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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. Another subject is about the existence of a competitor of a different nature, as shown above 1, (2) that, from the constructing, qualifying, and ennobling of things so sagaciously, and even from the circumstances of an unimproving (akârîk) hand put upon the concentrated light, it is manifest that its maker, constructor, concentrator, and qualifier is sagacious. 3. Also his constructing sagaciously is manifest, from each separately, through the qualifying and ennobling of his own works severally. 4. And his working sagaciously is an indicator that his work is purposed and caused, (5) because every one of the works of the sagacious ought to be purposed and caused. 6. The purpose and cause of a work arise first, the work itself afterwards.

7. From the many kinds of his work it is manifest that his work is willed and requisite. 8. For there

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are two modes of doing a work, (9) either the willed is of the many kinds which are his will, (to) or the quality is of one kind which is as it is qualified 1; (11) so from the many kinds of work of the creator it is manifest that his work is willed and requisite. 12. And his will is owing to a necessity of different limit 2, (13) because his will was a requisite for the power of the original evolution.

14. The purpose and cause of a work are before the necessity, (15) because while the purpose of the necessity of a work does not occur, the necessity does not exist. 16. The purpose of a work arises from the cause, towards which the necessity of that work instigates. 17. The necessity and willing of a thing which is caused exist; (18) and a cause of the necessity of a thing owing to its own self is not well suited, (19) because the cause arises from progression, (20) concerning which an indicator is the purposed work that is sagacious. 21. The purpose is owing to a cause, the cause is owing to promptitude (aûstâv), the promptitude is owing to an exception (barâ), the exception is owing to an injurer, and the injury is owing to an opponent, without further words.

22. I have also shown 3, on this subject, through inevitable knowledge and through analogy, the making and qualification of the world and its circumstances and appliances. 23. From the making and qualification of the world is manifested a maker and qualifier; (24) and 4 [through the purposely-made

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work of the sagacious creator, (25) owing to] the purposely-made work 1, is manifested the existence of an injurer from without.


150:1 Chaps. IV, 11, 12, V, 54-56.

151:1 By necessity, and not exhibiting any freedom of will on the part of its maker.

151:2 That is, not limited by anything in his work of creation.

151:3 In Chap. V, 46-91.

151:4 The passage in brackets is omitted by AK, PB3, MH19, L23, p. 151 evidently by mistake, as it is necessary to complete the meaning of the sentence.

152:1 Made for the purpose of frustrating the designs of the fiend. which he foresaw (see Chap. VIII, 51, 71).

Next: Chapter VIII