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Pahlavi Texts, Part II (SBE18), E.W. West, tr. [1882], at


1. The fifty-seventh question is that which you ask thus: How many kinds of family guardianship and adoption are there?

2. The reply is this, that it is said there are three kinds, which are the existent, the provided, and the appointed. 3. An adopted son who is existent is such as a wife who may be privileged, or an only daughter is a kind of adopted son owing to confidence in herself, such as happens when there is no wife, and a daughter for whom there is no husband, and none is provided, is the one that has remained.

4. An adopted son who is provided is such as a son that is acknowledged, who is accepted by one's self 1, and free from being appointed, or from necessity 2.

5. And an adopted son who is appointed is he who is to be appointed among the relations who are suitable for adoption--and are nearest to him who is to be appointed as adopted son--and the ministers (padân) of religion, and he performs the duty of

p. 192

family guardianship 1; he who is the appointed one is he who is appointed by the men who are the nearest relations (nabânazdistânŏ) on account of proximity.


191:1 That is, adopted during the man's lifetime.

191:2 Reading ayûf nîyâzŏ, but it may be ayûfŏ êyâvŏ, 'or from discovery.'

192:1 M14 has 'an existent family guardianship is in the son of him appointed, and a provided one is that when he himself performs the duty in the guardianship;' but the phrase interpolated is hardly grammatical.

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