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Pahlavi Texts, Part I (SBE05), E.W. West, tr. [1880], at

p. 115


1. On [the spiritual chieftainship 2 of the regions of the earth] it says in revelation, that every one of those six chieftainships 3 has one spiritual chief; as the chief of Arzah is AshâshagahadHvandkãn 4, the chief of Savah is Hoazarôdathhri-hanâ Parêstyarô 5, the chief of Fradadafsh is Spîtôîd-i Aûspôsînân 6, [the chief of Vîdadafsh is Aîrîz-râsp Aûspôsînân 7,] the chief of Vôrûbarst is Huvâsp 8, the chief of Vôrûgarst is Kakhravâk 9. 2. Zaratûst is

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spiritual chief of the region of Khvanîras, and also of all the regions; he is chief of the world of the righteous, and it is said that the whole religion was received by them from Zaratûs1.

3. In the region of Khvanîras are many places, from which, in this evil time of violent struggling with the adversary, a passage (vidarg) is constructed by the power of the spiritual world (maînôkîh), and one calls them the beaten tracks 2 of Khvanîras.

4. Counterparts of those other regions 3 are such places as Kangdez, the land of Saukavastân, the plain of the Arabs (Tâzîkân), the plain of Pêsyânsaî, the river Nâîvtâk 4, Aîrân-vêg, the enclosure (var) formed by Yim, and Kasmîr in India 5. 5. And one immortal chief acts in the government of each

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of them; as it says, that Pêshyôtanû 1 son of Vistâsp, whom they call Kîtrô-maînô 2, is in the country of Kangdez 3; Aghrêrad 4 son of Pashang is in the land of Saukavastân 5, and they call him Gôpatshah 6; Parsadgâ 7 Hvembya is in the plain of

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[paragraph continues] Pêsyânsaî 1, and he is Hvembya for this reason, because they brought him up in a hvemb ('jar') for fear of Khashm ('Wrath'); [Asâm-i 2 Yamâhust is in the place which they call the River Nâîvtâk]; the tree opposed to harm 3 is in Aîrân-vêg; Urvatad-nar 4 son of Zaratûst is in the enclosure formed by Yim. 6. Regarding them it says, they are those who are immortal, as are Narsih 5 son of Vîvanghâû, Tûs 6 son of Nôdar 7, Gîw 8 son of Gûdarz, Ibairaz 9 the causer of strife, and Ashavazd son of Pourudhâkhs10; and they will all 11 come forth, to the

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assistance of Sôshyans, on the production of the renovation of the universe.

7. Regarding Sâm 1 it says, that he became immortal, but owing to his disregard of the Mazdayasnian religion, a Tûrk whom they call Nihâg 2 wounded him with an arrow, when he was asleep there, in the plain of Pêsyânsaî; and it had brought upon him the unnatural lethargy (bûshasp) which overcame him in the midst of the heat 3. 8. And the glory (far) of heaven stands over him 4 for the purpose that, when Az-i Dahâk 5 becomes unfettered (arazak), he may arise and slay him; and a myriad guardian spirits of the righteous are as a protection to him. 9. Of Dahâk, whom they call Bêvarâsp, this, too, it says, that Frêdûn when he captured Dahâk was not able to kill him, and afterwards confined him in Mount Dimâvand 6; when he becomes unfettered, Sâm arises, and smites and slays him.

10. As to Kangdez, it is in the direction of the east, at many leagues from the bed (var) 7 of the

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wide-formed ocean towards that side. 11. The plain of Pêsyânsaî is in Kâvulistân, as it says, that the most remarkable upland (bâlist) in Kâvulistân is where Pêsyânsaî is; there it is hotter, on the more lofty elevations there is no heat 1. 12. Aîrân-vêg is in the direction of Âtarô-pâtakân 2. 13. The land of Saukavastân is on the way from Tûrkistân to Kînistân, in the direction of the north. 14. [The enclosure] 3 formed by Yim is in the middle of Pârs, in Sruvâ 4; thus, they say, that what Yim formed (Yim-kard) is below Mount Yimakân 5. 15. Kasmîr is in Hindûstân.


115:1 For this chapter, which is numbered XXX by previous translators, we have to depend only on K20 and TD (see the note on the heading of Chap. XXVIII); and the words enclosed in brackets are supplied from TD, being either illegible or omitted in K20.

115:2 Perhaps 'patriarchate' or 'episcopate' would be a better translation of radîh, and 'patriarch' or 'bishop' of rad, in this chapter, as the chief high-priest (dastûr-i dastûrân) and his office are evidently meant by these words.

115:3 Of the six other regions, distinct from this one of Khvanîras, see Chap. XI, 2-4.

115:4 TD has Ashashâg,hd-ê aîgh Nêvandãn; both MSS. giving these names in a barbarous Pâzand form which cannot be relied on. Perhaps this Dastûr is the Av. Ashâvanghu Bivandangha of Fravardîn Yt. 110.

115:5 TD has Hôazarôkakhhr-hanâ Parêstyrô, all in Pâzand in both MSS., except Huz. hanâ, which stands for Pâz. ê, here used for the idhâfat i. Perhaps this Dastûr is the Av. Garô-danghu Pairistîra of Fravardîn Yt. 110.

115:6 So in TD; K20 has Pâz. Spaitanid-i Huspâsnyân. This Dastûr is, no doubt, the Av. (gen.) Spitôis Uspãsnaos of Fravardîn Yt. 121.

115:7 Omitted in K20, but, no doubt, this Dastûr is the Av. Erezrâspa Uspãsnu of Fravardîn Yt. 121.

115:8 Av. Hvaspa of Fravardîn Yt. 122.

115:9 So in both MSS. As in the case of each of the preceding two pair of regions, two consecutive names of Dastûrs have been taken from the Fravardîn Yast, it may be supposed that the names p. 116 taken for this third pair of regions will also be consecutive, and this Dastûr must, therefore, be identified with the Av. Kathwaraspa of Fravardîn Yt. 122.

116:1 TD has 'Zaratûst is chief of this region of Khvanîras, and also of the whole world of the righteous; all chieftainship, also, is from Zaratûst, so that the whole religion,' &c.

116:2 Justi has 'zones, climates;' but transcribing Pâz. habâvanhâ back into Pahlavi we have a word which may be read khabânŏhâ, pl. of khabân, 'a trampling-place' (comp. Pers. khabîdan). TD has khvabîsnŏ-gâs, which has the same meaning.

116:3 Meaning, probably, that they resemble the six smaller regions in being isolated and difficult of access; in other words, either mythical, or independent of Iranian rule.

116:4 So in TD, which also omits the second, third, and fourth of these isolated territories. In K20 we might read rad va khûdâk, 'chief and lord,' as an epithet of Aîrân-vêg. This river must be the Nâhvtâk of Chap. XXI, 6.

116:5 Reading Kasmîr-i andar Hindû, but TD has Kasmîr-i andarûnŏ; perhaps the last word was originally anîrânak, in which case we should read 'the not-Iranian Kasmîr.'

117:1 The Av. Peshôtanu of Vistâsp Yt. 4, where he is described as free from disease and death. TD has Pêshyôk-tanû. See also Chaps. XXXI, 29, XXXII, 5.

117:2 TD has Kitrô-mâônô, and it may be doubted whether the latter portion of the name be derived from Av. mainyu, 'spirit,' or maunghô, 'moon.' The Dâdistân-i-Dînîk (Reply 89) calls him 'Patshâyôtanû who is called from the Kîtrôk-mâhanô (or mîyânô),' the Katru-mîyân river of Chap. XX, 7, 31.

117:3 See § 10. TD has Kangdez-i bâmîk, 'Kangdez the splendid.'

117:4 The Av. Aghraêratha Narava of Gôs Yt. 18, 22, Fravardîn Yt. 131, Ashi Yt. 38, Zamyâd Yt. 77; he is Aghrîrath, brother of Afrâsiyâb, in the Shâhnâmah; see also Chap. XXXI, 15.

117:5 TD has Pahl. Sakîkstân here, but Sôkapastân in § 13 (the letters îk and p being often much alike in Pahlavi writing). K20 has Pâz. Sâvkavatân, Saukâvasta, and Sâvkavastãn.

117:6 TD has Gôpat-malkâ, 'king of Gôpat;' and Dâd. (Reply 89) states that 'the reign of Gôpatshah is over the country of Gôpatô, coterminous with Aîrân-vêg, on the bank of the water of the Dâîtîk; and he keeps watch over the ox Hadhayãs, on whom occurred the various emigrations of men of old.' Mkh. (LXII, 31-36) says, 'Gôpatshâh remains in Aîrân-vêg, within the region of Khvanîras; from foot to mid-body he is a bull, and from mid-body to top he is a man; at all times he stays on the sea-shore, and always performs the worship of God, and always pours holy-water into the sea; through the pouring of that holy-water innumerable noxious creatures in the sea will die; for if he should not mostly perform that ceremonial, and should not pour that holy-water into the sea, and those innumerable noxious creatures should not perish, then always when rain falls the noxious creatures would fall like rain.' In Chap. XXXI, 20, he is said to be a son of Aghrêrad.

117:7 So in K20; and Av. Parshadgau occurs in Fravardîn Yt. 96, 127; but TD has Fradakhstar Khûmbîkân, and Dâd. (Reply 89) mentions 'Fradhakhstô son of Khûmbîkân' as one of the seven p. 118 immortal lords of Khvanîras, which name corresponds with the Av. Fradhâkhsti Khunbya of Fravardîn Yt. 138.

118:1 TD has always Pahl. Pêsânsih. No doubt the Pisîn valley is meant (see § 11).

118:2 Or it may be read Aêshm-i. This phrase occurs only in TD, but Dâd. (Reply 89) mentions 'the Avesta Yakhmâyîsad, son of the same Fryânô,' as one of the seven immortal lords of Khvanîras.

118:3 See Chap. XXVII, 2.

118:4 See Chap. XXXII, 5.

118:5 Or Narsâe in TD; K20 has Paz. Narêî, but see Chap. XXXI, 3, 5.

118:6 Av. Tusa of Âbân Yt. 53, 58, and an Iranian warrior in the Shâhnâmah.

118:7 Av. Naotara, whose descendants are mentioned in Âbân Yt. 76, 98, Fravardîn Yt. 102, Râm Yt. 35.

118:8 Av. Gaêvani of Fravardîn Yt. 115 is something like this name of one of the Iranian warriors in the Shâhnâmah.

118:9 TD has Pâz. Bairazd. Perhaps it is not a name but a Pâzand corruption of Pahl. aêvarz, 'warrior, trooper' (traditionally); in which case we should have to read 'the warrior who was a causer of strife.'

118:10 So in TD; K20 has 'Ashavand son of Porudakhst' and Dâd. (Reply 89) mentions 'Ashavazang son of Pôrûdakhstôîh' as one of the seven immortal lords of Khvanîras. He is the Av. 'Ashavazdangh the Pourudhâkhstiyan' of Âbân Yt. 72, Fravardîn Yt. 112.

118:11 So in TD, but K20 has 'always.'

119:1 This is not Sâm the grandfather of Rustam, but the Av. Sâma, who appears to have been an ancestor of Keresâspa (see Yas. IX, 30), called Sam, grandfather of Garsâsp, in a passage interpolated in some copies of the Shâhnâmah (compare Chap. XXXI, 26, 27). Here, however, it appears from the Bahman Yast (III, 59, 60) that Keresâspa himself is meant, he being, called Sâma Keresâspa in Fravardîn Yt. 61, 136.

119:2 It can also be read Nihâv or Nîyâg in K20, and Nihâv or Nihân in TD.

119:3 TD has 'as he lay in the midst of the heat.'

119:4 TD has 'and the snow (vafar) has settled (nishast) over him.'

119:5 See Chaps. XXXI, 6, XXXIV, 5.

119:6 See Chap. XII, 31.

119:7 TD has agvar, 'above,' instead of min var, 'from the bed.'

120:1 Or, 'the hottest there, through the very lofty elevation, is not heat.'

120:2 Pers. Âdarbîgân.

120:3 The word var is omitted in K20.

120:4 TD has Pahl. Srûbâk.

120:5 Or it may be read Damakân, but TD has Kamakân. It can hardly be Dâmaghân, as that is a town and district in Khurâsân; Justi also suggests the district of Gamagân in Pârs, and thinks Sruvâ means 'cypress wood,' there being a Salvastân between Shîrâz and Fasâ.

Next: Chapter XXX