriptions concerning abstinence from meats, marriage, etc. The men are probably those of the circumcision, Tit 1:10. What they teach theoretically, by means of the myths, they bring to bear practically, by means of their precepts.
That turn from the truth (ἀποστρεφομένων τὴν ἀλήθειαν)
Comp. Ti2 4:4, where the truth and fables appear in contrast.
Unto the pure (τοῖς καθαροῖς)
The pure in heart and conscience. See Ti2 1:3.
All things are pure
Comp. Ti1 4:4, Ti1 4:5; Act 10:15; Mar 7:15, Mar 7:18, Mar 7:19; Co1 10:26, Co1 10:30; Rom 14:20. The aphorism is suggested by the commandments of men, Tit 1:14.
Unto them that are defiled (τοῖς μεμιαμμένοις)
Only here in Pastorals. See also Joh 18:28 (note); Heb 12:15; Jde 1:8. Only in Joh 18:28 in a ceremonial sense. Elsewhere of moral pollution.
Nothing is pure
Their moral pollution taints everything with its own quality. The purest things become suggestors and ministers of impurity.
Mind and conscience (ὁ νοῦς καὶ ἡ συνείδησις)
For νοῦς see on Rom 7:23 : for συνείδησις, see on Pe1 3:16.
They profess (ὁμολογοῦσιν)
Better, confess. See on Co2 9:13, and comp. Ti1 6:12. Not loudly and publicly profess (as Huther), but confess as opposed to deny (Joh 1:20); comp. Heb 11:13; Rom 10:9, Rom 10:10.
N.T.o. Class. lxx, Pro 17:15; Sir. 41:5; 2 Macc. 1:27. See on βδέλυγμα abomination, Mat 24:15, and comp. Rev 17:4, Rev 17:5; Rev 21:27. The kindred verb, βδελύσσεσθαι abhor, Rom 2:22; Rev 21:8.
See on Rom 1:28; see on Co1 9:27, and comp. Ti2 3:8. The phrase reprobate unto every good work, N.T.o.