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Pahlavi Texts, Part III (SBE24), E.W. West, tr. [1885], at


1. The sage asked the spirit of wisdom (2) thus: 'What is the end of the world-arranging and spirit-destroying man? 3. What is the end of him who is a scoffing man? 4-6. What is the end of the idle, the malicious, and the lazy man? 7. What is the end of a false-hearted one, (8) and the end of an arrogant one 1?'

9. The spirit of wisdom answered (10) thus: 'He who is a world-arranging and spirit-destroying man is as injured, in the punishment of the three nights 2, as a raging fire when water comes upon it.

11 3. 'Of him who is a scoffing man there is no glory in body and soul; (12) and every time when he opens his mouth his wickedness then increases. 13. All the fiends, too, become so lodged in his body, that they leave no goodness whatever for his body; (14) and he makes mockery of the good, and glorification of the vile. 15. Also in the worldly existence his body is infamous, and in the spiritual existence his soul is wicked. 16. And, for effecting his punishment in hell, they deliver him over to

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the scoffing fiend; (17) and that fiend inflicts a ridicule and a mockery upon him with every single punishment.

18. 'As to him who is an idle man, yet devoid of wickedness, mostly when 1 death comes on in the worldly existence, he thereupon (agas) begets pleasantly for the sake of another.

19. 'The bridge 2 which is for the soul of him who is a malicious man is more difficult than for the other wicked who are in hell. 20. For this reason, because malice proceeds by lineage; (21) and it is possible to manage every sin better than malice, (22) because malice will abide in a lineage. 23. There are instances when it adheres 3 until the renovation of the universe; (24) for it is clearly declared by the pure revelation, (25) that the origin of the estrangement (anîrânîh) of the Arûmans, and even the Tûrânians, from the Irânians, was owing to that malice which was generated by them through the slaughter of Aîrîk 4; (26) and it always adheres until the renovation.

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27. 'He who is a lazy man is said to be the most unworthy of men. 28. Because it is declared by revelation, (29) that the creator Aûharmazd produced no corn for him who is a lazy man; (30) for him who is a lazy man there is then no giving of anything in gifts and charity 1; (31) and lodging and entertainment are not to be provided for him. 32. For this reason, because that food which a lazy man eats, he cats through impropriety and injustice; (33) and, on account of his laziness and unjust eating, his body then becomes infamous and the soul wicked.

34. 'He who is a false-hearted man is as dubious in good things as in bad; (35) he is dubious as to the treasure of the spiritual and worldly existences, and also as to the ceremonial, invocation, and service of the sacred beings. 36. And, on account of these circumstances, the angels and archangels shall accept little of the ceremonial and invocations which he performs, (37) and give unto him little of the gain, too, which he seeks. 38. And in the mouth of the good man he is always infamous, (39) and his soul becomes wicked.

40. 'The friends of him who is an arrogant man are few, and his enemies many. 41. And even of the gifts which he gives to any one, and the ceremonial, too, which he performs for the sacred beings, they shall accept little, on account of his arrogance, (42) and give little of the gain, too, which he seeks. 43. And in hell they deliver him to the fiend of arrogance, in order to inflict punishment upon his soul; (44) and the fiend of arrogance inflicts punishment of various kinds upon it, and is not pacified.'


51:1 L19 has 'What is the end of him who is an idle man?' in § 4, and repeats the same formula in each of the §§ 5-8.

51:2 Referring to the three days and nights of final punishment, reserved for those specially wicked, at the time of the resurrection (see Bd. XXX, 12-16).

51:3 In TD2 the remaining sections are arranged in the following order:—§§ 18, 27-33, 19-26, 34-44, 11-17.

52:1 L19 inserts 'misery and.'

52:2 The Kindvar bridge (see Chap. II, 115, 162), which is supposed to resemble a beam with many unequal sides, the side turned uppermost being narrower in proportion as the soul, intending to pass along it, is more wicked; so that the difficulty of the transit increases with the sin of the soul (see Dd. XXI, 3-5).

52:3 Or 'continues.'

52:4 Pâz. Eraz, one of the three sons of Frêdûn, the Pêsd sovereign, who divided his empire among them, giving the Arûman provinces to Salm, the Tûrânian to Tûg, and the Irânian to Aîrîk. The last was slain by his two brothers, and his death was subsequently avenged by his descendant Mânûskîhar (see Chap. XXVII, 41-43, Bd. XXXI, 9-12). Though these sons are not mentioned in the Avesta now extant, their history appears to have been related in the Kidrast Nask (see Sls. X, 28 n).

53:1 L19 has 'he then gives nothing as his living, which is through gifts and charity.'

Next: Chapter XXII