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Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at

Arcana Coelestia


And the people murmured against Moses. That this signifies grief from the bitterness of the temptation, is evident from the signification of "murmuring," as being complaint such as there is in temptations, thus grief from the bitterness of the temptation. The temptations which those underwent who were of the Lord's spiritual church after they had been liberated from infestations; and also the temptations which those will undergo who will be of this church, are described by the murmurings of the sons of Israel in the wilderness. And as spiritual temptations are usually carried to despair (n. 1787, 2694, 5279, 5280, 7147, 7166, 8165), therefore by "murmuring" is signified complaint from grief in the temptations (see Exod. 16:2, 3; 27:3; Num. 14:27, 29, 36; 16:11). It is said "against Moses," because it was against the Divine, for by Moses is represented Divine truth (see n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382). [2] As regards the temptations which those underwent who were of the spiritual church, and which those will undergo who will be of this church, be it known that faith cannot possibly be implanted in those who are of the spiritual church except through temptations, thus neither can charity; for in temptations the man is in combat against falsity and evil. These-falsity and evil-flow into the external man from the hells, while good and truth flow in through the internal man from the Lord; thus by virtue of the combat of the internal man with the external, which is called "temptation." And insofar, then, as the external man is reduced to obedience under the internal, so far faith and charity are implanted; for the external or natural of man is the receptacle of truth and good from the internal man. If the receptacle is not accommodated, it does not receive anything which flows in from within; but either rejects, or extinguishes, or stifles it, whence there is no regeneration. Hence it is that there must be temptation in order that the man may be regenerated, which is effected through the implanting of faith and charity, and thus through the formation of a new will and a new understanding. Therefore also the church of the Lord is called "militant" (see what has been said and shown before on this subject, n. 3928, 4249, 4341, 4572, 5356, 6574, 6611, 6657, 7090, 7122, 8159, 8168, 8179, 8273).


Saying, What shall we drink? That this signifies that they could not endure truths because they were undelightful by reason of no affection of them, is evident from the signification of "drinking," as being to be instructed in truths and to receive them, and also to be affected with them, and consequently to appropriate them to oneself (see n. 3069, 3168, 3772, 4017, 4018); here, not to endure them, for the reason that they were undelightful on account of there being no affection of good, which is signified by "the waters being bitter," according to what has been unfolded above (n. 8349). This temptation consists in the fact that they complain and grieve because the truths which had previously been delightful to them, and which thus had made their spiritual life or life of heaven, now seem undelightful to them, insomuch that they can scarcely endure them. [2] The merely natural man would not believe that such a thing could cause any grief, for he thinks, "What is it to me whether truths are delightful or not? If they are undelightful let them be rejected." But the spiritual man has very different sentiments. It is the delight of his life to be instructed in truths, and to be enlightened in such things as belong to his soul, thus to his spiritual life; and therefore when these fail, his spiritual life labors and suffers, and grief and anxiety ensue. The reason is that the affection of good is continually flowing in through the internal man from the Lord, and calling forth the accordant things in the external man which had previously caused the delight of the affection of truth; and when these things are assaulted by the evils of the love of self and of the world, which the man had also previously perceived as delightful, there arises a conflict of delights or of affections, from which springs anxiety, and from this grief and complaint. [3] It shall be briefly told how the case is with the temptation that arises through a failing of truth. The nourishment of the spiritual life is good and truth, as the nourishment of the natural life is food and drink. If good fails, it is as if food fails; and if truth fails, it is as if drink fails. The consequent grief is circumstanced like the grief from hunger and thirst. This comparison is from correspondence, for food corresponds to good, and drink to truth; and as there is a correspondence, food and drink also nourish the body better and more suitably when a man at dinner or at breakfast is at the same time in the delight of conversation with others about such things as he loves, than when he sits at table alone without company. When a man is in this state, the vessels in him that receive the food are constricted; but when he is in the first mentioned state, they are open. Such things are effected by the correspondence of spiritual food and natural food. It is said "the delight of conversation with others about such things as he loves," because everything of this kind has relation to good and truth; for there is nothing in the world which has not relation to both. What a man loves, has relation to the good with him; and what instructs him about good, and thus conjoins itself with it, has relation to the truth.


And he cried unto Jehovah. That this signifies supplication to the Lord from grief, is evident from the signification of "crying," as being imploration (see n. 6801), and also interior lamentation (n. 7782); consequently it also denotes supplication from grief. (That "Jehovah" in the Word denotes the Lord, see n. 8261.)


And Jehovah showed him a piece of wood. That this signifies that the Lord inspired good, is evident from the signification of "showing," when by Jehovah, that is, the Lord, as being to give perception, and as this is effected by means of influx, it denotes to inspire; and from the signification of "wood," as being good (n. 643, 2784, 2812, 3720).


And he cast it into the waters. That this signifies with which He affected the truths, is evident from the signification of "casting wood into the waters," when "wood" denotes good, and "waters" denote truths, as being to affect truths with good. (That "wood" denotes good, see just above, n. 8354; and that "waters" denote truths, n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8349.)


And the waters were made sweet. That this signifies that from this truths were made delightful, is evident from the signification of "sweet," as being what is delightful, for in the spiritual sense "sweet" denotes the sweetness of life, which is one with delight; and from the signification of "waters," as being truths (of which just above, n. 8355). The case herein is thus. That a man is affected with truth, is from good; for good and truth have been conjoined as in a marriage, consequently the one loves the other as consort loves consort. From this also the conjunction of good and of truth is compared in the Word to a "marriage," and the truths and goods which are born from it are called "sons and daughters." From all this it can be seen that the delight of the affection of truth has its cause in no other source than good. This is also evident from experience, for they who are in the good of life, that is, who love God and the neighbor, these also love the truths of faith. Hence it is that so long as good flows in and is received, so long truth appears to be delightful; but as soon as good does not flow in, that is, as soon as evil begins to predominate, and to hold off the influx of good, there is at once felt a want of delight in truth; for truth and evil mutually reject and are averse to each other. From all this it can now be seen why it was commanded that a piece of wood should be cast into the bitter waters; and also why those waters were made sweet by virtue of the piece of wood that was cast into them. These things would never have been commanded by the Divine unless they had signified such things; for the Divine could have rendered those waters sweet without a piece of wood as the means.


There He set for him a statute and a judgment. That this signifies the truth of order then revealed, is evident from the signification of "a statute," as being the external truth of the church; and from the signification of "a judgment," as being the internal truth of the church; consequently "to set for some one a statute and a judgment" denotes to set in order according to truths, consequently to reveal them. That "a statute" denotes the external truth of order, is because every external thing of the church was called "a statute," and every internal truth of order was called "a judgment."


And there He tempted him. That this signifies in respect to temptations in general, is evident from what precedes and what follows. In what precedes, the first temptation in the wilderness was treated of; in what follows, instruction how they must live in order that they may not yield in temptations is treated of.


And He said. That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of "saying," when by Jehovah concerning the truth of order in respect to temptations, as being instruction (see also n. 6879, 6881, 6883, 6891, 7186, 7267, 7304, 7380, 7517, 8127).


If hearing thou wilt hear the voice of Jehovah thy God. That this signifies faith in the Lord's commandments, is evident from the signification of "to hear," as being a noticing, and faith (see n. 3921, 5017, 7216); and from the signification of "the voice of Jehovah," as being that which is declared from the Word, thus the commandment of the Lord (n. 6971).


And wilt do what is right in His eyes. That this signifies a life according to them, is evident from the signification of "doing what is right," as being to live according to the dictate of truth; and from the signification of "in the eyes of Jehovah," as being before the Lord, thus according to His commandments, for the Lord is in His commandments when a man lives according to them; he also is said to be "in the eyes of the Lord" who is in faith in Him. As regards "hearing a voice," this properly signifies obedience (n. 2542, 3869, 5017); but when as here mention is also made of "doing," then "to hear" signifies faith, and "to do" signifies life, as can be seen from the Lord's words in these passages: Everyone that heareth My words, and doeth them, I will compare him to a prudent man; but everyone that heareth My words, but doeth them not, shall be compared to a foolish man (Matt. 7:24, 26). Everyone that cometh unto Me, and heareth My discourses, and doeth them, I will show you to whom he is like (Luke 6:47). The seed that is in the good ground, these are they who in a simple and good heart, hear the word, hold it fast, and bear fruit in patience (Luke 8:15). Jesus said, My mother and My brethren are these, who hear the word of God and do it (Luke 8:21). In these passages "to hear" signifies to perceive, to understand, and to have faith; and "to do" signifies to live according to these. But where "hearing" is spoken of, and not at the same time "doing," then "hearing" signifies faith in will and act, thus obedience. The reason is that what is heard passes into the internal sight, which is the understanding, and is there laid hold of by the will, and passes as by a circuit into act. Consequently in the word "hear," there is naturally the signification of obedience, as we speak of "hearing" or "hearkening to" anyone (see n. 4652-4660).


And wilt hearken to His commandments. That this signifies obedience and a life according to the goods of faith, which are the interior things of the church, is evident from the signification of "to hearken," as being obedience and life; and from the signification of "commandments," as being the internal truths of the Word (see n. 3382); thus the truths of faith, which are the interior things of the church; these are called the "goods of faith," for they are wills.


And wilt keep all His statutes. That this signifies a life according to the truths of faith, which are the exterior things of the church, is evident from the signification of "keeping," as also being to live; and from the signification of "statutes," as being the external truths of the Word (of which, n. 3382, 8357); thus the truths of faith which are the exterior things of the church. In many passages in the Word mention is made of "statutes" and "commandments," and when one is mentioned together with the other, then "statute" signifies what is external of the church, and "commandment" what is internal of it.


All the disease that I have put on the Egyptians, I will not put upon thee. That this signifies that they are to be withheld from the evils that pertain to those who are in faith separate and in a life of evil, is evident from the signification of "disease," as being evil (of which below); from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who are in faith separate and in a life of evil (see n. 7097, 7317, 7926, 8148); and from the signification of "not to put upon thee," when said of disease, by which evil is signified, as being that they are to be withheld from evil; for Jehovah, that is, the Lord, does not take away evil; but withholds man from it, and keeps him in good (n. 929, 1581, 2256, 2406, 4564, 8206). From this it is that by "not to put disease upon them" is signified that they are to be withheld from evils. [2] That "disease" denotes evil, is because in the internal sense are signified such things as affect the spiritual life. The diseases which affect this life are evils, and are called cupidities and concupiscences. Faith and charity make the spiritual life. This life sickens when falsity takes the place of the truth which is of faith, and evil takes the place of the good which is of charity; for these bring this life unto death, which is called spiritual death, and is damnation, as diseases bring the natural life unto its death. Hence it is that by "disease" is signified in the internal sense evil; and by "the diseases of the Egyptians," the evils into which those cast themselves who had been in faith separate and in a life of evil, whereby they had infested the upright, which evils have been treated of in what precedes, where the plagues in Egypt were treated of. [3] Evils are also meant by "diseases" in other passages in the Word, as in Moses: If thou wilt keep the commandments, and the statutes, and the judgments, which I command thee this day, Jehovah will remove from thee all sickness, and will not put upon thee all the evil weaknesses of Egypt, which thou hast known; but will give them upon thy haters (Deut. 7:11, 15). If thou wilt not obey the voice of Jehovah thy God, by keeping to do all His commandments and His statutes, Jehovah will send on thee the curse, the disquiet, and the rebuke, in every putting forth of thy hand which thou doest, until thou be destroyed, because of the wickedness of thy works, whereby thou hast forsaken Me. Jehovah shall make the pestilence cleave unto thee, until He has consumed thee from upon the land; Jehovah shall smite thee with consumption, and with a hot fever, and with a burning fever, and with a raging fever, and with drought, and with blasting, and with jaundice, which shall pursue thee until thou perish: Jehovah shall smite thee with the ulcer of Egypt, and with the hemorrhoids, and with the scab, and with the itch, that thou canst not be healed. Jehovah shall smite thee with fury, and with blindness, and with amazement of heart. Thou shalt become mad from the look of thine eyes. Jehovah shall smite thee with a sore ulcer, upon the knees, and upon the thighs, whereof thou canst not be healed, from the sole of the foot unto the crown of thy head. He will throw back on thee all the weakness of Egypt, also every disease, and every plague, which is not written in the book of this law. Jehovah shall give thee a trembling heart, consumption of eyes, and grief of soul (Deut. 28:15, 20-22, 27, 28, 34, 35, 60, 61, 65). By all the diseases here named are signified spiritual diseases, which are evils destroying the life of the will of good, and falsities destroying the life of the understanding of truth; in a word, destroying the spiritual life which is of faith and charity. Moreover natural diseases correspond to such things, for every disease in the human race is from this source, because from sin (n. 5712, 5726). Moreover every disease corresponds to its own evil; the reason is that everything of man's life is from the spiritual world; and therefore if his spiritual life sickens, evil is derived therefrom into the natural life also, and becomes a disease there. (See what has been said from experience about the correspondence of diseases with evils, n. 5711-5727.) [4] Like things are signified by "diseases" in other passages, as in Moses: Ye shall worship Jehovah your God, that He may bless thy bread, and thy waters; and I will take disease away from the midst of thee (Exod. 23:25). If ye shall reject My statutes, and if your soul loathe My judgments, so that ye will not do all My commandments, while ye make My covenant vain, I will enjoin terror upon you, with consumption, and with burning fever, that shall consume the eyes, and torment the soul (Lev. 26:15, 16); signifying the decrease of truth, and the increase of falsity; "burning fever" denotes the cupidity of evil. Further in these passages: Wherefore will ye add a going back? the whole head is diseased, and the whole heart faint. From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it; but wound, and scar, and flesh blow, not pressed out, and not bandaged, and not mollified with oil (Isa. 1:5, 6); that here by "disease," "wound," "scar," and "blow," are meant sins, is hidden from no one. Woe to the shepherds of Israel, the feeble sheep have ye not strengthened, the sick one have ye not healed, and the broken one have ye not bandaged (Ezek. 34:2, 4). Mine iniquities are gone over my head, my wounds have putrefied, they have consumed away, because of my foolishness, for my bowels are filled with burning, and there is no soundness in my flesh (Ps. 38:4, 5, 7). [5] As by "diseases" are signified the corruptions and evils of spiritual life, therefore by the various kinds of diseases are signified also the various kinds of corruptions and evils of that life. (That by "pestilence" is signified the vastation of good and truth, see n. 7102, 7505; and by "leprosy," the profanation of truth, n. 6963.) That in general by "diseases" are signified sins, can also be seen in Isaiah: A man of sorrows, and known of disease; whence is as it were a hiding of faces from Him. He was despised, and we esteemed Him not: nevertheless He hath borne our diseases, and hath carried our griefs, and through His wounds health hath been given us (53:3-5); speaking of the Lord. [6] As diseases represented the hurtful and evil things of the spiritual life, therefore by the diseases which the Lord healed is signified liberation from various kinds of evil and falsity which infested the church and the human race, and which would have led to spiritual death. For Divine miracles are distinguished from other miracles by the fact that they involve and have regard to states of the church and of the heavenly kingdom. Therefore the Lord's miracles consisted chiefly in the healing of diseases. This is meant by the Lord's words to the disciples sent by John: Tell John the things which ye hear and see: the blind see, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead rise again, and the poor hear the gospel (Matt. 11:4, 5). Hence it is that it is so often said that the Lord "healed all disease and weakness" (Matt. 4:23; 9:35; 14:14, 35, 36; Luke 4:40; 5:15; 6:17; 7:21; Mark 1:32-34; 3:10).


For I am Jehovah thy healer. That this signifies that the Lord alone preserves from evils, is evident from the signification of "to heal," as being to cure, and also to preserve from evils, for when "diseases" signify evils, "to heal" signifies a remedy and preservation from them, as also frequently in the Word, thus: I kill, and I make alive; I smite and I heal (Deut. 32:39). Heal me, O Jehovah, that I may be healed; save me that I may be saved (Jer. 17:14). I will make healing to go up unto thee, and I will heal thee of thy plagues (Jer. 30:17). Thou hast turned all his bed in his disease; I said, O Jehovah, have compassion on me: heal my soul because I have sinned to Thee (Ps. 41:3, 4). Besides in many other passages, as Isa. 6:10; 53:5; 57:18, 19; Jer. 3:22; 17:14; Hosea 6:1; 7:1; 11:3; 14:4; Zech. 11:16; Ps. 30:2; and elsewhere. And as "healing" has this signification, the Lord also calls Himself a "physician": Those who are strong have no need of a physician, but those who are ill; I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance (Matt. 9:12, 13; Mark 2:17; Luke 5:31, 32).


Verse 27. And they came to Elim, and there were twelve springs of waters there, and seventy palm trees; and they encamped there by the waters. "And they came to Elim," signifies a state of enlightenment and of affection, thus of consolation after temptation; "and there were twelve springs of waters there," signifies that they had truths there in all abundance; "and seventy palm-trees," signifies the goods of truth in like manner; "and they encamped there by the waters," signifies that after temptation the truths of faith were set in order by means of the good of love.


And they came to Elim. That this signifies a state of enlightenment and of affection, thus of consolation after temptation, is evident from the signification of "Elim," as involving and signifying the state and the quality of the thing that is treated of; like all the other places to which the sons of Israel came (see n. 2643, 3422, 4298, 4442); here the state after temptation, namely, a state of enlightenment and of affection, thus of consolation. For after all spiritual temptation there come enlightenment and affection, thus pleasantness and delight; pleasantness from enlightenment through truth, and delight from the affection of good. [2] That consolation follows after temptations, see n. 4572, 5246, 5628, 6829; the reason is that by means of temptations truths and goods are implanted and are conjoined, consequently the man as to his spirit is introduced interiorly into heaven, and to the heavenly societies with which he had previously been associated. When the temptation is ended, communication with heaven is opened, which had previously been partly closed, consequently enlightenment and affection, and consequently pleasantness and delight; for then the angels with whom communication is given, flow in by means of truth, and by means of good. Enlightenment by means of truth, and the consequent pleasantness, are signified by the "twelve springs of waters," for "springs" signify truths; the affection of truth from good, and the consequent delight, are signified by the "seventy palm-trees" (of which below).


And there were twelve springs of waters there. That this signifies that they had truths there in all abundance, is evident from the signification of "twelve," as being all things in the complex (see n. 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913, 7973), thus all abundance; and from the signification of "springs," as being truths of faith (of which, n. 2702, 3096, 3424, 4861). Hence it is evident that by "twelve springs of waters" are signified truths in all abundance; from which it follows that by these words are also signified enlightenment and the consequent pleasantness; for he who has truths in all abundance has also enlightenment, and he who has enlightenment, provided he longs for truth from affection, has pleasantness.


And seventy palm-trees. That this signifies the goods of truth in like manner, that is, in all abundance, is evident from the signification of "seventy," as being all things in the complex, in like manner as "twelve" (see n. 7973); and from the signification of "palm-trees," as being the goods of the spiritual church, which are the goods of truth; and because by "palm-trees" are signified goods, by them is also signified the affection of good, and the consequent delight, for all delight is from the affection of good. As this was signified by "palm-trees," therefore also palm-trees were employed in holy festivities, as in the feast of tabernacles, according to these words in Moses: Ye shall take for you in the first day the fruit of a tree of honor, spathes of palm-trees, and a branch of a dense tree, and willows of the torrent; and ye shall be glad before Jehovah your God seven days (Lev. 23:40); by "the fruit of a tree of honor," is signified celestial good; by "palm-trees," spiritual good, or the good of truth; by "a branch of a dense tree," the truth of memory-knowledge; and by "willows of the torrent," the lowest truths of the natural; thus by these four are signified all goods and truths in their order. [2] That "palm-trees" signified a holy festivity which is from good, is evident also from these words in the following passages: A great crowd that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming into Jerusalem, took boughs of palm trees, and went forth to meet Him, and cried out, Hosanna: Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel (John 12:12, 13). I saw, when behold a great crowd standing before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, and palms in their hands (Rev. 7:9). The vine hath dried up, and the fig-tree languisheth, the pomegranate, and also the palm-tree, all joy hath dried up from the sons of man (Joel 1:12). The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon (Ps. 92:12); here "palm-tree" denotes good; and "cedar" truth. [3] As a "palm-tree" signifies good, it also signifies wisdom, for wisdom is of good. This was signified by the palm-trees which together with the cherubs and flowers were carved upon the walls of the temple; for "the temple" signified the Lord Himself, and in the representative sense, heaven (n. 2777, 3720). The "cherubs," the "palm-trees," and the "flowers upon the walls" signified Providence, wisdom, and intelligence, which are from the Lord, thus all things which are of heaven. That these were carved on the walls of the temple, is evident in the first book of Kings: Solomon carved all the walls of the house round about with openings of carvings of cherubs and palm-trees, and openings of flowers; and upon the two doors of woods of oil he carved carvings of cherubs and of palm-trees, and of openings of flowers, and overlaid them with gold, so that he overspread the gold upon the cherubs, and upon the palm-trees (6:29, 32); by these carvings was represented the state of heaven; by the "cherubs," the Providence of the Lord, thus that from Him are all things (that cherubs denote Providence, see n. 308); by "palm-trees," wisdom, which is of good from the Lord; and by "flowers," intelligence, which is of truth from Him; by the "gold" with which the cherubs and palm-trees were overlaid, was signified the good of love which reigns universally in the heavens. (That "gold" denotes the good of love, see n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658.) Therefore also where the new temple is treated of in Ezekiel, by which is signified the heaven of the Lord, it is said that cherubs and palm-trees were upon the walls everywhere (41:17, 18, 20, 25, 26).


And they encamped there by the waters. That this signifies that after temptation the truths of faith were set in order by means of the good of love, is evident from the signification of "encamping," as being the setting in order of truth and good (n. 8103, 8130, 8131, 8155); and from the signification of "waters," as being truths of faith (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668). That by the "encamping there by the waters" is signified that the truths of faith were set in order by means of the good of love, is because by a "camp" are signified truths and goods (n. 8193, 8196); and by "encamping" is signified the setting in order of them; and by "by the waters," is signified according to the truths which are from the Divine. It is said "by means of the good of love," because all setting in order of truths is effected by means of the good of love; for it is under and according to good that truths apply themselves, and make with good as it were one body. It is said "according to the image of the man in whom they are," because the image of a man's spirit-which is the man himself, for it is the inward man-is precisely according to the setting in order of the truths from good with him. Hence it is that when angels are made present, a sphere of the good of love pours out from them, and affects those who are present, and truths of faith shine forth from their faces. In the spiritual world such things appear, and are openly perceived. It is said that this setting in order is effected after temptation, because goods and truths are implanted in man by means of temptations, but are not set in order until afterward; for the state of temptation is turbulent, but the state after temptation is tranquil. The setting in order is effected in tranquility. On this account also temptations are followed by what is pleasant by reason of enlightenment from truth, and by what is delightful by reason of the affection of good (of which fact see just above, n. 8367).


CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE SPIRITS AND INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH JUPITER. I have been further informed by the spirits who are from that earth about various things that concern its inhabitants, such as their walk, their food, their homes, and the like. As regards their walk, they do not walk erect like the inhabitants of this and of many other earths, nor do they creep in the manner of animals, but when they are walking they assist themselves with the palms of their hands, and alternately half raise themselves on their feet, and also at every third step turn the face to the side and behind them, and also at the same time bend the body a little, which is done rapidly. For among them it is unbecoming to be looked at by others except in the face.


When they are walking in this way they always keep the face forward, and thus look before them; and never downward, or to the earth. To look downward they call damnable. Only the lowest among them do this, who, unless they accustom themselves to look forward, are banished from society.


But when they sit, they appear like the men of our earth, erect as to the upper part of the body; but they sit with their feet crossed. They are extremely careful, not only when they walk, but also when they sit, not to be looked at behind, but in the face. Moreover they are very willing for their faces to be seen, because from this appears their mind; for they never show a face at variance with their mind; this being impossible. From this also those who are present know clearly what mind they have toward them, which they do not hide; and especially whether a seeming friendship is sincere, or pretended.


These things have been shown me by their spirits, and have been confirmed by their angels. Consequently also their spirits are not seen walking erect like others; but almost like persons swimming in water, helping themselves forward with their hands, and by turns looking around them.


They who live in their warm zones go naked, but with a covering round the loins; nor are they ashamed of their nakedness, for their minds are chaste; and they love none except their consorts, and abhor adulteries. They were very much surprised that when the spirits of our earth saw them walking in this way, and likewise naked, they ridiculed them, and also had lascivious thoughts; and that they paid no attention whatever to their celestial life; but only to such things. They said that this is a sign that they care more for bodily and earthly things than for heavenly ones; and that indecencies possess their minds. They were told that nakedness does not cause either shame or scandal to those who live in chastity, and in a state of innocence; but only to those who live in lasciviousness and shamelessness.


When the inhabitants of that earth are lying in bed, they turn their face forward, or into the chamber; but not backward, or to the wall. Their spirits told me this, and stated the reason: that they believe that in this way they turn their face to the Lord, but if backward, that they would turn it away. A similar thing had sometimes happened to me, when I was in bed, but I had not previously known the source of it.


They take delight in prolonged eating, not so much for the enjoyment of the food, as for that of conversation at that time. When they sit at table, they do not sit upon chairs or benches, nor upon raised couches of grass, nor upon the grassy turf; but upon the leaves of a certain tree. They were not willing to tell of what tree the leaves were, but when I mentioned several by guess, and at last mentioned the leaves of the fig-tree, they assented.


They said moreover that they do not prepare their food with reference to the taste, but chiefly with reference to use; adding that the food which is useful is to them savory. There was a discourse among the spirits on this subject, and it was said that this is advantageous for man, because in this way he has at heart a sound mind in a sound body; otherwise than with those with whom the taste rules, for then the body sickens, at the least is inwardly languid, and consequently also the mind, because this behaves according to the state of the recipient parts that belong to the body, just as the sight is according to the state of the eye. Hence the insanity of placing all the delight of life, and what they call the summum bonum, in luxury and pleasure. From this also comes corpulence in matters of thought and judgment; and quickness in the things of the body and the world. This results in the man having a likeness to a brute animal, with which also such persons do not unsuitably com-pare themselves.


Their dwellings were also shown me. They are low, and of wood; but within they are lined with bark or rind of a pale azure, and around and above dotted as with little stars, in the image of the sky; for they desire to give to the interior of their houses the likeness of the visible sky with its stars. The reason is that they believe the abodes of the angels to be there. Besides this, they have tents, which are rounded at the top, and stretched out long, also dotted within with little stars on an azure ground. Into these they betake themselves in the daytime, to prevent their faces from being injured by the heat of the sun, for they take very great care of the face, because they do not consider it to be the body. They bestow great care in forming and cleaning these tents; and they also have their meals in them.


They care little about worldly things, for the families live together, nor do they seek for more than to be fed and housed. What is beyond these, not being for the necessaries of life, they do not class among the utilities. Their greatest care is the education of their little children, whom they love most tenderly.


When the spirits of Jupiter saw the horses of this earth, these horses appeared to me smaller than usual, although they were quite stout and high. This was from the idea of the spirits of that earth about their own horses. They said that they also have similar horses, but much larger, and that they are wild, or in the forests; and that when they are seen, they terrify them, although they are harmless. They added that a fear of horses is innate, or natural to them. This led to reflection on the cause of this fear. For in the spiritual world a horse represents the understanding formed from memory-knowledges (n. 2760-2762, 6534); and as they fear to cultivate the understanding by means of the sciences, it causes an influx of fear. That they do not care for the memory-knowledges that pertain to human erudition, will be seen in what follows.


The spirits of Jupiter sometimes had emissaries or subjects with me, for the sake of communication, and this for a rather long time. From this it was given me to know their native quality, and that they are wholly different from the spirits of our earth. When they were with me, they were often infested by the spirits of our earth, but they did not care about it. They merely told it to the society of their spirits by whom they had been sent out; and while they were telling it, they withdrew a little from me.


Once also it was permitted evil spirits of our earth to act by their evil arts, and to infest the spirits of Jupiter who were with me. The latter endured them for a considerable time, but finally confessed that they could do so no longer; and that they believed that there could not possibly be worse spirits, for they perverted their imagination and also their thought in such a manner that they seemed to themselves to be as it were bound, and not to be extricated from this except by Divine aid. While I was reading in the Word something concerning our Savior's Passion, certain European spirits injected direful objections, with intent to mislead the spirits of Jupiter. Inquiry was made who these spirits were, and what they had been in the world, and it was found that some of them had been preachers, not unlike those who call themselves of the Society of the Lord, or Jesuits, and that then by preaching about the Lord's Passion they could move the common people to tears. The cause was told them, namely, that in the world they thought in one way and spoke in another; thus that they entertained one opinion in their hearts, and expressed another with their mouth; but that now they are not allowed to speak in this fraudulent manner, for when they become spirits they are compelled to speak exactly as they think. The spirits of Jupiter were utterly astounded that there could be with man such variance of the interiors and exteriors, namely that he can speak in one way, and think in a wholly different way, which to them is impossible.


The spirits of Jupiter have a sweet approach, and a prudent discourse. They ponder what they say. They derive this from their life in the world; for there, if they do or say anything contrary to order, they are reduced by others in various ways to repentance; and those who are stubborn, by chastisement.


They observed in my thoughts a desire to publish these things in our earth. This they did not wish, because they are forbidden to publish what is said to them by their spirits. They wondered that such things could be published merely by means of writings; but they were then informed about printing, and also about the Word, and likewise about the teachings of the church in our earth; and they were told that the Word and the teachings so stand forth in a published form, and in this way are learned.


A continuation concerning the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Jupiter will be found at the end of the following chapter. [END OF THE SIXTH PART OF THE ORIGINAL LATIN WORK]


CHAPTER 16. THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY. He who wishes to be saved must confess his sins and do repentance.


To confess sins is to become thoroughly acquainted with evils, to see them in oneself, to acknowledge them, to regard oneself as guilty, and to condemn oneself on account of them. When this is done before God, it is to confess sins.


To do repentance is after one has thus confessed his sins and from a humble heart has made supplication for their forgiveness, to desist from them and to lead a new life according to the commands of faith.


He who merely acknowledges that he is a sinner like all others, and who regards himself as guilty of all evils, and does not examine himself-that is, see his sins-does indeed make confession, but not the confession of repentance, for he lives afterward as he had done before.


He who leads a life of faith does repentance daily; for he reflects upon the evils that are in him, acknowledges them, guards himself against them, and supplicates the Lord for aid. For from himself man is continually falling, but is continually being raised up by the Lord. He falls from himself when he thinks what is evil with desire; and he is raised up by the Lord when he resists evil, and consequently does not do it. Such is the state with all who are in good; but they who are in evil are continually falling, and also are continually being uplifted by the Lord; but this to prevent them from falling into the most grievous hell of all, whither from themselves they incline with all their might: thus in truth uplifting them into a milder hell.


The repentance that is done in a state of freedom avails; but that which is done in a state of compulsion avails not. A state of compulsion is a state of sickness, a state of dejection of mind from misfortune, a state of imminent death; in a word, every state of fear which takes away the use of sound reason. When an evil man who in a state of compulsion promises repentance and also does what is good, comes into a state of freedom, he returns into his former life of evil. The case is otherwise with a good man, such states being to him states of temptation in which he conquers.


Repentance of the mouth and not of the life is not repentance. Sins are not forgiven through repentance of the mouth, but through repentance of the life. Sins are continually being forgiven man by the Lord, for He is mercy itself; but sins adhere to the man, however much he may suppose that they have been forgiven, nor are they removed from him except through a life according to the commands of faith. So far as he lives according to these commands, so far his sins are removed; and so far as they are removed, so far they have been forgiven. For by the Lord man is withheld from evil, and is held in good; and he is so far able to be withheld from evil in the other life, as in the life of the body he has resisted evil; and he is so far able to be held in good then, as in the life of the body he has done what is good from affection. This shows what the forgiveness of sins is, and whence it is. He who believes that sins are forgiven in any other way, is much mistaken.


After a man has examined himself, and has acknowledged his sins, and has done repentance, he must remain constant in good up to the end of life. If however he afterward falls back into his former life of evil, and embraces it, he commits profanation, for he then conjoins evil with good, and consequently his latter state becomes worse than his former one, according to the Lord's words: When the unclean spirit goeth out of a man he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, but findeth none; then he saith, I will return into my house whence I came out; and when he is come, and findeth it empty, and swept, and garnished for him, then goeth he, and joineth to himself seven other spirits worse than himself, and having entered in they dwell there; and the last things of the man become worse than the first (Matt. 12:43-45). EXODUS 16 1. And they journeyed from Elim, and all the assemblage of the sons of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, in the fifteenth day of the second month of their going out of the land of Egypt. 2. And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron in the wilderness. 3. And the sons of Israel said unto them, Oh that we had died by the hand of Jehovah in the land of Egypt, when we sat by the flesh-pot, when we did eat bread to satiety! for ye have brought us forth unto this wilderness, to kill this whole congregation with hunger. 4. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Behold I am making it rain bread for you from heaven, and the people shall go out, and they shall gather the word of a day in its day, in order that I may try them, whether they will walk in My law, or not. 5. And it shall be in the sixth day, that they shall prepare that which they have brought, and there shall be double over what they shall gather day by day. 6. And Moses and Aaron said unto all the sons of Israel, In the evening, then ye shall know that Jehovah hath brought you out from the land of Egypt. 7. And in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of Jehovah, in that He heareth your murmurings against Jehovah; and what are we, that ye murmur against us? 8. And Moses said, In that Jehovah shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to satiety; in that Jehovah heareth your murmurings with which ye murmur against Him: what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against Jehovah. 9. And Moses said unto Aaron, Say unto all the assemblage of the sons of Israel, Come ye near before Jehovah, for He hath heard your murmurings. 10. And it was, as Aaron spake unto the whole assemblage of the sons of Israel, that they looked back unto the wilderness, and behold the glory of Jehovah was seen in the cloud. 11. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, 12. I have heard the murmurings of the sons of Israel; speak unto them, saying, Between the evenings ye shall eat flesh, and in the morning ye shall be sated with bread; and ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God. 13. And it was in the evening that the quail came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning there was a deposit of dew round about the camp. 14. And the deposit of dew went up, and behold upon the faces of the wilderness a small round thing, small as the hoar frost upon the earth. 15. And the sons of Israel saw, and they said a man to his brother, What is this [Man hoc]? for they knew not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which Jehovah hath given you to eat. 16. This is the word that Jehovah hath commanded, Gather ye of it everyone according to the mouth of his eating, an omer a head, according to the number of your souls, take ye everyone for him who is in his tent. 17. And the sons of Israel did so, and they gathered, collecting for the numerous and the few. 18. And they measured it with the omer, and it made nothing over for the numerous; and for the few there was no lack; they gathered everyone according to his eating. 19. And Moses said unto them, Let no one make a residue of it till the morning. 20. And they heard not unto Moses; and men made a residue of it until the morning, and it bred worms and stank, and Moses was angry with them. 21. And they gathered it morning by morning, everyone according to the mouth of his eating; and the sun grew hot, and it melted. 22. And it was that on the sixth day they gathered bread double, two omers for each one; and all the princes of the assemblage came and told Moses. 23. And he said unto them, This is what Jehovah spake, A rest, a Sabbath holy to Jehovah, is the morrow; what ye will bake, bake ye; and what ye will boil, boil ye; and all that is left over, this lay ye by for you to keep until the morning. 24. And they laid it by till the morning, as Moses commanded, and it did not stink, and the worm was not in it. 25. And Moses said, Eat ye this today, because today is a Sabbath to Jehovah, today ye shall not find it in the field. 26. Six days ye shall gather it, and on the seventh day is the Sabbath, it shall not be in it. 27. And it was on the seventh day there went out some of the people for to gather, and they found none. 28. And Jehovah said unto Moses, How long do ye refuse to keep My commandments and My laws? 29. See ye, because Jehovah hath given you the Sabbath, therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; rest ye everyone in his place, let no one go forth from his place on the seventh day. 30. And the people rested on the seventh day. 31. And the house of Israel called the name of it Manna; and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like that of a cake in honey. 32. And Moses said, This is the word which Jehovah hath commanded, Fill an omer with it to be kept for your generations, to the end that they may see the bread wherewith I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt. 33. And Moses said unto Aaron, Take an urn, and put the omerful of manna therein, and lay it up before Jehovah, to be kept for your generations. 34. As Jehovah commanded Moses, and Aaron laid it up before the Testimony to be kept. 35. And the sons of Israel did eat the manna forty years, until they came to a land inhabited; they did eat the manna until they came unto the border of the land of Canaan. 36. And an omer is the tenth part of an ephah.


THE CONTENTS. The preceding chapter treated of the second temptation of those who were of the spiritual church, which was from truth being perceived as undelightful. In this chapter in the internal sense a third temptation is treated of, which is from the lack of good. By the lack of bread and of flesh, at which the sons of Israel murmured, is signified a lack of good. Consolation after temptation is signified and described by the manna which they received, and by the quail. Manna denotes spiritual good. That this was given to them by the Lord continually, and without any care and aid of theirs, is signified by their receiving the manna daily, and by the worm breeding in it if they gathered more.


THE INTERNAL SENSE Verse 1. And they journeyed from Elim, and all the assemblage of the sons of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, in the fifteenth day of the second month of their going out of the land of Egypt. "And they journeyed from Elim," signifies what is successive; "and all the assemblage of the sons of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin," signifies unto another state of temptation; "which is between Elim and Sinai," signifies what is continuous and its quality; "In the fifteenth day of the second month," signifies the state relatively; "of their going out of the land of Egypt," signifies to their state when they were first liberated from infestations.


And they journeyed from Elim. That this signifies what is successive, is evident from the signification of "journeying," as being what is successive and continuous (see n. 4375, 4554, 4585, 5996, 8181, 8345); and from the signification of "Elim," as being a state of consolation after temptation (n. 8367), consequently by "they journeyed from Elim," is signified what is successive of life in respect to states of temptations. For when those who are of the spiritual church are undergoing temptations, they are brought from one temptation into another. This is the successive that is here signified by "journeying." That "journeying" signifies what is successive of life, is because there are no spaces, as there are no times, in the other life; but states instead of them (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381). Consequently movements do not signify movements, nor journeyings, journeyings; but changes and successions of states.


And all the assemblage of the sons of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin. That this signifies unto another state of temptation, is evident from the signification of "coming," as being the abode of the successive that is signified by "journeying" (see n. 8397); from the signification of "the assemblage of the sons of Israel," as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 7843); from the signification of "the wilderness," as being a state of undergoing temptations (see n. 8098); and from the signification of "Sin," as being the quality of this state; for names include the whole quality of the state of the thing treated of, as has been abundantly shown above. From the temptation which is signified by the murmuring on account of the lack of bread and flesh, and from the consolation afterward which is signified by the manna and the quail, it is evident what "Sin" signifies, namely, the good which is from truth. Consequently "Sin," which was a city of Egypt, and from which the wilderness of Sin took its name, in the opposite sense signifies the evil which is from falsity, in Ezekiel: I will pour out My wrath upon Sin, the strength of Egypt; and I will cut off the multitude of No; and I will set a fire in Egypt, grieving Sin shall grieve, and No shall be for a breaking through, and Noph for the enemies daily; the young men of Aven and of Pi-beseth shall fall by the sword, and these shall go into captivity; and in Tehaphnehes the day shall be darkened, when I shall break there the yokes of Egypt (30:15-18); [2] here are treated of those who are in memory-knowledges, and hatch therefrom falsities from which are evils; "Egypt" here denotes memory-knowledge; "Sin," the evil which is from falsity; and "No," the falsity from which is evil. That a deeper sense lies concealed here than that which stands forth in the letter, can be seen by everyone from this consideration alone-that the Word is Divine, and that, unless a deeper sense were in it, there would be scarcely any sense that can be apprehended, still less a sense containing what is holy. Hence it is very manifest that the names in the Word denote things, and that from them there results a general sense that is worthy of the Word which is from Jehovah. He who acknowledges the Word to be Divine cannot possibly deny this, provided he is willing to think from reason, or to form conclusions from an understanding that is for a while enlightened.


Which is between Elim and Sinai. That this signifies what is continuous and its quality, is evident from the signification of "Elim," and from the signification of "Sinai," from which it is clear what that which is "between" signifies. For "Elim," from the fountains and palm-trees which were there, signifies the truth and good that belong to consolation after temptation (see the last verse of the preceding chapter); and "Sinai," from the law which was there promulgated, signifies good and the derivative truth; consequently what is continuous and the quality that is signified by "Sin," are the good that is from truth. The good that is from truth is the good that is in the spiritual man before regeneration, for he then does good from truth, that is, because it has been so commanded, consequently from obedience; whereas the good from which is truth is the good which is in the spiritual man after regeneration, for he then does good from affection. The former good is signified by "Sin," the latter by "Sinai."


In the fifteenth day of the second month. That this signifies the state relatively, is evident from the signification of the number "fifteen," from the signification of "day," and from the signification of "month." By "month" is signified the end of a former state and the beginning of the following state, thus a new state (see n. 3814); by "day" is signified state in general (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 7680); and by "fifteenth" is signified what is new, for by "fourteen days," or "two weeks," is signified an entire period, or a state from its beginning to its end (n. 728, 2044, 3845); consequently by "fifteen" is signified what is new, here what is new in life, which is signified by the manna that they received from heaven; for "manna" denotes the good of truth, which is the life of the spiritual man. For the like is signified by "fifteen" as by "eight," because the eighth day is the first day of the following week. (That "eighth" denotes any beginning, thus what is new as distinguished from what was before, see n. 2044, 2866; and that all numbers in the Word signify things, n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495, 4670, 5265, 6175.)

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