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Pahlavi Texts, Part II (SBE18), E.W. West, tr. [1882], at


1. The thirty-fifth question is that which you ask thus: Who are they who are requisite in producing the renovation of the universe, who were they, and how are they?

2. The reply is this, that of those assignable for that most perfect work the statements recited are lengthy, for even Gâyômard, Yim the splendid, Zaratûst the Spîtamân 2, the spiritual chief (radŏ) of the righteous, and many great thanksgivers were 

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appointed for completing the appliances of the renovation; and their great miracles and successful (avakîragânîk) management have moved on, which works for the production of the renovation 1. 3. Likewise, on the approach of the renovation, Keresâsp 2 the Sâmân who smites Dahâk, Kaî-Khûsrôî 3 who was made to pass away by Vâê the long-continuing lord 4, Tûs and Vêvan 5 the allies (avâkânŏ), and many other mighty doers are aiding the production of the renovation.

4. But those who are the producers of the renovation more renowned throughout the spheres (vâspôharakânîktar) are said to be seven, whose names are Rôshanô-kashm 6, Khûr-kashm, Frâdad-gadman,

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[paragraph continues]redad-gadman, Kâmak-vakhshisn, Kâmak-sûd, and Sôshâns. 5. As it is said that in the fifty-seven years 1, which are the period of the raising of the dead, Rôshanô-kashm in Arzâh 2, Khûr-kashm in Savâh, Frâdad-gadman in Fradadâfsh, Vâredad-gadman in Vîdadâfsh, Kâmak-vakhshisn in Vôrûbarst, and Kâmak-sûd in Vôrûgarst, while Sôshâns in the illustrious and pure Khvanîras is connected with them, are immortal. 6. The completely good sense, perfect hearing, and full glory of those seven producers of the renovation are so miraculous that they converse from region unto region, every one together with the six others, just as now men at an interview utter words of conference and co-operation with the tongue, one to the other, and can hold a conversation 3.

7. The same perfect deeds for six 4 years in the six other regions, and for fifty years in the illustrious Khvanîras 5, prepare immortality, and set going everlasting

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life and everlasting weal (sûdîh) through the help and power and glory of the omniscient and beneficent spirit, the creator Aûharmazd.


77:2 See Chap. II, 10. His title, which is nearly always written Spîtamân in K35 (rarely Spîtâmân), is Av. spitama or spitâma, but is usually understood to mean 'descendant of Spitama,' his ancestor in the ninth generation (see Bd. XXXII, I).

78:1 That is, even these ancient rulers and legislators have contributed to the final renovation of the universe by their wise actions and laws.

78:2 See Chap. XVII 6.

78:3 Av. Kavi Husravangh, the third king of the Kayânian dynasty (see Bd. XXXI, 25, XXXIV, 7), whose mysterious disappearance, as related in the Shâhnâmah, is evidently alluded to here.

78:4 The Av. vayãm dareghô-hvadhâitîm of Khûrshêd Nyâyish, 1, that seems to be identified here with the good Vâê (see Chap. XXX, 4), who conducts the soul to the other world.

78:5 The Tûs and Gîw of Bd. XXIX, 6 and the Shâhnâmah, where they are said to have been frozen in the mountain snow, with other warriors, after the disappearance of Kai-Khûsrôî. They are the Av. Tusa of Âbân Yt. 53, 58, and, perhaps, Gaêvani of Fravardîn Yt. 115, but the Pahlavi form Vêvan (or Vîvô) of our text is inconsistent with the latter identification; the form Gîw of Bd. XXIX, 6 is merely Pâzand.

78:6 These names are the Av. Raokas-kaêshman, Hvare-kaêshman, Frâdad-hvarenô, Varedad-hvarenô, Vouru-nemô, Vouru-savô, and Saoshyãs of Fravardîn Yt. 128, 2 29, partly transcribed, partly translated, and partly corrupted into Pahlavi. The corruptions are easily explained thus: Av. vouru, 'wide,' when written in Pahlavi is often identical with varen, 'desire,' and has been so read by a later copyist and then translated by its synonym kâmak; Av. p. 79 nemô is translated by Pahl. nîyâyisn, 'homage, praise,' which is written very much like vakhshisn, 'increase,' and has been so read by a later copyist. For the first two names and the fast see Chap. II, 10.

79:1 The same period is mentioned in Bd. XXX, 7.

79:2 That is, there is one of the seven producers of the renovation in each of the seven Kêshvars, or regions of the earth, of which Arzâh is the western, Savâh the eastern, Fradadâfsh and Vîdadâfsh the two southern, Vôrûbarst and Vôrûgarst the two northern, and Khvanîras the central one (see Bd. V, 8, y, XI, 2-4)

79:3 If this passage were found in the Christian scriptures, it would very probably be considered as a prophetical allusion to the electric telegraph and telephone.

79:4 So in all MSS., but one would expect it to be 'seven,' so as to complete the fifty-seven years of § 5. The number being written in ciphers the difference between 'six' and 'seven' is very slight.

79:5 This central region of the earth is that which contains Irân and all lands well known to the Irânians.

Next: Chapter XXXVII