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The Zend Avesta, Part III (SBE31), L.H. Mills, tr. [1886], at



(The YêNhê. (To that one) of beings do we offer, whose superior (fidelity) in the sacrifice Ahura Mazda recognises by reason of the sanctity (within him; yea, even to those female saints also do we sacrifice) whose (superior fidelity is thus likewise known; thus) we sacrifice to (all, to both) the males and females (of the saints)!)

p. 269

1. A word for the Yasna by Zarathustra, the saint. YêNhê, &c. Here the worshipper indicates and offers the Yasna (which is the sacrificial worship) of Mazda as by the command (or as the institution) of Ahura 1. Hâtãm. Here the worshipper offers the sacrificial worship as if with the beings who are among those who are destined to live 2. 2. Yaunghãm. Here he indicates and offers the sacrificial worship of those holy females who have Âramaiti at their head 3, as homage to the Immortals. These are the three sentences which comprehend all the Yasnian speech. (Question.) To whom is this Yasna addressed? (Answer.) To the Bountiful Immortals (in the course of the Yasna). 3. Thereupon spake Mazda: Salvation to this one, whosoever he may be! May the absolute ruler Ahura grant it. (Question.) 4. Whom did He answer with this answer? (Answer.) He answered: The state of salvation; and with this answer, 'the state of salvation,' he answered every saint who exists, every one who is coming into existence, and every one who shall exist in the future. (Question. Who answered thus? Answer.) The best One. (Question. What did He answer?) (Answer.) The best thing. (That is,) the best One, Mazda, answered the best and the holy (answer) for the better and the holy man. 5. We sacrifice to this piece, the YêNhê hâtãm, the prominent and holy Yast.


268:2 The expressions in this prayer were suggested by Y. LI, 22; but the Zand does not consistently follow the thoughts in the Gâtha. Tem understood should be supplied as an object for yazamaidê in connection with yêNhê, as well as tauskâ for yaunghãm. In Y. LI, 22, it is, however, by no means certain that yazâi applies to a tem yêhyâ. Holding the twenty-first verse in mind, I am obliged to refer yêhyâ to nâ spentô. Here, however, men and women are worshipped, as it is improbable that the 'Immortals' whose names are in the feminine are meant. The prayer is in the Gâthic dialect, and ancient metre would hardly contain so artificial a formation. It can only be defended from the teng yazâi hvâis nâmes of Y. LI, 22.

Or did the composer of the prayer correctly render Y. LI, 22, and boldly write his succinct words as being clear to his hearers from explanations which are now lost? Such explanations (oral or written) as a matter of course existed from the first. No composer fails to discuss his productions.

269:1 Referring yêNhê to Ahura (?).

269:2 Fit to live, clean.

269:3 The Ameshôspends whose names are in the feminine; so the Zandist erroneously.

Next: Yasna XXII. The Sacrifice Continues