Vincent's Word Studies, by Marvin R. Vincent, , at sacred-texts.com
Put them in mind (ὑπομίμνησκε ἐξουσίαις)
See on Ti2 2:14, and see on ὑπόμνησιν reminding, Ti2 1:5.
Principalities and powers (ἀρχαῖς ἐξουσίαις)
Omit and. Principalities which are authorities. Ἁρχή beginning = that which begins: the leader, principality. See on Col 1:16; see on Jde 1:6; see on Act 10:11. Only here in Pastorals. Ἑξουσία right, authority. See on Mar 2:10; see on Joh 1:12; see on Col 1:16. Only here in Pastorals. For the combination principalities and powers, see on Luk 20:20.
To obey magistrates (πειθαρχεῖν)
Comp. Act 5:29, Act 5:32; Act 27:21. See on Act 5:29. The idea of magistrates is contained in the word itself; but it is quite proper to render as Rev. to be obedient. Rare in lxx.
Ready to every good work (πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἑτοίμους εἶναι)
The phrase N.T.o. Ἑτοίμος ready, only here in Pastorals. Comp. ἑτοιμασία readiness or preparation, Eph 6:15 (note).
No brawlers (ἀμάχους)
Better as Rev., not to be contentious. See on Ti1 3:3. Pasto.
Divers - pleasures (ἡδοναῖς ποικίλαις)
Ἡδονή pleasure, only here in Pastorals. oP. See on Jam 4:1. For ποικίλαις divers, see on Ti2 3:6.
Only here in Pastorals. See on Jam 1:21. In N.T. κακία is a special form of vice, not viciousness in general, as Cicero, Tusc. iv. 15, who explains by "vitiositas, a viciousness which includes all vices." Calvin, on Eph 4:32, defines as " a viciousness of mind opposed to humanity and fairness, and commonly styled malignity." The homily ascribed to Clement of Rome, describes κακία as the forerunner (προοδοίπορον) of our sins (x). Malice is a correct translation.
Only here in Pastorals. Elsewhere only in Paul. See on Rom 3:12, and see on easy, Mat 11:30.
Love is too vague. It is love toward men; comp. Tit 3:2. Only here and Act 28:2 : φιλανθρώπως kindly, Act 27:3 (note). While it cannot be asserted that the heretical characteristics noted in the Pastoral Epistles point collectively to any specific form of error, it is true, nevertheless, that certain characteristics of the economy of grace are emphasized, which are directly opposed to Gnostic ideas. Thus the exhortation that supplications be made for all men, supported by the statement that God wills that all men should be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth (Ti1 2:1, Ti1 2:4), is in the teeth of the Gnostic distinction between men of spirit and men of matter, and of the Gnostic principle that the knowledge (ἐπίγνωσις) of truth was only for a limited, intellectual class. To the same effect is the frequent recurrence of all, for all, in connection with the saving and enlightening gifts of God (Ti1 2:6; Ti1 4:10; Ti1 6:13; Tit 2:11). So here: not only has the saving grace of God appeared unto all (Tit 2:11), but it has revealed itself as kindness and love to man as man.
Not by works of righteousness which we have done (οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων τῶν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ ἃ ἐποιήσαμεν)
Lit. not by works, those namely in righteousness, which we did. The thought is entirely Pauline. Ἑξ ἔργων strictly, out of, in consequence of works. Εν δικαιοσύνῃ in the sphere of righteousness; as legally righteous men. Comp. Eph 2:9. We did emphatic. Comp. Rom 10:5; Gal 3:10, Gal 3:12; Gal 5:3.
According to his mercy (κατὰ τὸ αὐτοῦ ἔλεος)
The phrase only Pe1 1:3. Comp. Rom 15:9; Eph 2:4; Jde 1:21.
By the washing of regeneration (διὰ λουτροῦ παλινγενεσίας)
Λουτρόν only here and Eph 5:26. It does not mean the act of bathing, but the bath, the laver. Παλινγενεσία only here and Mat 19:28, where it is used of the final restoration of all things. The phrase laver of regeneration distinctly refers to baptism, in connection with which and through which as a medium regeneration is conceived as taking place. Comp. Rom 6:3-5. It is true that nothing is said of faith; but baptism implies faith on the part of its recipient. It has no regenerating effect apart from faith; and the renewing of the Holy Spirit is not bestowed if faith be wanting.
Only here and Rom 12:2. Comp. Co2 5:7. Paul has ἀνακαινοῦν to renew, Co2 4:16; Col 3:10 : ἀνακαίνωσις renewing, Rom 12:2. Ἁνακαινίζειν to renew, only Heb 6:6. The connection of the genitive is disputed. Some make it dependent on λουτροῦ bath, so that the bath of baptism is conceived as implying regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit. Others construe with renewing only, ἀνακαινώσεως being dependent on διὰ; through the laver of regeneration and (through) the renewing, etc. The former seems the more probable. The phrase renewing of the Holy Spirit only here. In N.T. the Spirit or the Holy Spirit is joined in the genitive with the following words: comfort, joy, power, love, demonstration, manifestation, earnest, ministration, fellowship, promise, fruit, unity, sword, sanctification.
Or poured forth. Only here in Pastorals. Most frequent in Revelation. The pouring out of the Spirit is an O.T. metaphor. See Joe 3:1, Joe 3:2, cit. in Act 2:17, Act 2:18; Zac 12:10. In Paul the verb occurs but once, of shedding blood, Rom 3:15, cit.
Being justified (δικαιωθέντες)
In Pastorals only here and Ti1 3:16 (note). See Introd. VI. Justification is conceived as taking place before the outpouring of the Spirit.
By his grace (τῇ ἐκείνου χάριτι)
By the grace of Jesus Christ. See Act 15:11; Co2 8:9; Co2 13:14; Rom 5:6; Gal 1:6.
We should be made heirs (κληρονόμοι γενηθῶμεν)
Κληρονόμος heir only here in Pastorals. A favorite idea of Paul. See Rom 4:13; Rom 8:17; Gal 3:29. Heirship of eternal life is the result of justification. So, clearly, Romans 5. It is attested and confirmed by the Holy Spirit. Co2 5:5; Eph 1:14.
According to the hope of eternal life (κατ' ἐλπίδα ζωῆς αἰωνίου)
Const. of eternal life with heirs, and rend. heirs of eternal life according to hope. Comp. Rom 4:18; Rom 5:2; Rom 8:24; Gal 5:5; Col 1:5, Col 1:27; Tit 1:2; Pe1 1:3; Jo1 3:2, Jo1 3:3.
Affirm constantly (διαβεβαιοῦσθαι)
Pasto. See on Ti1 1:7. Constantly, not continually, but uniformly and consistently. So Book of Common Prayer, "Collect for Saint John Baptist's Day," "and after his example constantly speak the truth." Rend. affirm steadfastly.
Might be careful (φροντίζωσιν)
N.T.o. Quite often in lxx. Frequent in Class. To think or consider; hence to take careful thought, ponder, be anxious about.
To maintain (προΐ̀στασθαι)
Mostly in Pastorals, and usually in the sense of ruling, as Rom 12:8; Th1 5:12; Ti1 3:4, Ti1 3:5. The sense here is to be forward in.
Pasto. olxx. Comp. Ti1 4:8; Ti2 3:16.
Foolish questions, etc.
See on Ti2 2:23. For genealogies see on Ti1 1:4.
Strivings about the law (μάχας νομικὰς)
The phrase N.T.o. Comp. Ti1 1:7. Νομικός mostly in Luke. Everywhere except here a lawyer, with the article or τὶς.
Only here and Heb 7:18.
Only here in Pastorals. Twice in Paul, Co1 3:20, cit.; Co1 15:17 (note). Very frequent in lxx. The sense is aimless or resultless, as μάταιος εὐχή a prayer which cannot obtain fulfilment. The questions, genealogies, etc., lead to no attainment or advancement in godliness. Comp. ματαιολογία jangling, Ti1 1:6; ματαιολόγοι vain talkers, Ti1 1:10; ματαιότης vanity, Rom 8:20; Eph 4:17; ἐματαιώθησαν were made vain, Rom 1:21; μάτην in vain, Mat 15:9.
A man that is an heretic (αἱρετικὸν ἄνθρωπον)
Ἁιρετικός heretical, N.T.o. For αἵρεσις heresy see on Pe1 2:1.
Only here, Co1 10:11; Eph 6:4 (note). See on νουθετεῖν to admonish, Act 20:31.
Is subverted (ἐξέστραπται)
N.T.o. More than turned away from the right path: rather, turned inside out. Comp. lxx, Deu 32:20.
See on Jo1 1:9; see on Mat 1:21, and see on trespasses, Mat 6:14.
Condemned of himself (αὐτοκατάκριτος)
Better as Rev., self-condemned. N.T.o. olxx, oClass.
There were several cities of this name, one in Cilicia, one in Thrace, and one in Epirus. It is uncertain which one is meant here.
To winter (παραχειμάσαι)
Comp. Act 27:12; Act 28:11; Co1 16:6. The noun παραχειμασία wintering, Act 27:12.
Our brethren in Crete.
For necessary uses (εἰς τὰς ἀναγκαίας χρείας)
The phrase N.T.o. With reference to whatever occasion may demand them.
Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, Co1 14:14; Eph 5:11. Not only in supplying the needs, but in cultivating Christian graces in themselves by acts of Christian service.
Them that love us in the faith (τοὺς φιλοῦντας ἡμᾶς ἐν πίστει)
Better, in faith. The phrase N.T.o. Φιλεῖν to love, only here in Pastorals, and in Paul, only Co1 16:22. See on ἀγάπη love, Gal 5:22. Const. in faith with that love us.