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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'Which is the chief of men? Which is the chief of women? 3. Which is the chief of horses? Which is the chief of flying creatures? 4. [Which is the chief of oxen?] 6 Which is the chief of wild animals? Which is the chief of grains?'

5. The spirit of wisdom answered (6) thus: 'The man who is wise, who is steadfast in the religion, who is well-praising, who is true-speaking is chief over his associates.

p. 108

7. 'The woman who is young 1, who is properly disposed, who is faithful, who is respected, who is good-natured, who enlivens the house, whose modesty and awe are virtuous, a friend of her own father and elders 2, husband and guardian, handsome and replete with animation 3 is chief over the women who are her own associates.

8. 'The ox which is glorious, which is tall-eared, which has a herd of cows is chief over oxen.

9. 'The Kîharâv 4 is the chief of birds. 10. The horse which is swift 5 is the chief of horses. 11. The hare 6 is the chief of wild animals; and wheat 7 is the chief of grains.'


107:6 K43 omits the question in brackets.

108:1 L19 has 'talking, eloquent.'

108:2 Nêr. translates nîyâk by 'father's brother,' an elder who is considered as a special protector in India.

108:3 Reading namag-âkûn, which epithet is omitted in L19.

108:4 A name of the Karsipt, who is said to be the chief of birds in this world (Pahl. Visp. I, 1, Bd. XXIV, 11), the Vis Karsipta who brought the religion to the enclosure formed by Yim (see Vend. II, 138, 139), and which is said, in the Pahlavi version, to be 'a Kahârvâk (or Kahârnâk) who goes back into the existence of the spirits.' To determine the meaning of this name (which Nêr. translates by Sans: kakravâka, 'Brahmany duck') we have to consider not only the two forms kîharâv and kahârvâk, but also the term kark, 'falcon,' used in Bd. XXIV, 11. The kâmrôs of Bd. XIX, 15, XXIV, 29 (the kînâmrôs of Chap. LXII, 40) is also said to be the chief of birds, but probably mythic birds are meant.

108:5 L19 has 'white,' as in Bd. XXIV, 6.

108:6 See Bd. XXIV, 9.

108:7 See Bd. XXIV, 19.

Next: Chapter LXII