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Pahlavi Texts, Part I (SBE05), E.W. West, tr. [1880], at

p. 149


0. On the reckoning of the years 2.

1. Time was for twelve thousand years; and it says in revelation, that three thousand years was the duration of the spiritual state, where the creatures were unthinking, unmoving, and intangible 3; and three thousand years 4 was the duration of Gâyômard, with the ox, in the world. 2. As this was six thousand years series of millennium reigns 5 of Cancer, Leo, and Virgo had elapsed, because it was six thousand years when the millennium reign came to Libra, the adversary rushed in, and Gâyômard lived thirty years in tribulation 6. After the thirty years 7 Mâshya and Mashyôî grew up; it was fifty years while they were not wife and husband 8, and they were ninety-three years together as wife and husband till the time when Hôshyang 9 came.

4. Hôshyang was forty years 10, Takhmôrup 11 thirty years, Yim till his glory 12 departed six hundred and

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sixteen years and six months, and after that he was a hundred years in concealment. 5. Then the millennium 1 reign came to Scorpio, and Dahâk 2 ruled a thousand years. 6. After the millennium reign came to Sagittarius, Frêdûn 3 reigned five hundred years; in the same five hundred years of Frêdûn were the twelve years of Aîrîk; Mânûskîhar 4 was a hundred and twenty years, and in the same reign of Mânûskîhar, when he was in the mountain fastness (dûshkhvâr-gar) 5, were the twelve years of Frâsîyâv; Zôb 6 the Tûhmâspian was five years.

7. Kaî-Kabâd 7 was fifteen years; Kaî-Kâûs, till he went to the sky, seventy-five years, and seventy-five years after that, altogether a hundred and fifty years; Kai-Khûsrôv sixty years; Kaî-Lôrâsp 8 a hundred and twenty years; Kaî-Vistâsp, till the coming of the religion, thirty years 9, altogether a hundred and twenty years.

8. Vohûman 10 son of Spend-dâd a hundred and

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twelve years; Hûmâî, who was daughter of Vohûman, thirty years; Dârâî son of Kîhar-i-âzâd 1, that is, of the daughter of Vohûman, twelve years; Dârâî son of Dârâî fourteen years; Alexander the Rûman 2 fourteen years.

9. The Askânians bore the title in an uninterrupted (a-arûbâk) sovereignty two hundred and eighty-four years 3, Ardashîr son of Pâpak and the number of the Sâsânians four hundred and sixty years 4, and then it went to the Arabs.


149:1 This chapter is found in all the MSS.

149:2 TD adds 'of the Arabs (Tâzîkân).'

149:3 See Chap. I, 8.

149:4 See Chaps. I, 22, III, 1.

149:5 This system of a millennium reign for each constellation of the zodiac can hardly have any connection with the precession of the equinoxes, as the equinoxes travel backwards through the zodiac, whereas these millennium reigns travel forwards.

149:6 See Chap. III, 21-23.

149:7 That is, forty years after the thirty (see Chap. XV, 2).

149:8 See Chap. XV, 19, 20.

149:9 See Chaps. XV, 28. XXXI, 1.

149:10 K20 omits, by mistake, from 'together' in § 3 to this point.

149:11 See Chap. XXXI, 2.

149:12 So in K20, but M6 has nismô, 'soul, reason,' as in Chap. XXIII, 1; the word 'glory' would refer to the supposed divine glory of the Iranian monarchs (see Chap. XXXI. 32).

150:1 The seventh millennium, ruled by Libra, is computed by Windischmann as follows: 30 + 40½ + 50 + 93 + 40 + 30 + 616½ + 100 = 1000. The eighth millennium, ruled by Scorpio, is the thousand years of Dahâk.

150:2 See Chap. XXXI, 6.

150:3 See Chap. XXXI, 7-11.

150:4 See Chap. XXXI, 12-14.

150:5 See Chap. XXXI, 21.

150:6 Written Aûzôbô in Chap. XXXI, 23, 24.

150:7 Usually written Kai-Kavâd in Pahlavi (see Chap. XXXI, 24,25).

150:8 Also written Kaî-Lôharâsp (see Chap. XXXI, 28, 29).

150:9 This is the end of the ninth millennium, ruled by Sagittarius, which is computed by Windischmann as follows, 500 + 120 + 5 + 15+ 150 +60+ 120+ 30 = 1000.

150:10 See Chap. XXXI, 29, 30, where he is said to have been also called Artakhshatar, which seems to identify him with Artaxerxes Longimanus and his successors down to Artaxerxes Mnemon; so that Hûmâî may perhaps be identified with Parysatis, and Dârâî Kihar-âzâdân with Artaxerxes Ochus, as Dârâî Dârâyân must be p. 151 Darius Codomannus, while the reign of Kai-Vistâsp seems intended to cover the period from Cyrus to Xerxes.

151:1 A surname of Hûmâî.

151:2 Sikandar-i Arûmâk, that is, Alexander the Roman (of the eastern or Greek empire), as Pahlavi writers assume.

151:3 This period is nearly two centuries too short.

151:4 The actual period of Sasanian rule was 425 years (A.D. 226-651). According to the figures given in the text, the tenth millennium, ruled by Capricornus, must have terminated in the fourth year of the last king, Yazdakard. This agrees substantially with the Bahman Yast, which makes the millennium of Zaratûst expire some time after the reign of Khûsrô Nôshirvân; probably in the time of Khûsrô Parvîz, or some forty years earlier than the fourth year of Yazdakard. According to the text we must now be near the end of the first quarter of the twelfth and last millennium.

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