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The Zend Avesta, Part III (SBE31), L.H. Mills, tr. [1886], at

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This composition differs from that in XXX as descending from the more general to the particular, and from the doctrinal to the practical. One might even trace an immediate connection, urvâtâ occurring in the last verse of the one and in the first of the other. It is, of course, very possible that the verses before us are only a remnant of those which originally constituted the piece, and here and there one may have been interpolated from other scriptures.

Some writers prefer to assume a loss of the original text or an addition to it at the smallest change of tone, and to assume also a change of subject with it. I do not regard it as very useful to lay too much stress upon these occurrences.

Whether caused by gaps or interpolations, they do not at all affect the fact that the subject-matter is homogeneous and contemporaneous; and, probably, like many more modern compositions, the verses gain in rhetorical effect by being weeded of repetitions.

We might divide as follows 1, 2, an address to the congregation to be connected with XXX as its concluding words; 3-5, an address to Ahura; 6, an address to the faithful; 7-17, to Ahura; 18, to the congregation; 19, to Ahura; 20, 21, to the congregation; 22, an addition.

Treating the section then as containing homogeneous matter which combines well into a unit, I proceed as follows. The sage chants his hymn in the presence of the multitude as before.

1. He declares that while he is reciting things unwillingly heard by the hostile party, those same truths are valued as the best of existing things by those who are sincerely devoted to Mazda, their good disposition quickening their perception.

2. He then declares that if the truths of the holy Religion are not yet clearly seen by the instrumentalities provided, he will approach them still more effectively in accordance with the especial regulation of the spiritual chieftainship, which Ahura Mazda had prepared in response to the lament of the soul of the Kine; i.e. of the Iranian herds and people possibly as representing the entire holy, or clean, creation upon earth. And he further asserts that this regulation concerns the struggle of the two parties, and will bring the cause of the Righteous Order to a successful issue.

3. Changing his address to Ahura, he proceeds to pray at once

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for that satisfying decision which would be the natural result of the regulation just promised, and which could be given by the instrumentality of the Sacred Fire and holy ritual, affording mental keenness to the two contending parties. And he declares that this is the doctrine which should be proclaimed for the conversion of mankind. Here we observe that the Zarathustrian Mazda-worship was aggressive and missionary in its spirit, and in a proselyting sense by no means indifferent to the final destiny of the Gentile world. (The later and traditional system announced indeed the restoration and so the conversion of all men, and that not as an object proposed to the efforts of charity, but as a necessary result (so by inference; see Bundahis (West), pp. 126, 129). I can find no trace of this in the Gâthas.

Here we have only the effort to convert.)

4. Addressing all the Bountiful Immortals, and with the striking title of the Ahuras of Mazda, he prays for the establishment of the 'mighty kingdom' by means of which he might overcome the personified and aggressive falsehood of the opposing and persecuting Daêva-worshippers.

5. In order to enable himself to fulfil his mission, he asks for prophetic and judicial knowledge as to what ought to be done, or as to what is about to happen in the immediate future.

6. He lauds the Mãthra which we may suppose him to recognise as delivered to him afresh in answer to his prayer for prophetic light, and he praises co-ordinately with the Word of God that Sovereign Authority of Ahura, which was to be established in a kingdom where goodness would increase, and be prosperous, if not predominant.

7. He takes the heavenly bodies as evidence of the wisdom of Him who created the Sacred Order personified as the 'Immortal' Asha, and also the Good Mind, his equal. And he ascribes the support and extension of their hallowing influence to Ahura, because He never changes.

8. He reiterates, in expressions which form the basis for another hymn, his conception of Mazda as the supreme object of devotion, as the father of the Good Mind personified as His child, as the creator of the Righteous Order, and as both the controller and the judge of human actions. Therefore the Good Mind and Righteousness are to be worshipped as standing in the closest possible relation to him.

9. He ascribes the 'Immortal' Piety to Him as well. She is His own, and elsewhere His own daughter. He is declared, as in

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chapter XXIX, to be the Creator of the Kine, and of Understanding, (His own intelligence), to guide Him in the disposition of the destiny of the holy Iranian people. And according to it He makes the path for the Kine, which as a matter of course has no meaning as applied to bucolics, but is full of meaning when read in view of the wail of the Kine's Soul in chapter XXIX, and of the intervention of the Deity in her behalf, for He actually appointed Zarathustra to meet her necessities. He adds, however, that her free choice is not abolished by the construction 'of this path.' It is elsewhere called the 'religion of the Saviour-prophets,' and she is free to proceed in it, guided by the first prophet, the ideal husbandman, or she can follow the profaner nomad.

10. But he thankfully exclaims that she does not pause in indecision, nor does she choose perversely. She selects the guardian appointed by Ahura, the diligent and pious husbandman, elsewhere identified with Zarathustra himself. He is rich with the spiritual wealth of the Good Mind; and she rejects in his favour the idle and free-booting nomad, excluding him from all share in the sacred religious system.

11. The composer then delineates the struggle which inevitably follows this establishment of the needed means of deliverance. When Mazda has completed the inspiration of doctrines, teaching whither the one endowed with free volition (like the Kine [verse 9]) should direct his choice in action (12), there upon the spot, as it were, the ignorant Daêva-worshipper makes himself heard beside God's spokesman. But the prophet is consoled by the reflection that the pious mind will not question the evil Spirit, or the good Spirit superficially. It searches both the Spirits, questioning them, as it were, in their very home. (Hence it is that Ahura speaks so fully concerning Angra Mainyu, delineating his opposition to Him in extended detail. See XLV, 2.)

13. The composer is still more reanimated by the certainty that Ahura is gazing into the depths of all questions, trivial and profound; which is to say that he observes most closely the men who are discussing them. And he declares that he also sees the cruel injustice of the punishments which the tyrants visit upon the smallest offences, as well as the more flagrant wickedness of those who persecute his adherents without even a pretence of justice.

14. As he recalls the divine forecasting omniscience, he asks Ahura once more concerning the future which was close at hand with its portentous events. And he inquires as to the nature of the veritable and not iniquitous confessions, which were properly due to

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be made by the righteous believer in order to avert the impending calamities, and secure the upper hand in the struggle for the throne. And he inquires also as to the proper expiatory prayers which were to be offered by the believer. He does not however fail to inquire analogously concerning the wicked, nor to ask how they, as well as the righteous, shall be situated in the final consummation.

15. Particularising as to the latter, he asks what shall be the punishment for those who succeed in installing an evil monarch, one of the Daêva-party, a prince who cannot exist without the ruthless persecution of the pious husbandman, who repudiates the Lie-demon presiding over the counsels and efforts of the opposing religion.

16. He further asks how and by what actions the wise man may become like Ahura, or his faithful adherent, the expressions used implying deep religious feeling.

17. Striving to arouse the perceptions of his hearers, he inquires as to which one of the two parties holds to the greater or more important religion, the disciple of Asha, the personified Righteous Order Ahura's immediate creature (see above), or the opponent. And he prays that no blind guide may deceive him, or those who belong to him, 'but that the enlightened, yea, even Ahura Himself, may speak to him, and become the indicator and demonstrator of the truth.'

18. Closing this address to the Deity, he turns to the congregation, vehemently forbidding them to listen to the doctrines of his opponents, warning them against the ruin and death which would ensue, and fiercely appealing to the sword.

19. Once more addressing Ahura, he prays that they may on the contrary listen to Him who has power to vindicate the conscientious Zarathustrian, inculcating veracity upon him, and encouraging him in its practice; and this by means of the holy sacrifice, or ordeal of the Fire.

20. He solemnly warns those who would seduce the righteous of their ultimate fate, and adds that their sorrows will be self-induced, if they persevere in their hostility. Their own consciences (as we see from Yast XXII) would not only bring on their ruin, but would form a part of their punishment.

21. On the other hand, happiness and immortality will be the lot of the faithful. And these 'eternal two' will be given to them, accompanied by the fulness of Righteousness, and the exuberant vigour of the Good and Kindly Mind within them and bestowing its blessings upon them.

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22. In conclusion he apostrophises the manifest certainty of the truths which he declares, and, addressing Ahura, animates the faithful not merely with the hope of the objective recompense, but with the prospect of being efficient as servants of God.


1. These doctrines (therefore) we are earnestly declaring to You as we recite them forth from memory, words (till now) unheard 1 (with faith) by those who by means of the doctrinal vows 2 of the harmful Lie are delivering the settlements of Righteousness to death, but words which are of the best unto those who are heartily devoted to Ahura 3.

2. And if by this means the indubitable truths 4 are not seen in the soul 5, then as better (than these words) I will come to you all (in my person) with

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that power, and in that way according to which Ahura Mazda knows and appoints His ruler 1, that ruler over both the two (struggling) bands 2, in order that we (in obedience to him), may live according to Righteousness 3.

3. And that keenness, that deciding satisfaction, which Thou hast given by (Thy) Spirit 4, and (Thy) Fire, and by Thy Righteousness (itself) to the two battling 5 (sides), do Thou declare unto us, O Ahura! that vow which is for the seeing 6 (as those endowed with mental light). Yea, do Thou declare this that we may know it, O Mazda! With the tongue of Thy mouth do Thou speak it (that as I preach its mighty truths 7) I may make all the living believers 8!

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4. And when the Divine Righteousness shall be inclined to my appeal 1, and with him all those (remaining ones who are as) Mazda's 2 (own) Ahuras then with the blessedness (of the reward), with (my) Piety and with Thy Best Mind (active within me), I will pray 3 for that mighty Kingdom by whose force 4 we may smite the Lie-demon 5.

5. Aye, do Thou tell me that I may discern it, since through (Thy) Righteous Order the better (lot) is 6 given; tell me this that I may know it with (Thy) Good Mind (as it speaks within me), and that I may ponder 7 that to which these my truths 8 belong (and

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of which my prophet speaks; yea), tell me those things, O Mazda Ahura! which may not be, and which may be 1.

2. And that verily shall be the best of all words to Him which the All-(wise one) will 3 declare to me in very deed, that word which is the Mãthra of Welfare and of Immortality (for it proclaims His beneficent power). And to the Great Creator (shall there be) a Realm such as that (whose strength I asked for victory 4), and which (at the last) shall flourish 5 in its holiness to His (glory 6)!

7. (For He has sovereign control.) He who conceived of these (truths of the Mãthra) as their first (inspirer), (and as He thought their existence they

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[paragraph continues] (all) as (His) glorious 1 (conceptions first) clothed themselves in the stars 2), He is through His understanding the Creator 3 of the Righteous Order. And thus likewise He supports His Beneficent Mind (in His saints). And these (holy creatures) may’st Thou cause to prosper by Thy Spirit (since they are Thine own), O Ahura Mazda! Thou who art for every hour the same 4!

8. Therefore 5, as the first 6 did I conceive of Thee, O Ahura Mazda! as the one to be adored with the mind in the creation, as the Father of the Good Mind within us, when I beheld Thee 7 with my (enlightened) eyes as the veritable maker of our Righteousness, as the Lord of the actions of life 8!

9. Thine, O Ahura! was Piety; yea, Thine, O Creator of the Kine! was understanding and the

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[paragraph continues] Spirit 1, when Thou didst order a path for her (guiding). From the earth's tiller (aided 2) she goeth 3 (in that allotted way), or from him who was never tiller. (Thy path hath given her choice 4.)

10. (But she did not pause in temptation.) Of the two she chose 5 the husbandman, the thrifty toiler in the fields 6, as a holy master endowed with the Good Mind's wealth 7. Never, Mazda! shall

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the thieving 1 nomad share the good creed 2. (For the Kine's choice would bestow it 3!)

11. (And this doctrine was the first of rules to regulate our actions. Yet the opposer speaks beside Thee.) For when first, O Ahura Mazda! Thou didst create the (holy) settlements, and didst reveal the religious laws 4; and when Thou gavest (us) understanding from Thine own mind, and madest our (full) bodily life 5, and (didst thus determine) actions (by Thy power), and didst moreover deliver to us (nearer) injunctions whereby (as by a rule) the wisher may place his choices 6,

12. (There strife at once arose, and still is raging.) There (beside Thy prophet) the truthful or liar, the enlightened or unenlightened, lifts his voice (to utter

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his faith), and with devoted mind and heart 1. (But without hindrance from this striving, or pausing with feeble search 2, our) Piety steadily 3 questions the two spirits 4 (not here on earth) but (there in the spirit-world) where (they dwell as) in their home 5.

13. (Yea, my Piety questions searchingly, for Thou, O Maker! hast Thy view on all; we cannot question lightly.) What questions are asked which are open 6 (permitted to our thoughts), or what questions (are asked) which are furtive 7 (hiding themselves from the light), or (what decision soever we may make, and the man) who for the smallest sin binds on the heaviest penance, on all 8 with Thy glittering eye(s) as a righteous guard Thou art gazing 9!

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14. This then I will ask Thee, O Ahura Mazda! (as I seek Thy counsel once again 1). What events are coming now, and what events shall come in the future 2; and what prayers with debt-confessions 3 are offered with 4 the offerings of the holy? And what (are the awards) for the wicked? And how shall they be in the (final) state 5 of completion 6?

15. And I would ask Thee this, O Mazda! (concerning the coadjutor of the wicked): What is the award 7 for him who prepares the throne 8 for the evil, for the evil-doer 9, O Ahura! for him who cannot else reclaim 10 his life, not else save 11 with lawless

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harm to the tiller's herd, to the pious husbandman's flock, who speaks no word with lying, (who abjures the Lie-demon's faith 1)?

16. Yea, I would ask Thee such a thing as this: How such an one as he who, with wise action, has striven to promote (Thy holy) Rule 2 over house, and region, and province, in the Righteous Order and in truth, how he may become like Thee 3, O Great Creator, Living Lord? And when he may so become, (this also I would ask), and in what actions living he may so be 4?

17. And which of the (religions) is the greater (and the more prevailing 5 as to these questions which thus concern the soul?) Is it that which the

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righteous believes, or the wicked 1? (Let then our questionings cease.) Let the enlightened (alone) speak to the enlightened. Let not the ignorant (further) deceive us, (high though he may lift his voice 2). Do Thou thyself, O Ahura Mazda! declare 3 to us (the truth) as Thy Good Mind's full revealer.

18. (And you, ye assembled throngs!) let not a man of you lend a hearing to Mãthra, or to command of that sinner 4 (ignorant 5 as he is), for home, village, region, and province he would deliver to ruin 6 and death. But (fly ye to arms without hearing), and hew ye them all with the halberd 7!

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19. Let them hear Him who conceived of the Righteous Order for the worlds, the (all)-wise One, O Ahura! For truthful speech He rules with absolute sway over words, and ever free of tongue (to guide us in our way 1). By Thy shining flame 2 (He doth guide us 3, Thine altar's flame with its signs of decision and of grace) sent forth for the good of the strivers 4.

20. (But, O ye listening men!) he who renders

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the saint deceived 1, for him shall be later destruction 2. Long life shall be his lot in the darkness; foul shall be his food; his speech shall be of the lowest 3. And this, which is such a life 4 as your own, O ye vile! your (perverted) conscience through your own deeds will bring 5 you 6!

21. But Ahura Mazda will give both Universal Weal and Immortality 7 in the fulness of His Righteous Order, and from himself 8 as the head 9 of Dominion (within His saints). And He will likewise give the Good Mind's vigorous might 10 to him who in spirit and deeds is His friend 11, (and with faith fulfils his vows 12)

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22. And to the wise are these things clear as to the one discerning with his mind (not blinded by the perverter 1). With Thy Good Mind and Thy (holy) Kingdom he follows the Righteous Order both in his words and his actions. And to Thee, O Ahura Mazda! such a man shall be the most helpful and vigorous being 2 (for he serves with every power 3)!


40:1 Roth, 'wollen wir Worte künden—ungern gehört von denen, welche nach des Unholds Geboten,' &c. Hübschmann preferring 'wir sprechen Worte nicht anhörbar für diejenigen' (Casuslehre, s. 223). A dative of the pronoun is certainly more natural than the ablative as inst. But on the whole agushtâ seems better in its ordinary sense, although in so rendering we are obliged to supply a word.

40:2 Valmansân mûn pavan âfrîngânîh î Drûg zak î Aharâyîh gêhân barâ, marenkînênd.

40:3 The Pahlavi may be rendered as follows: Both these benedictions, which I (we) recite as yours [the Avesta and Zand], we are teaching by word to him who is no hearer, [to the destroyer of sanctity (the heretical persecutor) [ ]]. Those who utterly slay the world of righteousness through the benedictions of the Drûg [ ], even those might be an excellent thing, if they would cause progress in what belongs to Aûharmazd.

40:4 Read perhaps advayâo; see the Pahlavi. Otherwise 'the way' advâo as panthâs; but the participle * does not agree. Compare for meaning kavím ádvayantam, sákhâ ádvayâs.*

40:5 The Pahlavi renders 'in the soul' freely by 'believes:' Pavan nikîrisnŏ la hêmnunêdŏ as pavan zak î agûmânîkîh. The general indications are to be observed.

40:* Is it a loc.?

41:1 Comp. chap. XXIX, 2, where the Ratu is discussed; here the word might be the abstract.

41:2 Roth 'dieser beiden Parteien (Yasna XXXI).'

41:3 He repels and condemns the evil, and he hallows and helps the good.

41:4 Most striking is the use of mainyu. It is 'the Spirit' = God. It is 'His Spirit.' It is also used of man's spirit.

41:5 Or, 'from the two arani;' but see ãsayâo in verse 2. The Pahlavi translator has avŏ patkârdârânŏ shnâkhtârîh; so uniformly. In Y. XLIII, 12, K5 and most MSS., except K4, and likewise excepting the printed B.V.S., read ranôibyô which excludes the dual form; also the fire is not mentioned there. It is however far from impossible that the present Pahlavi translation may be a growth beyond an earlier one more in accordance with arani. The strivers, or fighters, might describe the two rubbing-sticks (?).

41:6 Aîmar (sic), vigârdâr. This meaning suits the connection admirably. The word is otherwise difficult, and this general sense is followed by some who do not so often cite the Pahlavi translator.

41:7 See verse 1.

41:8 Roth, 'wie ich alle lebenden bekehren soll.' So also the general indication of the Pahlavi translator. Pavan hûzvânŏ î Lak—zîvandakân harvist-gûn hêmnund. Observe that the religious system contemplated universal proselytism.

42:1 The general indications karîtûntâr and bavîhûnam point to the proper sense.

42:2 Or, with Roth, 'wenn wirklich sich rufen lassen die Ahura-Mazdas.' Otherwise, 'O Mazda and the Ahuras.' Hübschmann also maintained that Mazdau was here a plural; (see his Y. XXX, 10.)

42:3 Roth, rendering ishasâ in accordance with the Pahlavi, 'erbitte ich.'

42:4 Mûn pavan zak î valman gûrdîh—khûshîdŏ Drûgŏ aê sufficiently indicates the proper sense. Roth, 'kraft deren wir den Unhold bemeistern mögen.'

42:5 The Pahlavi may he rendered thus: Since in that dispensation [in the final body], I shall be an invoker of Ashavahist, and of Aûharmazd also [ ]; and of her who is veneration 'Spendarmad' [ ], I desire [that best of things which is the reward], of Vohûman. Let also that authority which belongs to my people [ ] be from the strong one [ ] by whose fortitude [ ] the Drûg is overcome [ ].

42:6 Literally, 'Ye gave.'

42:7 I am far from sure that the indication of the Pahlavi is not correct here. According to it, when properly understood, we have here an accusative with the infinitive; 'that I should establish.' Its own translation is however avŏ li yehabûnâi. Men = man or mãm; en(g) = ã the nasal vowel. The Pahl. translator recognises men elsewhere as = mînisnŏ. It was from no ignorance (!) of the particular word that he wrote 'li' here.

42:8 Or 'my prophet;' comp. rishi; that is, 'that with which my prophet is concerned.'

43:1 Or, possibly, 'which shall not be, or which shall be.' Is the subjunctive here used to express obligation? Roth has 'was nicht sein soll oder was sein soll.' Ner. may be rendered as follows: Tell it to me distinctly [ ], that which is the highest gift, and which is given to me through sanctity; [that is, because duty and righteousness are fulfilled by me, the best gift of thy reward (is gained) by this means; but how is it possible to make it (actually) one's own?]. Grant me the knowledge through the best mind; [that is, declare that intelligence to me which comes through good conduct], and by which also safety is (secured) to me [ ]. And declare either that which is not, or that which is, O Great Wise One, the Lord! [ ].

43:2 An interval of silence seems here to intervene, or lost verses leave an unexplained transition. The sage turns again to the people.

43:3 Vaokât K4 (Barth.).

43:4 See verse 4.

43:5 The Pahlavi has Aûharmazd având (sic) khûdâyîh kand dên valman vakhshêd Vohûmanŏ.

43:6 The Parsi-persian MS. is as follows: Û hast buland, kih ân man âgahîhâ (sic) gû-î âskârah [ ] mânsar i tamâm raftanî; [kû, tamâm pêdâisn pah râh i mânsar bâz ân ‘hwêsî i Hôrmuzd rasêd], kih pah Ṣawâb dârad—bî-marg raftanî azas [ ]. Hôrmuzd—‘hudâî kand andar û afzayêd Bahman [Kûs pâdisâhî pah tan i mard—kandî (?) Hôrmuzd pah tan mihmân].

44:1 Mûnas avŏ rôshanîh gâmîkhtŏ khvârîh. Hvâthrâ and khvârîh can hardly mean 'comfortable' here. 'Ease' is the later sense.

44:2 Raokes certainly means, with illuminating objects, stars or shining lights.

44:3 Hübschmann, 'der Schöpfer des Asha.'—Casuslehre, s. 190.

44:4 Pavan mînavadîkih vakhshînêd [ ] mûn kevanik ham khûdâî.

44:5 Compare the frequent expression 'spentem at Th###vâ meNhî,' in chap. XLIII.

44:6 Roth, 'vornehmsten.'

44:7 When I seized Thee (took Thee in) with my eye. The Pahlavi: Amatam [ ] pavan hamkashmîh avŏ ham vakhdûnd hômanih.

44:8 Dên ahvânŏ pavan kûnisnŏ khûdâî hômanih.

Ner. may be rendered as follows: Thus thou wert thought at the first by me, O Great Wise One, the Lord! when thou wert engaged in the production of Gvahmana [ ]. In which (production) they apprehend the father of the Best Mind when they observe him with a full-faced look [ ]. (And thou art the father) of that creation which is manifestly righteous; [that is, thou makest the purer creation good in conduct]. Thou art a King in the world as to action; [that is, where it is fitting to confer a benefit, and also where it is fitting to inflict a punishment, in each of these thou art capable].

45:1 His spenta mainyu; otherwise 'spiritual (understanding),' but mainyu is used elsewhere (verse 3 and 7) alone, and certainly not as an adjective even with a substantive understood. The rendering 'spirit' as 'Thy spirit' is suspiciously significant; but what is the help? We are forced by grammar so to translate.

45:2 The ablative has this force as in Ashât hakâ.

45:3 I can hardly accede to an infinitive here: -tê is a rare infinitive termination in Gâthic. Also the infinitive seldom falls to the end of the sentence. The Pahlavi has yâtûnêd, a present; but the Pahlavi should never be positively cited for the forms, as it is free.

45:4 Observe that we are forced by every dictate of logic and common sense to avoid the commonplace rendering here. Cattle do not have 'paths' made for them, nor do they cry aloud for an overseer, or complain at the appointment of one who does not appear to them promising; nor is it one main effort of religion 'to content the soul of cattle.' Cattle, as the chief article of wealth, are taken to signify all civic life. The 'path' is the path for the people to walk in, securing safety for soul and life and herds. The adhvan is 'the way' which 'is the religious characteristics and teachings of the prophets' (XXXIV, 13).

45:5 Observe that this cow (some would say 'ox') chooses her master, unlike other cattle. But observe also, what is more interesting, that she seems reconciled to the guardian appointed by Ahura. In Y. XXIX, 9, she actually 'wept' at the naming of the pusillanimous Zarathustra, desiring a kingly potentate. Now, however, we see that she must have dried her tears, as she is satisfied with the simple workman whom he represents notwithstanding high rank.

45:6 In the later Avesta this first vâstrya fsuyant is declared to be Zarathustra.

45:7 Mûn fsuîh pavan Vohûmanŏ.

46:1 Pahlavi davãsahak; Ner. pratârayitre.

46:2 Khûpŏ-hôshmûrisnîh. 'Judicial blindness' is everywhere indicated. (The wicked are kept from the sight of the truth.) Hübschm., Casuslehre, 'der frohen Botschaft.'

46:3 This seems implied.

46:4 Or, 'madest the worlds and the souls (?).'

46:5 Geldner admirably 'flesh.' The Pahlavi: tanû-hômandânŏ gân yehabûnd. Notice that 'bodily life or flesh' is mentioned after 'understanding.' Compare Y. XXX, 7, where Âramaiti gives 'a body' after previous creations.

46:6 The Pahlavi has the following interesting gloss: [That is, even the actions and teachings of the pious are given forth by thee; and this was also given in this wisdom of thy mind]. And when there is a person in whom there is a desire for the other world, that desire is granted to him by thee; [that is, what is necessary when he is arriving in the other world, this which is thus required (or desired) by him at that time, is given by thee—through that which is thy mind and wisdom]. Although not able to follow the indications of the Pahlavi fully, I think that there is no question but that we have an important statement in the last line. It does not seem to me possible to render less profoundly than 'where the wisher may place his choices,' his religious preferences and beliefs, including all moral volition.

47:1 Avŏ zak libbemman.

47:2 See verse 13.

47:3 Pavan hagisnŏ î: the Persian MS. (Haug XII, b) transliterates khêzisnŏ: Ner. has mano-utthânena (sic). Or, 'immediately.'

47:4 The evil as well as the good spirit is questioned. The two spirits of Y. XXX, 3-6 were here inspiring the conflict.

47:5 The Pahlavi unvaryingly in the sense of mihânŏ [-as gâs tamman yehevûnêdŏ]; Ner. paralokanivâsân. See Y. XXX, 9; XXXIII, 9; XXXIV, 6. A questioning which was lightly made would indicate a willingness to tamper with error. The Persian MS. following the Pahlavi has: Anga bang i buland ân i durûgh guftâr [Ganâ Mînû] wa ân ham i râst guftâr [Hôrmuzd], &c. But Neryosangh is more accurate or literal: Atra bumbâm* karoti [antar gagati], mithyâvaktâ vâ satyavaktâ vâ, &c.

47:6 Pavan zak î âshkârakŏ.

47:7 Nîhânîk.

47:8 Thou seest even the questions and decisions of our thoughts as to matters which are simple or difficult, permitted or occult.

47:9 I have not followed what may yet possibly be a valuable and correct hint of tradition. I render Neryosangh: He who asks through what is open [through righteousness], or he who asks through what is secret [through sin]; or he (also) who through, or on account of, a little sin which has been committed, commits the great one to secure a purification; [that is, who for the sake of purification necessary on account of a little sin which has been committed, commits a greater one, in order that the first may not p. 48 become known], upon these two, each of them, look with thy two eyes. [Over sins and righteous actions thou art in one way, everywhere and again, the Lord.] The concretes here may give the right indication.

48:1 See verse 5.

48:2 Man madŏ, mûnik yâmtûnêdŏ, 'What has come? And what is coming?'

48:3 Mûn âvâm.

48:4 Hakâ in the Indian sense.

48:5 Angardîkîh, the judgment; but Ner. vipâkatâ, consummation.

48:6 Neryosangh has as follows: Tad dvitayam tvattah* prikkhâmi, Svâmin! yad âgatam, âyâtika, yo* rinam dadate dânebhyah* punyâtmane [Hormigdâya yathâ yugyate dâtum], yeka, Mahâgñânin! durgatimadbhyah; katham teshâm asti vipâkatâ* evam [kila, yah tat kurute, tasmai nidâne prasâdadânam kim bhavati, yaska tat kurute, tasmaika kim bhavatî ’ti; me brûhi!] This seems to me very close, far more so than we have any right to expect as a general rule from a Parsi living in India, and only five or six centuries ago, too late for 'tradition,' and too early for close criticism.

48:7 Roth, 'Ich frage—was die Strafe ist?'

48:8 The head of a party seems to have been plotting to introduce a hostile sovereign.

48:9 Î dûs-kûnisnŏ.

48:10 The Pahlavi translator, nîvîdînêdŏ, (otherwise nivêkînêd, which I much suspect has become confused with nîvîdînêdŏ through a clerical blunder); Ner. labhate. They both refer vînastî to vid (so Justi) followed by most. Roth (Yasna XXXI, p. 11), 'der sein Brot nicht findet ohne Gewalthat an der Heerde.'

48:11 The Pahlavi translator sees the root han in the sense of p. 49 acquisition, and not from ignorance of the sense given above. In another place, he renders vigîd min; (see XLVII, 5.)

49:1 Neryosangh may be rendered as follows: Thus I ask thee: What is for him who seizes upon destruction, and who provides the sovereignty for the wicked [ ], and commits that evil action. O Lord! from which he does not acquire life even through a bribe* (so meaning), [ ] and who is a calamity to the man who acts for herds and men removing calamities from them [ ]?

49:2 Roth, 'der die Herrschaft über Hof Gau and Land um das rechte zu fördern hat.'

49:3 Pahlavi, Lak hâvand; Neryosangh, tvattulyo; Roth, 'deiner werth.'

49:4 I render the Sanskrit of Neryosangh thus (it improves on the Pahlavi): I ask (thee) thus: How [dost thou bestow] the sovereignty upon one when he is beneficently wise? [ ] (in the body) of him who, through the increase of sanctity, is no opposer (of prosperity) in provinces or villages; [that is, with him who is discharging his duty and performing acts of sanctity. He is this teacher's teacher, he does not contend]. Thine equal, O Great Wise One, the Lord! thus is he verily, who (is such) in action, [who is thus Thine equal through activity].

49:5 Possibly mazyô has the sense of mazista in chap. L, 1. There 'the most prevailing' seems to be the proper rendering.

50:1 Literally, 'Which of the two (creeds as) the greater does the righteous (the believing saint) or the wicked (opponent) believe?'

50:2 See verse 12.

50:3 Or with others 'be Thou'; but the gloss of the Pahlavi translation contains an explanation which may well afford the true solution as in so many instances in which he is both consciously and inadvertently followed. It reads [aîghmânŏ barâ khavîtûnînŏ—]. May we not see an az = ah in the form, or at least a separate Iranian root, as also in azdâ (L, r), where the Pahlavi translator gives the same explanation admirably suited to the context.

Neryosangh: Which is it, the pure of soul, or the wicked who teaches as the great one? [ ] The intelligent speaks to the intelligent [ ]. Be not thou ignorant after this; because (ignorance is) from the deceiver. Instruct us, O Great Wise One, the Lord! [ ] Furnish us with a sign through the Best Mind; [that is, make me steadfast in good conduct through the recognition of the dîn]. Such renderings may suffice to show that an examination of these ancient translations in our search for hints is imperative. Yet the practice prevails of omitting a knowledge of the Pahlavi language, on which not only the oldest translation of the Avesta, but also the irregular Sanskrit of Neryosangh, closely depends.

50:4 Jolly, 'Keiner von euch höre auf die Lieder and Gebote des Lügners.' Roth, 'Rath and Befehle.'

50:5 Compare evîdvâo in verse 17.


50:7 Sazêd sanêh, 'prepare the sabre.' It was however a two-handed weapon; see Y. LVI, 12, (4 Sp.).

The Parsi-persian MS.: Wa ma kas aêdûn az sumâ kih û p. 51 darwand mânsar sunawad wa âmû‘htisn (sic); [kû az Âsmôkân (?) Awestâ wa Zand ma sunawad], kih andar—mahall sahar wa deh dehad bad-raftisn wa marg an i Âsgh; aêdûn (sic) ôsân Âsghân râ sâzad silâh. (Again very close.)

51:1 So conjecturally.

51:2 Compare chap. XXX, 2. 'Behold ye the flames with the better mind;' possibly, also chap. XXX, 1, the signs in the lights seen friendly.'

51:3 According to the grammatical forms the agent here must be a divine being, as ye manta ashem ahûbis (see verse 7) is characteristic of the Deity. The vocative, strange as it may seem, does not necessarily exclude Ahura, as the subject referred to in ye. Several analogous cases occur. The Deity may here however represent His prophet, as the Daêvas do their worshippers in the later Avesta. Some writers force the language into a reference to the human subject for the sake of the greatly to be desired simplicity.

One places Ahurâ in the instrumental, a case in which the Almighty seldom appears. The above translation needs no alternative, as the language would be the same whoever ye refers to.

51:4 See note on verse 3, and read as alternative 'from the two arani.' As an inferior rendering of tradition I cite Neryosangh here: The matter should be heard (taking gûshtâ as a third singular in a subjunctive sense); [that is, a study should be made of it by him] who is even (in any degree) acquainted with the righteous design of Hormigda for both the worlds. He is independent in the literal truth of his words, in his freedom of speech, [and his fear has no existence]. Thy brilliant fire gives the explanation to the contenders. [It makes purity and impurity evident.]

52:1 I follow the admirable lead of the Pahlavi here, as the previous verse mentions veracity. Its indication is pavan frîfisnŏ, freely.

52:2 I differ with diffidence from the hint of the Pahlavi here (as elsewhere). It has shîvan = tears, which however is free for 'calamity' and 'sorrow.' Nom. sing.; see its position.

52:3 Anâk rûbisnîh yemalelûnêdŏ. This, placed together with such passages as XLVI, 11, XLIX, 11, and LI, 13, formed the basis for the more complete Yast XXII.

52:4 Others prefer 'place,' but see âyû in line b.

52:5 'Has led on'?

52:6 I cite Ner.: He who betrays the pure through his fraud, may (deceit) be (also his portion) at the last; [that is, let it be so afterwards; it is in his soul]. Long is his journey, and his arrival is in darkness; and evil food and increasing lawlessness is his [ ]. Darkness is your world, O ye wicked! your in-bred deeds, and your dîn, are leading you on.

52:7 That Ameretatât means more than long life is clear from amesha.

52:8 Afas nafsman patîh. The Gâthic would be more literally perhaps 'from His own Dominion.'

52:9 Sardârîh.

52:10 Vazdvarîh; Ner. pîvaratvam.

52:11 One naturally thinks of urvatha (vratha), as having something of the sense of vratyá. But usage compels also the sense of friendship. Hübschmann, Casuslehre, s. 259, 'der durch Gesinnung and Thaten sich ihm als freund erweist.'

52:12 Ner.: Mahâgñâni dadau Svâmî* avirdâdât* an irdâdât sampûrnatvam p. 53 punyâtmane [ ] nigam prabhutvamgñe* âdhipatyena [ ] uttamena pîvaratvam manasâ [-tasmâi dadate], yo nigasya adrisyamûrteh karmanâ mitram.

53:1 So according to frequent indications.

53:2 Tanû aîtŏ. Ner.: Sa te—mitram asti nivedîtatanuh.

53:3 See chap. XXXIII, 14. The Pahlavi translator renders freely as follows: Manifest things (so possibly; otherwise 'manifestly') (are) these to (so a MS. not yet elsewhere compared) the wise when according to his understanding he disposes and reflects, [that is, he who meditates with thought upon that which his lord and dastur declares to him]. Good is the King for whom they would effect righteousness in word and deed, the man whose body is a bearer of Thee, O Aûharmazd!

Next: Yasna XXXII