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1. And as to that which is written 4, that 'in the teaching of Afarg it is thus declared, that "for every single person, at the least 5, one cup of water and 

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one cup of bull's urine, which are well alike (vêhmâl) 1, are requisite;" and in the same manner it is said in the teaching of Mêdyôk-mâh, that "the water and bull's urine, when it is possible, are all to be thoroughly consecrated; when not--and, at the lowest, one cup of water and one cup of bull's urine, which are well alike, for every single person--they are to be set down in that place, and are afterwards to be mingled together 2." 2. And since two teachings have so stated, are we to perform the operation more preservatively 3 and according to a more correct opinion than this?'

3. Also, 'a correct apportionment is not understood by us, and clear reasons have not come to our knowledge that a less measure of the thing is proper.' 4. But I well imagine (hû-minam) this. is not the operation of the purifying cup (tâstîkŏ), where a less thing is not proper, because the information with which they have existed--owing to that information of theirs, of which a former high-priest and deliberator was the communicator--is that which was heard by me, that there are some who, for the sake of diminishing the measure of water and bull's urine, speak of this apportionment thus: 'Vîkithrekid', in everything the operation

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which accomplishes this, that is, when there is as much as is discernible from his body 1, is proper.' 5. And the saying is not perceived by me as a correct apportioning, because the judgment of the greatly-learned leader of those of the good religion, the glorified Yûdân-Yim 2, and of other deliberators, the opinion of good thinkers, was thus, that that saying is spoken about that of which the measure is not declared as the least by the high-priests' teaching of revelation. 6. Finally, when it is really of the same origin and suitable, then less than the least of that, of which the measure is declared as the least, is not proper, if, owing to much evidence in the teaching which has mentioned it as suitable, it be more of a blessing, and the operation performed thereby be more legitimate; because that teaching is for confessing that the statements of high-priests are most evidence of the practice.

7. This is that which is equally perpetual: it is very important for the purifiers to keep the intellect of life in operation, and for the good to become mentally a powerful giver of aid to them; and now, too, a purifier is ordered to keep in use his own most universal equal measure. 8. That which is perceived by me, and has come to my knowledge, more particularly when washed by myself, is the keeping in use an equal measure 3. 9. And even if there be a purifier who does not completely keep in use the

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consecrated water and bull's urine, still then it is not worse than when it does not really arise from the same origin 1, and its religious rite also does not take place.

10. Also the words of both the solemnization of the Vendidâd and the recitation of the Avesta are likewise to be uttered by him; because 2 'Zaratûst enquired of Aûharmazd about it thus: "How shall I purify 3 where he does not attain unto the Airyemâ 4--there are some who say where everything is anusô ('discontented') 5? 11. How as to the fire, how as to the water, how as to the earth, how as to animals, how as to plants, how as to the righteous man, how as to the righteous woman, how as to the stars, how as to the moon, how as to the sun, how as to the endless light, how as to the independent light 6, how as to all the prosperity, created by

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[paragraph continues] Aûharmazd 1, which is a manifestation of righteousness?" 12. And Aûharmazd spoke to him thus: "Thou shalt chant the purification liturgy, O Zaratûst!--that is, fully solemnize a Vendidâd service--then he becomes purified, &c.,"' as mentioned by me above 2. 13. Where they do not make them solemnize a Vendidâd so that they keep in operation that which is written of it as a rite, this does not drive pollution from any one; and then, too, they should abandon the commands of a decree of leaders who are not over them 3.

14. Keep the Bareshnûm ceremony 4 in operation, so that the consecrated water and bull's urine are in the proportion which is taught by the high-priests of the religion, unless a scarcity occurs as regards these. 15. Then together with it, also, this is to be observed, that what is mentioned in two teachings is certainly more correct; afterwards, too, where a possibility for it is not obtained by them, there is what is mentioned as suitable by one teaching, and I do not decide that it is not an expediency.

16. And as to that, also, which is written concerning the three hundred pebbles 5 that, sprinkled

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in ceremonial ablution (pâdvŏ), are cast into (val) the bull's urine and water, that is taught even in the same manner; the inward prayer (vâgŏ) 1, even for when one does not cast them, is in the existing teaching, which is proper. 17. Then, too, on account of the cheapness 2 and harmlessness of the pebbles the purifiers are less curtailing as to them, and to drink the thing so is well-curative in performance. 18. In the existing teaching of imperfect purifiers it should be very advantageous to maintain it as easy; moreover, it is not said of it that it is not suitable, and in the teaching of Afarg it is said that it is proper.


304:1 In Vend. IX, 48-117 the washings of the several parts of the body are mentioned only once, which is 'the first computation' here mentioned.

304:2 Reading pêsmâl, as equivalent to the pêsmâl or pêsîmal previously used; but the word can also be read pasîmal, 'after deponent,' which would be inconsistent with the context. The two terms are very liable to be confounded in writing Pahlavi, and in Ep. II, ii, 6 they are again written alike, though put in opposition to each other. The 'prior deponent' is Afarg.

304:3 That is, 'about this one time,' as J has it.

304:4 In the epistle to which he is replying.

304:5 The words pavan kâmîstîh, both here and in §§ 5, 6, would be better translated as 'a desideratum, or desired quantity;' but in p. 305 Pahl. Vend. IX, 132, c the phrase is pavan kamistîh, which can mean only 'at the minimum, or least.'

305:1 In Pahl. Vend. IX, 132, c, where this statement occurs, the first letter of this word is omitted, which converts it into shumâr, 'alike: Either word may be correct, but vêh-mâl occurs twice in this section.

305:2 This statement of Mêdyôk-mâh seems no longer extant in the Pahlavi Vendidâd.

305:3 That is, in a way more delivering from pollution and sin.

305:4 This word, which probably means 'in whatever is varied,' was p. 306 evidently the beginning of an Avesta phrase whose Pahlavi translation concludes the sentence. The phrase does not appear to be extant elsewhere.

306:1 That is, just sufficient to wet the body.

306:2 His father (see Chap. III, 10).

306:3 That is, the two liquids should he provided in equal quantities, p. 307 which differs from the present practice, as stated in the Persian Rivâyats; thus, M10, fol. 104 a, mentions 3¼ mans of water and 1¼ man of bull's urine as suitable quantities to be provided. This section is omitted in J, probably by mistake.

307:1 Apparently deprecating the use of mingled liquids derived from various sources.

307:2 The passage quoted here is from Pahl. Vend. XI, 1-6, with a few variations.

307:3 Pahl. Vend. inserts 'as to the abode.'

307:4 The Airyemâ (written Airyêmê in the MSS.) is Yas. LIII, which commences with the words 'â airyemâ ishyô,' and is the last of the Gâtha spells mentioned, in Vend. X, 22, as having to be recited four times in order to exorcise the fiend. The meaning of the question in the text, therefore, is: how is the purification to be effected when all the spells are not recited?

307:5 Referring to Vend. IX, 161--163 (see Chap. IV, 3).

307:6 This clause is omitted in Pahl. Vend., being merely a repetition of the preceding one, the Av. anaghra raokau being first translated by asarag rôshanŏîh, and then partially transliterated by p. 308 anagrag rŏshanŏ. As sar means 'head, end' in Pahlavi (hardly ever 'beginning'), the only meaning common to the two terms asarag and anagrag seems to be 'without a head or superior, independent,' that is, in this case, independent of the light of other luminaries.

308:1 K35 has 'righteousness, created by Aûharmazd,' but this is evidently a mistake, as 'righteousness' does not translate the original Av. vohû.

308:2 That is, as to the fire, &c. mentioned in § 11.

308:3 Referring to the heretical decree about which he is writing.

308:4 See App. IV.

308:5 See also Ep. II, iii, 12. The word generally used in these p. 309 epistles is sang, 'stone,' but Chap. IX, 6 has sagîkakŏ, and Pahl. Vend. IX, 132, c mentions sagkak, 'a pebble,' as being cast into (dên) the consecrated water and bull's urine, without specifying any number. The practice appears not to be mentioned in the Persian Rivâyats, and seems now obsolete; the addition of a small quantity of the ashes of the sacred fire to the bull's urine, which is tasted at the beginning of the rite, is, however, mentioned in the Rivâyats.

309:1 See Dd. LXXIX, 2. The prayer or grace has to be taken inwardly, that is, murmured, before the drinking mentioned in § 17. According to this text provision seems to have been made for not using the pebbles, by means of a special prayer.

309:2 Or 'value,' as argânîh means both.

Next: Chapter VIII