Sacred Texts  Zoroastrianism  Index  Previous  Next 
Buy this Book at

Pahlavi Texts, Part I (SBE05), E.W. West, tr. [1880], at


0. On the race and genealogy of the Kayâns.

1. Hôshyang 2 was son of Fravâk, son of Sîyâkmak 3, son of Mâshya  4, son of Gâyômard. [2. Takhmôrup 5 was son of Vîvanghâû 6, son of Yanghad 7, son of Hôshyang. 3. Yim,] 8 Takhmôrup, Spîtûr 9, and Narsih 10, whom they also call 'the Rashnû of Kînŏ 11,'

p. 131

were all brothers 4. From Yim and Yimak 1, who was his sister, was born a pair, man and woman, and they became husband and wife together; Mîrak the Âspiyân 2 and Zîyânak Zardâhim were their names, and the lineage went on. 5. Spîtûr was he who, with Dahâk, cut up Yim 3; 3; Narsih 4 lived then 5 also, whom they call Nêsr-gyâvân 6; they say that such destiny (gadman) is allotted to him 7, that he shall pass every day in troubles, and shall make all food purified and pure.

6. Dahâk 8 was son of Khrûtâsp, son of Zâînîgâv,

p. 132

son of Virafsang, son of Tâz, son of Fravâk, son of Sîyâkmak 1; by his mother Dahâk was of Udaî 2, son of Bayak, son of Tambayak, son of Owokhm 3, son of Pairi-urvaêsm 4, son of Gadhwithw 5, son of Drûgâskân 6, son of the evil spirit.

7. Frêdûn the Âspiyân 7 was son of Pûr-tôrâ 8 the Âspiyân, son of Sôk-tôrâ 9 the Âspiyân, son of Bôr-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of Sîyâk-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of Spêd-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of Gefar-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of Ramak-tôrâ the Âspiyân, son of

p. 133

[paragraph continues] Vanfraghes1 the Âspiyân, son of Yim, son of Vîvanghâû; as these, apart from the Âspiyân Pûr-tôrâ, were ten generations, they every one lived a hundred years, which becomes one thousand years; those thousand years were the evil reign of Dahâk. 8. By the Âspiyân Pûr-tôrâ was begotten Frêdûn, who exacted vengeance for Yim; together with him 2, also were the sons Barmâyûn and Katâyûn, but Frêdûn was fuller of glory than they.

9. By Frêdûn three sons were begotten, Salm and Tûg and Aîrîk 3; and by Aîrîk one son and one pair 4 were begotten; the names of the couple of sons were Vânîdâr and Anastokh 5, and the name of the daughter was Gûzak 6. 10. Salm andg slew them all, Aîrîk and his happy sons, but Frêdûn kept the daughter in concealment, and from that daughter a daughter was born 7; they became aware of it, and the mother was slain by them. 11. Frêdûn provided for the daughter 8, also in concealment, for

p. 134

ten generations, when Mânûs-i Khûrshêd-vînîk was born from his mother, [so called because, as he was born, some of] 1 the light of the sun (khûrshêd) fell upon his nose (vînîk). 12. From Mânûs-i Khûrshêd-vînîk and his sister 2 was Mânûs-khûrnar, and from Mânûs-khûrnar [and his sister] was Mânûskîhar born 3, by whom Salm and Tûg were slain in revenge for Aîrîk 4. 13. By Mânûskîhar were Fris, Nôdar 5, and Dûrâsrôb 6 begotten.

14. Just as Mânûskîhar was of Mânûs-khûrnar, of Mânûs-khûrnâk 7, who was Mâm-sozak 8, of Aîrak, of Thritak, of Bîtak, of Frazûsak, of Zûsak 9, of Fragûzak, of Gûzak, of Aîrîk, of Frêdûn, so Frâsîyâv 10 was

p. 135

of Pashang, of Zaês1, of Tûrak, of Spaênyasp, of Dûrôshasp, of Tûg, of Frêdûn. 15. He (Frâsîyâv) as well as Karsêvaz 2, whom they call Kadân 3, and Aghrêrad 4 were all three brothers.

[16 5. Pashang and Vîsak were both brothers. 17. By Vîsak were Pîrân 6, Hûmân, Sân 7, and other brothers begotten. 18. By Frâsîyâv were Frasp-i Kûr, Sân, Shêdak 8, and other sons begotten; and Vispân-fryâ 9, from whom Kaî-Khûsrôb was born, was daughter of Frâsîyâv, and was of the same mother with Frasp-i Kûr. 19. From Frasp-i Kûr were Sûrâk, Asûrîk, and other children; and by them were Khvâst-aîrikht, Yazdân-aîrikht, Yazdân-sarâd, Frêh-khûrd, Lâ-vahâk 10, and others begotten, a recital of whom would be tedious.

20. By Aghrêrad was Gôpatshah 11 begotten. 21. When Frâsîyâv made Mânûskîhar, with the Iranians, captive in the mountain-range (gar) of

p. 136

[paragraph continues] Padashkh-vâr 1, and scattered ruin and want among them, Aghrêrad begged a favour of God (yazdân), and he obtained the benefit that the army and champions of the Iranians were saved by him from that distress. 22. Frâsîyâv slew Aghrêrad for that fault; and Aghrêrad, as his recompense, begat such a son as Gôpatshah.

23. Aûzôbô the Tûhmâspian 2, Kanak-i Barzist, Arawisanasp, and Vaêtand-i Râghinôid were the three sons and the daughter of Agâimasvâk 3, the son of Nôdar, son of Mânûskîhar, who begat Aûzôbô. 24. Kavâd 4 was a child in a waist-cloth (kuspûd) they abandoned him on a river, and he froze upon the door-sills (kavâdakân); Aûzôbô perceived and took him, brought him up, and settled the name of the trembling child.

25. By Kavâd was Kaî-Apîvêh begotten; by Kaî-Apîvêh were Kaî-Arsh, Kaî-Vyârsh, Kaî-Pisân, and Kaî-Kâûs begotten; by Kaî-Kâûs was Sîyâvakhsh begotten; by Sîyâvakhsh was Kaî-Khûsrôb 5

p. 137

begotten. 26. Keresâsp 1 and Aûrvakhsh 2 were both brothers. 27. Athrat 3 was son of Sâhm, son of Tûrak, son of Spaênyasp, son of Dûrôshasp 4, son of Tûg, son of Frêdûn. 28. Lôharâsp 5 was son of Aûzâv 6, son of Mânûs, son of Kaî-Pîsîn 7, son of Kaî-Apîvêh, son of Kaî-Kavâd. 29. By Kaî-Lôharâsp were Vistâsp, Zarîr 8, and other brothers begotten; by Vistâsp were Spend-dâd 9 and Pêshyô-tanû 10 begotten; and by Spend-dâd were Vohûman 11, Âtarô-tarsah, Mitrô-tarsah, and others begotten.

30. Artakhshatar descendant of Pâpak—of whom his mother was daughter—was son of Sâsân 12, son of

p. 138

[paragraph continues] Vêh-âfrîd and 1 Zarîr, son of Sâsân, son of Artakhshatar who was the said Vohûman son of Spend-dâd.

31. The mother of Kaî-Apîvêh was Farhank 2, daughter of him who is exalted on the heavenly path 3, Urvad-gâi-frâs4, son of Râk, son of Dûrâsrôb, son of Mânûskîhar. 32. This, too, it says, that the glory 5 of Frêdûn settled on the root of a reed (kanyâ) in the wide-formed ocean; and Nôktargâ 6, through sorcery, formed a cow for tillage, and begat children there; three years he carried the reeds there, and gave them to the cow, until the glory went on to the cow; he brought the cow, milked her milk, and gave it to his three sons; as their walking was on hoofs, the glory did not go to the sons, but to Farhank. 33. Nôktargâ wished to injure 7 Farhank, but Farhank went with the glory away from

p. 139

the fierce (tîb) father, and made a vow (patyastâk) thus: 'I will give my first son to Aûshbâm 1.' 34. Then Aûshbâm saved her from the father; and the first son, Kaî-Apîvêh, she bore and gave to Aûshbâm, was a hero associating with Aûshbâm, and travelled in Aûshbâm's company.

35. The mother of Aûzôbô was the daughter of Nâmûn the wizard, when Nâmak 2 was with Frâsîyâv.

36. And, moreover, together with those begotten by Sâm 3 were six children in pairs, male and female; the name of one was Damnak, of one Khûsrôv, and of one Mârgandak, and the name of each man and woman together was one. 37. And the name of one besides them was Dastân 4; he was considered more eminent than they, and Sagânsîh 5 and the southern quarter were given to him; and Avar-shatrô 6 and the governorship were given by him to Avarnak. 38. of Avar-shatrô this is said, that it is the district of Avarnak, and they offered blessings to Srôsh and Ardavahist in succession; on this account is their possession of horses and possession of arms; and on account of firm religion, purity, and manifest joy, good estimation and extensive fame are greatly

p. 140

among them. 39. To Damnak the governorship of Asûristân was given; sovereignty and arranging the law of sovereignty, wilfulness and the stubborn defects they would bring, were among them. 40. To Sparnak 1 the governorship of Spâhân 2 was given; to Khûsrôv the governorship of Râi 3 was given; to Mârgandak the kingdom, forest settlements, and mountain settlements of Padashkhvârgar were given; where they travel nomadically, and there are the forming of sheep-folds, prolificness, easy procreation, and continual triumph over enemies. 41. From Dastân proceeded Rûdastâm 4 and Hûzavârak 5.]


130:1 For this chapter, which is numbered XXXII by previous translators, we have to depend only on K20, TD, and K20b (a fragment evidently derived from the same original as K20 and M6, but through some independent line of descent).

130:2 So in K20, but usually Hôshâng (see Chaps. XV, 28, XXXIV, 3, 4).

130:3 See Chap. XV, 25,30.

130:4 See Chaps. XV, 2-24, 30, XXXIV, 3.

130:5 Av. Takhmô-urupa of Râm Yt. 11, Zamyâd Yt. 28, Âfrîn Zarat. 2; written Tâkhmôrup in TD, which is the only MS. in which the passage enclosed in brackets is found, the omission of which by K20 was suspected by Windischmann (Zoroastriche Studien, p. 199). This king is the Tahmûras of the Shâhnâmah. See also Chaps. XVII, 4, XXXIV, 4.

130:6 Av. Vîvanghau of Yas. IX, 11, 20, XXXII, 8, Vend. II, 8, 28, 94, Fravardîn Yt. 130, Zamyâd Yt. 35.

130:7 As this Pâzand name or title begins with a medial y, its initial vowel is probably omitted (see p. 141, note 8).

130:8 Av. Yima or Yima khshaêta of Vend. II, &c., the Jamshêd of the Shâhnâmah (see Chaps. XVII. 5, XXXIV, 4).

130:9 Av. Spityura of Zamyâd Yt. 46.

130:10 Here written Nârsî in K20, and K20b, and Nôsîh in TD; but see § 5 and Chap. XXIX, 6. Windischmann suggests that he may be the Av. Aoshnara pouru-gîra of Fravardîn Yt. 131, Âf. Zarat. 2.

130:11 An epithet equivalent to 'the Minos of China;' Rashnû being the angel of justice, who is said to weigh the meritorious deeds of p. 131 the departed soul against its sins. Neither word is, however, quite certain, as rashnûk may stand for rasnîk, 'spear,' and has also been translated by 'light' and 'hero;' Kînŏ, moreover, was probably not China, but Samarkand (see Chaps. XII, 13, 22, XV, 29).

131:1 See Chap. XXIII, 1.

131:2 Av. Âthwyâna of Âbân. Yt. 33, Gôs Yt. 13, Fravardîn Yt. 131, Zamyâd Yt. 36, &c., where it is the family name of Thraêtaona, who is said to be a son of Âthwya in Yas. IX, 23, 24. In the text this name seems to be used rather as a title than a patronymic, and in § 7 it appears to be a family surname.

131:3 As stated in Zamyâd Yt. 46.

131:4 Here written Nârsak in K20 and K20b, and Nôsîh in TD.

131:5 TD has 'together,' instead of 'then.'

131:6 So in K20, but K20b has Narst-gyâvân, and TD has Nôsîh-vîyâvânîk (or nîyâzânîk). Perhaps we may assume the epithet to have been nîgîr-vîyâvânîk (or nîyâzânîk), 'one with a bewildering (or longing) glance.'

131:7 Justi supposes this clause of the sentence refers to Yim and the disease which attacked his hand. If this be the case it may be translated as follows: 'they say aîghash is produced on his hand (yadman), so that,' &c.; aîghash being a disease, or evil, mentioned in Vend. XX, 14, 20, 24; compare Chap. XXVIII, 33.

131:8 Or Az-i Dahâk, the Av. Azi Dahâka, 'destructive serpent,' of Yas. IX, 25, Vend. I, 69, Âbân Yt. 29, 34, Bahrâm Yt. 40, Zamyâd Yt. 46-50. A name applied to a foreign dynasty (probably Semitic) personified as a single king, which conquered the dominions of Yim (see Chap. XXXIV, 5).

132:1 For the last three names, see Chap. XV, 25, 28.

132:2 Pahl. Aûd in TD; compare 'the demon Uda' of Chap. XXVIII, 19. The following two names look like 'fear' and 'gloom-fear,' both appropriate names for demons.

132:3 TD has Pâz. Owôikh; compare Av. aoiwra, 'a species of nightmare,' observing that r and ô are often written alike in Pahlavi.

132:4 TD and K20b have Paz. Pairi-urva-urvaêsm, and K20 has Pai-urvaêsm.

132:5 TD has Pâz. Gawithw.

132:6 So in TD, but K20 has Pâz. Druz-i ayaskâ, and K20b has Drug-i ayaskâ. It corresponds to Av. drugaska in Vend. XIX, 139, Vistâsp Yt. 26. This genealogy appears to trace Dahâk's maternal descent through a series of demons.

132:7 Av. Thraêtaona, son of Âthwya, but generally called 'the Âthwyânian,' who slew the destructive serpent (azi dahâka), see Yas. IX, 24, 25, Vend. I, 69, Âbân Yt. 33, 61, Gôs Yt. 13, Fravardîn Yt. 131, Bahrâm Yt. 40, Râm Yt. 23, Ashi Yt. 33, Zamyâd Yt. 36, 92, Âf. Zarat. 2. In the Shâhnâmah he is called Ferîdûn son of Abtîn.

132:8 This name is omitted in K20, but occurs in the other two MSS.; it is a Huzvâris hybrid equivalent to Pâz. Pûr-gau and Av. Pouru-gau which is. a title of an Âthwyânian in Âf. Zarat. 4, Vistâsp Yt. 2. This genealogy consists almost entirely of such hybrid names, which have a very artificial appearance, though suitable enough for a race of herdsmen, meaning, as they severally do, 'one with abundant oxen, with useful oxen, with the brown ox, with the black ox, with the white ox, with the fat ox, and with a herd of oxen.'

132:9 So in TD, but the other two MSS. have Sîyâk-tôrâ, which is probably wrong, as the same name occurs again in this genealogy.

133:1 In TD this name can be read Vanfrôkisn or Vanfrôkgân.

133:2 TD has 'as well as him.' K20b omits most of this sentence by mistake.

133:3 These sons, as Windischmann observes, are not mentioned in the extant Avesta, but their Avesta names, Sairima, Tûirya or Tûra, and Airya or Airyu, may be gathered from the names of the countries over which they are supposed to have ruled (see Fravardîn Yt. 143).

133:4 TD has 'two sons and one daughter.'

133:5 TD has Anîdâr and Anastabŏ.

133:6 Or Gûgak, in TD; the other MSS. have Pâz. Ganga here, but Guzak in § 14; it is identical with the name of Hôshyang's sister and wife in Chap. XV, 28. in the Pâzand Gâmâsp-nâmah the name of Frêdûn's daughter is written Vîrak.

133:7 Reading min zak dûkht dûkht-i zâd, as in K20b and TD; some uncertainty arises here from the words dûkht, 'daughter,' and dvâd, 'pair,' being written alike in Pahlavi.

133:8 TD has bartman, 'daughter,' indicating that the word in K20 must be read dûkht, and not dvâd, 'pair.'

134:1 The phrase in brackets occurs only in TD; and the whole passage from 'vînîk' to 'sun' is omitted in K20, evidently by mistake.

134:2 TD has 'from Manûs and his sister,' and K20b 'has from Mânûs-hûkîhar and Mânûs-khûrshêd.'

134:3 The words in brackets occur only in TD, and K20b has 'from Mânûs-khûrnar also was Mânûs-khûrnâk, from Mânûs-khûrnâk was Mânûskîhar born,' but this introduction of an extra generation is not confirmed by the list of names in § 14. The term khûrnâk (or khûrnak) seems to be merely a transcript of the Avesta word of which khûrshêd-vînîk, 'sun-nose,' is a translation. The other term khûrnar can also be read khûrvar, but K20 has Pâz. hvarnar. Mânûskîhar is the Av. Manuskithra of Fravardîn Yt. 131, where he is styled the Airyavan, or descendant of Airyu (Aîrîk).

134:4 TD has 'and vengeance exacted for Aîrîk.'

134:5 See Chap. XXIX, 6.

134:6 Pâz. Durâsro, but the Pahlavi form, given in the text, occurs in § 31 and Chap. XXXII, 1 in TD, which MS. omits this § by mistake.

134:7 The same as Mânûs-i khûrshêd-vînîk, as noted above.

134:8 This Pâzand epithet seems to mean 'mother-burning,' and may have some connection with the legend mentioned in § 11. TD has mûn am Gûgak, 'whose mother was Gûgak.'

134:9 K20b omits the five names from Aîrak to Zûsak.

134:10 Av. Frangrasyan, the Tûryan, of Yas. XI, 21, Âbân Yt. 41, p. 135s Yt. 18, 22, Ashi Yt. 38, 42, Zamyâd Yt. 56-63, 62, 93; called Afrâsiyâb in the Shâhnâmah.

135:1 Zâdsam in the Shâhnâmah.

135:2 Garsîvaz in the Shâhnâmah.

135:3 TD has Pahl. Kîdân.

135:4 See Chap. XXIX, 5.

135:5 The remainder of this chapter is found only in TD.

135:6 Pîrân Vîsah is Afrâsiyâb's chief general in the Shâhnâmah and Hûmân and Pîlsam are his brothers.

135:7 This name is very ambiguous in Pahlavi, as it can be read many other ways.

135:8 Shêdah in the Shâhnâmah.

135:9 She is called Farangîs in the Shâhnâmah.

135:10 The reading of several of these names is more or less uncertain, but the object of the author is evidently to apply opprobrious epithets to all the male descendants of Afrâsiyâb.

135:11 TD has Gôpat-malkâ here, as also in Chap. XXIX, 5, where it is said to be a title of Aghrêrad (always written Agrêrad in TD).

136:1 The mountains south of the Caspian (see Chap. XII. 17).

136:2 Av. Uzava Tûmâspana of Fravardîn Yt. 131, called Zav, or Zâb, son of Tahmâsp, in the Shâhnâmah.

136:3 None of these names, which TD gives in Pâzand, are to be found in the portion of the Avesta yet extant.

136:4 Av. Kavi Kavâta of Fravardîn Yt. 132, Zamyâd Yt. 71, called Kaî-Qubâd in the Shâhnâmah. There appears to be an attempt, in the text, to derive his name from the 'door-sill' on which he is said to have been found.

136:5 The Avesta names of these seven other Kayâns are, respectively, Kavi Aipi-vanghu, Kavi Arshan, Kavi Byârshân, Kavi Pisanangh, Kavi Usadhan, Kavi Syâvarshân, and Kavi Husravangh (see Fravardîn Yt. 132, Zamyâd Yt. 71, 74); omitting the third, they are called, respectively, Armîn, Aris, Pasîn, Kaî-Kâvûs, Siyâvush, and Kaî-Khusrô in the Shâhnâmah. TD, omitting the first letter, has Sânŏ for Pisân; it also writes Kaî-Kâyûks and Kei-Khûsrôvî.

137:1 Av. Keresâspa of Yas. IX, 31, 36, 39, Vend. I, 36, Âbân Yt. 37, Fravardîn Yt. 61, 136, Râm Yt. 27, Zamyâd Yt. 38-44, Âf. Zarat. 3; he is called Garsâsp in the Shâhnâmah.

137:2 Av. Urvâkhshaya of Yas. IX, 31, Râm Yt. 28, Âf. Zarat. 3. These brothers were sons of Thrita or Athrat, mentioned in the next §.

137:3 Av. Thrita of the Sâma race (see Yas. IX, 30, Vend. XX, 11) and father of Keresâspa, whose genealogy is given in a passage interpolated in some copies of the Shâhnâmah as follows: Garsâsp, Atrat, Sam, Tûrag, Sîdasb, Tûr, Jamshêd.

137:4 Written Dûrôshap in TD, both here and in § 14.

137:5 Av. Aurvad-aspa of Âbân Yt. 105, Vistâsp Yt. 34, 46, called Luhrâsp in the Shâhnâmah.

137:6 Reading doubtful.

137:7 Written Ka-Pîsîn here, but he is the same person as Kaî-Pisân of § 25; the latter part of the name is written both Pisanangh and Pisina in the Avesta.

137:8 Probably Zargar (being Av. Zairivairi of Âbân Yt. 112, 117, Fravardîn Yt. 101), but called Zarîr in the Shâhnâmah.

137:9 Av. Spentô-dâta of Fravardîn Yt. 103. Vistâsp Yt. 25, called Isfendiyâr in the Shâhnâmah.

137:10 See Chaps. XXIX, 5, XXXII, 5.

137:11 Called Bahman in the Shâhnâmah, and Ardashîr the Kayânian in Bahman Yt. II, 17; the successor of his grandfather Vistâsp (see Chap. XXXIV, 8).

137:12 The text is rather obscure, but the Kârnâmak of Ardashîr-i Pâpakân states clearly that Ardashîr was son of Sâsân by the p. 138 daughter of Pâpak, a tributary ruler of Pârs under Ardavân, the last of the Askâniyân monarchs.

138:1 So in the Pahlavi text, which therefore makes Vêh-âfrîd a woman's name (like Pers. Beh-âfrîn); but this is doubtful, as the MSS. often confound va, 'and,' and i, 'son of.'

138:2 In the Shâhnâmah Farhang is mother of Kaî-Kâvûs. The Pahlavi name can also be read Farânak, the name of the mother of Ferîdûn in the Shâhnâmah.

138:3 Pâz. vîdharg-âfrârstaka, which looks more like an epithet than a name.

138:4 Or, perhaps, 'Urvad-gâ son of Frâst.'

138:5 The divine glory which was supposed to accompany all legitimate sovereigns of Iran, from the time of Hôshyang even to that of the Sasanian dynasty; it is the Av. hvarenangh of the Zamyâd Yast, and is said to have fled to the ocean for refuge during the reign of foreign dynasties and wicked kings (see Âbân Yt. 42, Zamyâd Yt. 51, 56, 59, 62).

138:6 The last syllable is so written, in Pâzand, in § 33.

138:7 Reading hangîdanŏ, to injure,' instead of khungdanŏ, which may mean 'to embrace;' the difference between the two words being merely the letter î.

139:1 This name means 'the dawn;' perhaps it may be identified with Av. Usinemangh or Usenemangh of Fravardîn Yt. 113, 1401 whose wife Freni may possibly be the Farhank (or Frânak) of the text.

139:2 So in TD, but it is probably only a variant of Nâmûn.

139:3 The grandfather of Rustam (see § 41). In the Avesta he is usually called Sâma Keresâspa with the title Nairimanau; while in the Shâhnâmah Sâm is son of Narîmân.

139:4 Another name for Zâl, the father of Rustam, in the Shâhnâmah.

139:5 The same as Sagastân.

139:6 Or, perhaps, 'the upper district.'

140:1 He would seem not to have been a son of Sâm, as he is not mentioned before. The reading of all these names is uncertain.

140:2 The Pahlavi form of Ispahân.

140:3 Av. Ragha of Yas. XIX, 51, Vend. I, 60, whose ruins are near the modern Teherân.

140:4 The usual Pahlavi form of Rustam.

140:5 Or Aûzvârak; Rustam's brother is called Zavârah in the Shâhnâmah.

Next: Chapter XXXII