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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'Which power is the more seemly? 3.. In wisdom who is the more complete? 4. And in disposition who is the more faithful? 5. Whose speech is the more proper? 6. In whose mind is the goodness little 4? 7. And as a friend who is the worse? 8. In whose mind is the pleasure little? 9. In heart who is the more seemly? 10. In endurance who is the more approvable? 11. Who is not to be considered as faithful? 12. What is that which is worth keeping with every one? 13. And what

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is that which is not to be kept with any one? 14. What is to be preserved in conversation? 15. Who is he that is not to be accepted as a witness? 16. And unto whom is it necessary to be obedient? 17. What is it more necessary to mind and to keep praising? 18. What is that which is not to be made unrespected in any way? 19. What is he who, in his own degree, is said to be such as Aûharmazd and the archangels? 20. And what is he who, in his own degree, is 1 such as Aharman and the demons?'

21. The spirit of wisdom answered (22) thus: In power he is the more seemly who, when he indulges his wrath, is able to allay the wrath, and not commit sin and gratify himself. 23. And in wisdom he is the more complete who is able to preserve his own soul. 24. In disposition he is the more faithful, in whom there is nothing whatever of deceit and pretence. 25. The speech of him is the more proper who speaks more true. 26. Goodness is little in the mind of a man of wrath 2. 27. As a friend, a malicious man who is a fighter is worse. 28. And pleasure is little in the mind of him who is an envious man. 29. In heart he is the more seemly who abandons the worldly existence and seizes the spiritual one; (30) and by his own will accepts righteousness as a yoke (val kavarman) 3. 31. And in endurance he is the more approvable who 4,

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[paragraph continues] [contentedly and with a will, accepts, as a yoke 1,] the misery and affliction which [come upon] him [from Aharman and the demons and the vile; (32) and it, in no way, harasses his own soul. 33. He is not to be considered as faithful who has no fear of the sacred beings, nor shame as to mankind. 34. Those which are worth keeping with every one are peace and affection. 35. And those which are not to be kept with any one whatever are malice and discord. 36. All 2 these three are to be preserved in conversation: good thoughts, good words, and good deeds in one's own thinking, speaking, and doing. 37. These three are not to be accepted as a witness: a woman 3, a young serving-boy 4, and a man-slave. 38. These are such as must be personally obedient and do service: (39) the wife unto the husband, (40) and the child unto the father and mother, the chieftain 5 and high-priest, the teacher 6, the adopted son 7, and secluded 8 kindred. 41. And unto rulers, chieftains, and teachers one is also to be obedient. 42. The sacred beings it is more necessary to mind and to keep praising. 43. And one's own soul is not to be made 9 unrespected in any mode, (44) and is always to be kept

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in remembrance. 45. The judge who exercises true justice, and takes no bribe, is 1, in his own degree, such as Aûharmazd and the archangels. 46. And he who exercises false justice is said to be, in his own degree, such as Aharman and the demons.'


76:4 L19 has 'much the more,' to correspond with a different reps in § 26.

77:1 L19 has 'is said to be.'

77:2 L19 has 'goodness is more in an humble-minded man,' so as to correspond with the difference in its question in § 6.

77:3 Literally, 'for the neck.' Nêr. has misread val-ik valman (Pâz. ô-ka ôi), and has 'by his own will for it, also accepts righteousness.'

77:4 From this point to Chap. XL, 17, the Pahlavi text of K43 is missing, owing to the loss of one folio in that MS. The copy of p. 78 TD2 is, therefore, followed, and its translation is enclosed in brackets.

78:1 See § 30 n.

78:2 L19 omits 'all.'

78:3 Or 'a wife,' as both meanings are expressed by the same word, and, in fact, every woman is expected to become a wife.

78:4 L19 has 'a young boy,' as in Chap. XXIX, 4.

78:5 The word sardâr (Pâz. sâlâr) also means 'guardian.'

78:6 L19 inserts 'and fire.'

78:7 See Chap. XXXVI, 8 n. As the adopted son takes the place of the deceased father, he must be obeyed accordingly by the whole family.

78:8 See Chap. XV, 6 n.

78:9 L19 has 'considered.'

79:1 L19 has 'is said to be.'

Next: Chapter XL