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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'How are the homage and glorifying of the sacred beings to be performed?'

3. The spirit of wisdom answered (4) thus:

p. 96

[paragraph continues] 'Every day three times, standing opposite the sun and Mitrô 1, as they proceed together 2, (5) and 3 the moon and fire of Vâhrâm 4, or the fire of fires 5, in like manner, morning, noon, and evening, homage and glorifying are performed, (6) and one has become grateful 6. 7. And if a sin, or a deficiency (frôdmând-1) 7, has occurred, especially 8 as regards the angels of the spiritual and worldly existences, then and beasts of burden 9, oxen and sheep, dogs and the dog species, and other creatures and creations of Aûharmazd the lord, (8) one is to become sorrowful, penitent, and in renunciation of sin before the sun and Mitrô, the moon and the fire of Aûharmazd 10; (9) and, for the sake of atonement for the sin, good works are to be practised as much as is well possible.'


96:1 The angel of the sun's light (see Chap. II; 118 n).

96:2 L19 adds 'homage and glorifying are to be performed;' but this is unnecessary.

96:3 L19 inserts 'opposite.'

96:4 The sacred fire (see Chap. XXXVI, 9 n).

96:5 A fire in which the remnants of all other fires are deposited from time to time.

96:6 We ought probably to read 'one is to perform homage and glorifying, and to be grateful.'

96:7 L19 omits 'or a deficiency.'

96:8 Reading fraêstô; Nêr. reads pargast and translates 'somewhat.'

96:9 L19 omits the 'beasts of burden.'

96:10 These are four out of the five existences to which the daily Nyâyises or supplications are addressed.

Next: Chapter LIV