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Arcana Coelestia, by Emanuel Swedenborg, [1749-56], tr. by John F. Potts [1905-10], at

Arcana Coelestia


And it came to pass about three months after. That this signifies a new state, is evident from the signification of "three" as being what is complete, and hence the last and the first together, or the end and the beginning together (see n. 1825, 2788, 4495); and from the signification of "month" as being state (n. 3814). For in the internal sense all periods of time signify states, as hour, day, week, month, year, age; and also the lesser divisions of time, as noon, evening, night, and morning, which are times of the day; and as summer, autumn, winter, and spring, which are times of the year; and also the several periods of life, as infancy and childhood, youth, adult age, and old age; all of which times, with others, signify states. What states are may be seen above (n. 4850). [2] That times signify states is because times do not exist in the other life. The progression of the life of spirits and angels indeed appears as in time; but they have no thought from times, as men in the world have; their thought is from states of the life, and this without notion of times. The reason of this is that the progressions of their life are not distinguished into different ages, for there they do not grow old, and there are no days or years, because their sun, which is the Lord, is always rising and never sets. Hence no notion of time enters their thoughts, but only a notion of state and its progressions - notions being taken from the things that are and exist before the senses. [3] These things must needs seem paradoxical, but only for the reason that man in every idea of his thought has somewhat adjoined from time and space. From this source are his memory and recollection, and also his lower thought, the ideas of which are called material. But that memory out of which comes such ideas is quiescent in the other life. They who are in that life are in interior memory, and in the ideas of its thought; and thought from this latter memory has not times and spaces adjoined to it, but states and their progressions instead. Hence also it is that they correspond, and in consequence of such correspondence times in the Word signify states. (That man has an exterior memory which is proper to him in the body, and also an interior memory which is proper to his spirit, may be seen above, n. 2469-2494.) [4] That by "about three months after" is signified a new state, is because by "months," into which also times in the world are distinguished, is signified state, and by "three" is signified the last and the first together, or the end and the beginning together, as said above. Because in the spiritual world there is a continual progression of states from one into another, and consequently in the last or end of every state there is a first or beginning, hence what is continuous, therefore by the words "about three months after" is signified a new state. It is similar also in the church, which is the spiritual world or the Lord's kingdom on earth, the last of the church with one nation being always the first of the church with another. As the last is thus continued into the first, it is several times said of the Lord that He is the Last and the First (as in Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; Rev. 21:6; 22:13); and thereby in the relative sense is signified what is perpetual, and in the supreme sense what is eternal.


And it was told Judah. That this signifies communication, is evident from the signification of "being told," as being communication, of which above (n. 4856).


Saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot. That this signifies perception then that it is false that anything conjugial exists between them, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historic parts of the Word, as being perception, of which above (n. 4892); from the signification of "playing the harlot," as being falsity (n. 2466, 2729, 3399, 4865); from the representation of Tamar, as being the internal of the representative church, of which also above (n. 4864); and from the signification of "daughter-in-law" as being the truth of the church (n. 4843, 4869). Hence by the words "saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot" is signified perception then that it is false that anything conjugial exists between them. How these things stand in the series may be seen above (n. 4864-4866), namely, that the Jewish nation from their religiosity perceived the internal of the church simply as a harlot, and its preaching and consequent life simply as whoredom. For they who are in the external alone without the internal do not otherwise regard the internal of the church, since they call that false which is true, and that true which is false. The reason is that no one can see from the external alone whether a thing be false or true, but only from the internal. There must be an internal sight which shall judge of those things which are of external sight, and in order to do this the internal sight must be wholly in the light of heaven; and it is not in the light of heaven unless it is in faith in the Lord, and from this faith reads the Word. [2] That the Jewish nation were in the external without the internal, and therefore believed truth to be falsity, and falsity truth, is evident from their teaching that it was allowable to hate an enemy; and also from their life in that they hated all who were not of their religiosity. They even believed that they were pleasing and serving Jehovah when they treated the Gentiles with barbarity and cruelty, exposing their bodies after they had been slain to be devoured by birds and wild beasts, cutting them in two with saws while alive, lacerating them with harrows and axes of iron, and making them pass through the brick-kiln (2 Sam. 12:31). Moreover, it was in accordance with their teachings to treat in almost the same way a companion who for any cause was declared an enemy. Thus it is plainly evident that there was nothing internal in their religiosity. If anyone had then said to them that such things are contrary to the internal of the church, they would have replied that this was false. That they were merely in externals, were wholly ignorant of what the internal is, and led a life contrary to the internal, is plain also from what the Lord teaches in Matthew, chapter 5, verses 21 to 48.


And Moreover, behold she is with child to whoredoms. That this signifies, and that anything can be produced thence, is evident from the signification of "carrying in the womb" or "being with child," as being to produce something, for by "seed" is signified the truth of faith, and by "conception" its reception, whence by "carrying in the womb" or "being with child" is signified producing; and from the signification of "whoredom," as being falsity, namely, from their religiosity, as above (n. 4903). From this it is evident that by these words, "saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child to whoredoms" is signified a perception that it is false that anything conjugial exists between them, and that anything can be produced thence. To be produced, when predicated of the church, denotes the good which is produced by means of truth; and it is produced when truth passes through the understanding into the will, and from the will into act. For as before said, the "seed" is the truth of faith, and "conception" is reception, and reception is effected when truth which is of the understanding passes into good which is of the will, or when truth which is of faith passes into good which is of charity; and when it is in the will, it is in its womb, and is then first produced; and when man is in good in act, that is, when he produces good from the will, thus from delight and freedom, it then goes forth from the womb or is born-which also is meant by being reborn or regenerated. From this it is evident what is signified in the spiritual sense by "being with child." Here however the contrary is signified-that nothing of good could be produced; for that nation which is here described was not in any truth, because not in any internal of the church, but in falsity. [2] That to be reborn or regenerated, that is, to be made an internal man, was a thing wholly unknown to that nation, and consequently that it seemed to them as a harlot is evident from Nicodemus, who was a ruler of the Jews (John 3:1-13), for he said, "How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb?" (verse 4). It is known that the Lord opened the internal things of His kingdom and church, and yet these internal things were known to the ancients-as, that man should be reborn in order to enter into life; and that he should then put off the old man, that is, the loves of self and of the world with their evil desires, and should put on the new, that is, love toward the neighbor and to God; and also that heaven was in the regenerate man-besides other internal things. These things were known to those who belonged to the Ancient Church, but they were led to them by external things which were representative. But as such things were entirely lost with the Jewish nation, the Lord taught them, but abolished the representatives themselves, because most of these had respect to Himself; for the image must vanish when the form itself appears. [3] He therefore set up a new church, which should not like the former be led by representatives to internal things, but should know them without representatives; and He enjoined instead only a few external observances, namely, baptism and the Holy Supper-baptism, that by it regeneration might be remembered; and the Holy Supper, that by it might be remembered the Lord, and His love toward the whole human race, and the reciprocal love of man to Him. These things are said that it may be known that the internal things of the church, which the Lord taught, were known to the ancients, but were so entirely lost with the Jewish nation that they were regarded merely as falsities.


And Judah said. That this signifies sentence from the religiosity in which the Jewish nation was, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being the religiosity of the Jewish nation (n. 4864). That sentence from this is signified is plain from what now follows.


Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. That this signifies that it ought to be extirpated, namely, the internal of the church which is represented by Tamar, is evident from the signification of "bringing her forth and burning her," as being to extirpate. "Bringing forth" is predicated of the truth, and "burning" of the good, which was to be extirpated. That "burning" is predicated of the extirpation of good is evident from many passages in the Word; and the reason is that "fire" and "flame" in the spiritual sense denote good, and hence "heat" denotes the affection of good; but in the opposite sense "fire" and "flame" denote evil, and the "heat" thence the affection of evil (n. 1297, 1861, 2446). Moreover, good is actually spiritual fire, from which comes the spiritual heat which vivifies, and evil is the fire and the consequent heat which consumes. That the good of love is spiritual fire, and that the affection of this good is spiritual heat, will be very evident to one who attends and reflects; for if he reflects whence man has vital fire and heat, he will find that it is from love; because as soon as love ceases, the man grows cold, while the more he is in love, the warmer he grows. Unless man's vitality were from this origin he could have no life at all. But this spiritual fire or heat which produces life becomes a burning and consuming fire with the evil, for with them it is turned into this kind of fire. With animals devoid of reason spiritual heat likewise flows in and produces life, but a life according to the reception in their organic forms, for which reason their knowledges and affections are connate, as with bees and the rest.


She was brought forth. That this signifies that it was nearly effected, that is, its extirpation, is evident from the signification of "being brought forth and burnt," as being to be extirpated, of which just above (n. 4906). Here therefore by "being brought forth to be burnt" is meant that extirpation was nearly effected.


And she sent to her father-in-law. That this signifies instilling, namely, that she was with child by him, is evident from the series, from which this meaning results.


Saying, By the man whose these are am I with child. That this signifies that such a quality was in their religiosity, is evident from the representation of Judah, who here is "the man," as being the religiosity of the Jewish nation (n. 4864, 4905); and from the signification of "carrying in the womb" or "being with child," as being to be produced (n. 4904); but here to be in, for that which has been produced (that is, that which is conceived) is in. This product is the first effect, which because efficient is called a cause, from which is further effect, of which above (see n. 4904). What was in their religiosity may be seen from what was said above (n. 4899), and also from what follows.


And she said, Acknowledge I pray whose are these, the signet and the kerchief and the staff. That this signifies that it might be known from the pledges, is evident from the signification of the "signet, kerchief, and staff," as being pledges of the conjunction of the external or natural man (see n. 4874, 4887).


And Judah acknowledged them. That this signifies that being theirs they made affirmation, is evident from the signification of "acknowledging," as being to affirm, and this because he acknowledged from the pledges that it was his. In this passage the genius of that nation is described, which is such that though they reject the internal of the church as false, yet when it is insinuated into them that it is theirs, they accept and affirm it. They who are in the filth of loves, that is, in avarice, and at the same time in the love of self, as that nation is, cannot elevate the mind's view and see truth from any other source than self; and therefore when it is attributed to themselves, they affirm it. For example, if they are told that the Word in itself is Divine, and contains arcana of heaven, and also such arcana as can be comprehended only by angels, they affirm this to be true, for they regard the Word as their own, because it was for them, among them, and treats of them in the letter; but if the arcana or spiritual truths themselves are disclosed to them, they reject them. [2] If they are told that the rituals of their church were all holy in themselves, they affirm this to be true, because they regard these rituals as their own; but if it is said that those holy things were in the rituals apart from them, this they deny. Again, if they should be told that the Jewish Church was celestial and the Israelitish Church spiritual, and if it were explained to them what the celestial and spiritual are, they would affirm this also; but if it were said that these churches are called celestial and spiritual for the reason that every particular in them represented celestial and spiritual things, and that representatives have regard to the thing and not to the person, they would deny it. Again, if they are told that in the staff of Moses there was power from Jehovah, and thus Divine power, they affirm it and call it true; but if they are told that this power was not in the staff, but only in the Divine command, this they deny and call it false. [3] If they are told that the brazen serpent set up by Moses healed those who were bitten by serpents, and thus that it was miraculous, they affirm it; but if it is said that it was not healing and miraculous in itself, but from the Lord who was represented, they deny it and call it false. (Compare what is related and said of the serpent in several passages, Num. 21:7-9; 2 Kings 18:4; John 3:14, 15.) So also in all other instances. Such are the things which are signified by Judah's acknowledging, and which on the part of the nation signified by him were conjoined with the internal of the church which is represented by Tamar; and because they were such, Judah did not come to her as a husband's brother to a wife, but as a whoremonger to a harlot.


And said, She is more just than I. That this signifies that there was no conjunction of the external with the internal, but only of the internal with the external, is evident from what was said above (n. 4899) about the church with the Jewish nation, and in them, namely, that there was a church with that people, that is, the internal was conjoined with the external; but that there was no church in them, that is, the external was not conjoined with the internal; for that the church may be in a nation there must be reciprocity.


Forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son. That this signifies because the external was of such a quality, is evident from what has been explained above - that Tamar could not be given to Shelah, Judah's son, because in this case there would be conjunction as of a wife with her husband in accordance with the law in regard to the duty of a husband's brother; whereas the religiosity of the Jewish nation, which was to be represented, was not such, but was such as is the conjunction of a father-in-law with a daughter-in-law as with a harlot.


And he added no further to know her. That this signifies that there was no further conjunction, is evident from the signification of "knowing," as being to be conjoined; and from the signification of "adding no further," as being that it was no further, consequently that there was no further any conjunction with the internal of the church; for the internal of the church is represented by Tamar. For this reason also Judah had no more sons.


Verses 27-30. And it came to pass in the time of her travail, and behold twins were in her womb. And it came to pass when she travailed, and one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound double-dyed upon his hand, saying, This came out first. And it came to pass as he drew back his hand, that behold his brother came out; and she said, Wherefore hast thou broken upon thee a breach? And he called his name Perez. And afterward came out his brother, that had the double-dyed upon his hand; and he called his name Zerah. "And it came to pass in the time," signifies a following state; "of her travail," signifies acknowledgement on the part of internal truth; "and behold twins were in her womb," signifies both things of the church; "and it came to pass when she travailed," signifies production; "and one put out a hand," signifies power; "and the midwife took," signifies the natural; "and bound double-dyed upon his hand" signifies that she put a mark upon it-"double-dyed" denotes good; "saying, This came out first," signifies that it had the priority; "and it came to pass, as he drew back his hand," signifies that it concealed its power; "that behold his brother came out," signifies the truth of good; "and she said, Wherefore hast thou broken upon thee a breach?" signifies its apparent separation from good; "and he called his name Perez," signifies the quality; "and afterward came out his brother," signifies good actually prior; "that had the double-dyed upon his hand" signifies acknowledgment that it was good; "and he called his name Zerah," signifies the quality.


And it came to pass in the time. That this signifies a following state, is evident from the signification of "time," as being state (n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3827, 4882, 4901). That its "coming to pass in the time" signifies a following state is evident, because what came to pass now follows (see also n. 4814).


Of her travail. That this signifies acknowledgment on the part of internal truth, is evident from the signification of "travailing," as being to acknowledge in faith and act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919); and from the representation of Tamar, who is meant by "her," as being the internal of the representative church, consequently internal truth.


And behold twins were in her womb. That this signifies both things of the church, is evident from the signification of "twins," as being both good and truth (n. 3299); and from the signification of the "womb," as being where good and truth lie conceived, consequently, where that is which is of the church. The "womb" in the genuine sense signifies the inmost of conjugial love in which is innocence, because in the Grand Man the womb corresponds to this love; and as conjugial love has its origin from the love of good and truth which belongs to the heavenly marriage, and as this marriage is heaven itself, or the Lord's kingdom, and as the Lord's kingdom on earth is the church, therefore the church also is signified by the "womb;" for the church is where the marriage of good and truth is. For this reason it is that "opening the womb" denotes the derivative doctrines of churches (n. 3856), and also the capacity to receive the truths and goods of the church (n. 3967); and that "coming forth from the womb" denotes to be reborn or regenerated (see n. 4904), that is, to be made a church, for whoever is reborn or regenerated is made a church. [2] As rebirth, and hence the church, are signified by "going forth from the womb," therefore the Lord is called in the Word, "He that formeth from the womb," "He that bringeth forth from the womb;" and they who are regenerated and made a church are said to be "carried from the womb," as in Isaiah: Thus said Jehovah thy Maker, He that formeth thee from the womb, He helpeth thee (Isa. 44:2). Again: Thus said Jehovah thy Redeemer, and He that formed thee from the womb (Isa. 44:24). Again: Said Jehovah that formed me from the womb to be His servant, to bring Jacob again to Him, and that Israel be gathered unto Him (Isa. 49:5) In David: Jehovah who brought me forth from the womb (Ps. 22:9). Again in Isaiah: Attend to Me, O house of Jacob, and all the remains of the house of Israel, carried from the womb and borne from the matrix (Isa. 46:3). In David: The wicked are estranged from the womb; they go astray from the belly, with words of a lie (Ps. 58:3); where "being estranged from the womb" means from the good which is of the church, and "going astray from the belly" means going astray from truth. In Hosea: The pangs of a travailing woman shall come upon him; he is an unwise son, for at the time he standeth not In the womb of sons (Hos. 13:13); where "not standing in the womb of sons" means not being in the good of truth which is of the church. [3] Again: Their glory shall fly away like a bird; from the birth, from the belly, and from conception (Hos. 9:11); meaning that the truth of the church will entirely perish; "from the birth" meaning what is born; "from the belly," what is in gestation; "from conception," what is begun. In Isaiah: I knew that thou wouldest deal very treacherously, and wast called a transgressor from the womb (Isa. 48:8); meaning that such was their quality from the beginning of the church. In Revelation: A great sign was seen in heaven, a woman encompassed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars; and she bearing in the belly, cried out, travailing in birth, and in pain to be delivered (Rev. 12:1-2); the "woman" is the church (n. 252, 253, 255); the "sun with which she was encompassed" is the good of love (n. 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 4060, 4696); the "moon which was under her feet" is the truth of faith (n. 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2120, 2495, 4696); the "stars" are the knowledges of good and truth (n. 2495, 2849, 4697); that there were "twelve" stars is because "twelve" means all, and thus all things of faith (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913); "bearing in the belly" means the truth of the church conceived; "travailing in birth and in pain to be delivered" means that it was received with difficulty.


And it came to pass when she travailed. That this signifies production, is evident from the signification of "travailing," as being to acknowledge in faith and act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919); and as whatever is acknowledged in faith and act is produced, therefore by "travailing" is also signified production, namely of good and truth, which are of the church.


And one put out a hand. That this signifies power, is evident from the signification of a "hand," as being power (n. 878, 3387).


And the midwife took. That this signifies the natural, is evident from the signification of a "midwife," as being the natural (n. 4588). How the case herein is will appear from what follows. That in the spiritual world a midwife has a signification other than in the natural world, is evident from the fact that none of the things relating to birth, and consequently to the office of a midwife, exist there; whence it is evident that when a man is reading these words, the angels with him perceive something else in place of a midwife, and indeed something spiritual. Consequently, as angels keep their ideas in those things which relate to spiritual birth, by a midwife they perceive that which assists and receives this birth; and that this is the natural may be seen above (n. 4588).


And bound double-dyed upon his hand. That this signifies that she put a mark upon it, namely, upon the power, and that "double-dyed" is good, is evident from the signification of "binding upon the hand," as being to put a mark upon power, for the "hand" is power (n. 4920); and from the signification of "double-dyed" as being good, and indeed spiritual good. That "double-dyed" denotes spiritual good, is because it was of a scarlet color; and the color of scarlet when seen in the other life signifies spiritual good, that is, the good of charity toward the neighbor. For all colors visible in the other life signify something of good and truth, because they come into existence from the light of heaven, which in itself is wisdom and intelligence from the Lord's Divine. The variations or modifications of that light are the consequent variations, and so to speak modifications, of wisdom and intelligence, consequently of good and truth. That the light in heaven is from the Divine wisdom and intelligence of the Lord, who appears there as a sun, may be seen above (n. 1053, 1521-1533, 1619-1632, 2776, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3225, 3337, 3339, 3340, 3485, 3636, 3643, 3862, 3993, 4180, 4214, 4302, 4405, 4408, 4413, 4415, 4523-4533). That colors are from this source, and that they are the variations and modifications of that light, and consequently of intelligence and wisdom, may be seen above (n. 1042, 1043, 1053, 1624, 3993, 4530, 4677, 4742). [2] That "double-dyed" denotes spiritual good, is plain from the passages in the Word in which it is mentioned, as in Jeremiah: If then thou art laid waste what wilt thou do? If thou clothest thyself with double-dyed, and adornest thyself with an ornament of gold, in vain shalt thou make thyself beautiful; the lovers will abhor thee (Jer. 4:30); where Judah is spoken of; "clothing thyself with double-dyed" denotes spiritual good, and "adorning thyself with an ornament of gold" denotes celestial good. In the second book of Samuel: David lamented over Saul and over Jonathan, and wrote to teach the sons of Judah the bow. Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you in double-dyed, with delights, and put an ornament of gold upon your apparel (2 Sam. 1:17-18, 24); where "teaching the bow" is teaching the doctrine of love and charity, for a "bow" signifies this doctrine; "clothing in double-dyed" denotes spiritual good, as before; and "putting an ornament of gold upon the apparel" denotes celestial good. [3] Because this was the signification of "double-dyed," it was commanded that double-dyed scarlet should be used on the curtains of the tabernacle, on the veil, on the covering for the door of the tent, on the covering for the gate of the court, on the table of faces when they journeyed, and on Aaron's garments of holiness, as on the ephod, the breastplate of judgment, and the fringe of the robe of the ephod - as is evident from the following passages: [4] Thou shalt make for the tabernacle ten curtains; of fine-twined linen, and blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed (Exod. 26:1). Thou shalt make a veil of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine-twined linen (Exod. 26:31). Thou shalt make a covering for the door of the tent, of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine-twined linen (Exod. 26:36). For the gate of the court thou shalt make a covering of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine-twined linen, the work of the embroiderer (Exod. 27:16). When the camp setteth forward they shall spread upon the table of faces a cloth of scarlet double-dyed, and cover the same with a covering of badger's skin (Num. 4:5, 7, 8). Thou shalt make the ephod of gold, of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed and fine-twined linen, the work of the artificer. Likewise on the belt (Exod. 28:6, 8). Thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the artificer; like the work of the ephod, of gold, of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine-twined linen (Exod. 27:15). Upon the fringe of the robe of the ephod [thou shalt make] pomegranates of blue, and of crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed (Exod. 27:33). [5] As the tent of assembly with the ark represented heaven, therefore the above-mentioned colors were commanded to be used; and they signify in their order the celestial and spiritual things there, "blue and crimson" signifying celestial goods and truths, and "scarlet double-dyed and fine-twined linen," spiritual goods and truths. Everyone who believes the Word to be holy can know that everything in it has some signification; and whoever believes that the Word is holy because it was sent down by the Lord through heaven, can know that the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom are signified. In like manner it was commanded that cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop should be used in the cleansing from leprosy (Lev. 14:4, 6, 52); and that cedar wood, and hyssop, and double-dyed crimson should be cast upon the burning of a red heifer, from which was to be prepared the water of separation (Num. 19:6, 9). [6] The profanation of good and truth is described by similar expressions in Revelation. I saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. And the woman was clothed in crimson and scarlet, and gilded with gold and precious stone and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and filthiness of her whoredoms (Rev. 17:3-4). Woe, woe, the great city, she that was clothed in fine linen, and crimson, and scarlet, and gilded with gold, and precious stone and pearls (Rev. 18:16); speaking of Babylon, by which is signified the profanation of good (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326), here the profanation of good and truth, which is Babylonish. In the prophets of the Old Testament, "Babylon" is the profanation of good, and "Chaldea" the profanation of truth. [7] "Scarlet," in the opposite sense, signifies the evil which is opposite to spiritual good, as in Isaiah: Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18). That "scarlet" signifies this evil is because "blood"-also from its redness-signifies in the genuine sense spiritual good, or charity toward the neighbor, but in the opposite sense violence offered to charity.


Saying, this came out first. That this signifies that it had the priority, is evident from the signification of "coming out first," or being the firstborn, as being priority and superiority (n. 3325). The subject treated of here and through the remainder of this chapter is primogeniture. One who has no knowledge of the internal sense of the Word may suppose that it is primogeniture only that is treated of, and consequently the prerogatives which the firstborn would have according to the laws; but one who knows anything of the internal sense can see plainly enough that something more exalted also lies concealed and stored up in these words, not only from the very fact that one of the children put out his hand and drew it back again, whereupon the other came out, but also from the fact that they were named from this, and that the midwife bound double-dyed upon the hand of the first; and further from the fact that very similar incidents were related of Esau and Jacob-that they struggled together in the womb, and that when Esau came out first, Jacob took hold of his heel (Gen. 25:22, 26); and from the similarity of the case of the two sons of Joseph, on the younger of whom Jacob placed his right hand, and on the other his left hand, when he blessed them (Gen. 48:14, 17-19). [2] The Jews and also some Christians believe indeed that in these, and also in the rest of the passages of the Word, there is some meaning stored up, which they call mystical, the reason of this belief being that an idea of holiness in regard to the Word has been impressed upon them from early childhood; but when it is inquired what this mystical meaning is, they do not know. If they are told that because the Word is Divine, this meaning must necessarily be such as is in heaven among the angels; and that no other mystical meaning can exist in the Word, or if so, that it would be either fabulous or magical or idolatrous; and furthermore that this mystical meaning which is in heaven among the angels is nothing else than what is called the spiritual and celestial, and treats solely of the Lord, of His kingdom, and of the church, consequently of good and truth; and that if they knew what good and truth, or what faith and love, are, they would be able to know this meaning-when this is told them, scarcely anyone believes it; nay, in such ignorance at the present day are they who are of the church, that what is related concerning the celestial and spiritual, is scarcely comprehensible to them. Be it so; nevertheless as it has been granted me of the Lord's Divine mercy to be at the same time in heaven as a spirit and on earth as a man, and therefore to speak with angels, and this now continually for many years, I cannot do otherwise than open those things of the Word which are called mystical, that is, its interiors, which are the spiritual and celestial things of the Lord's kingdom. But what the incidents related of the two sons of Tamar involve in the internal sense, will be shown in the following pages.


And it came to pass as he drew back his hand. That this signifies that it concealed its power, is evident from the signification of "hand," as being power (n. 878, 3387, 4920); to conceal which is signified by "drawing back."


That behold his brother came out. That this signifies the truth of good, is evident from the signification of a "brother," as being what is kindred from good (n. 3815, 4267), thus the truth of good; the truth of good is that truth which is from good, or that faith which is from charity. The subject treated of here in the internal sense is primogeniture in the case of those who are being reborn or regenerated by the Lord, consequently primogeniture in the church. It has been a matter of dispute from the most ancient times which is the firstborn, whether the good which is of charity, or the truth which is of faith; and as good does not appear while man is being reborn and made a church, but conceals itself in the interior man, and manifests itself only in a certain affection which does not fall clearly into the sensation of the external or natural man, until he has been reborn - whereas truth makes itself manifest, because it enters through the senses and stores itself in the memory of the external or natural man - therefore many persons have fallen into the error of thinking that truth is the firstborn, and at last even into that of thinking that truth is the essential of the church, and so essential that truth, which they call faith, has power to save without the good which is of charity. [2] From this one error very many others have been derived, which have infected not only doctrine, but also life; as for instance that no matter how a man lives, provided he has faith he is saved; that even the most wicked are received into heaven if in the hour of death they make profession of such things as are of faith; and that everyone can be received into heaven merely from grace, whatever his life has been. In consequence of holding this doctrine they at last do not know what charity is, nor do they care for it; and finally they do not believe there is such a thing, nor consequently that there is a heaven or a hell. The reason is that faith without charity, or truth without good, teaches nothing; and the more it recedes from good, the more foolish it renders a man. For it is good into which and through which the Lord flows and gives intelligence and wisdom, thus a higher mental view, and also perception as to whether a thing be so or not so. [3] All this shows how the case is in regard to primogeniture - it actually belongs to good, and to truth only apparently. This then is what is described in the internal sense by the birth of Tamar's two sons, for by the "double-dyed" which the midwife bound upon the hand is signified good (see n. 4922); by "coming out first" is signified priority (n. 4923); by "drawing back his hand" is signified that good concealed its power, as was said just above; by his "brother coming out" is signified truth; by "thou hast broken upon thee a breach" is signified the apparent separation of truth from good; by his "brother coming out afterward" is signified that good is actually prior; and by "that had the double-dyed upon his hand" is signified acknowledgment that it is good; for good is not acknowledged to be prior until after the man has been reborn, for he then acts from good and from it regards truth and its quality. [4] These are the things which are contained in the internal sense, which teaches how the case is with good and truth in the man who is being born anew, namely, that good is actually in the first place, but truth apparently; and that good does not appear to be in the first place while the man is being regenerated, but becomes manifestly so when he has been regenerated. But these things need not be further explained here, because they have been explained before (see n. 3324, 3325, 3494, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 4243, 4244, 4247, 4337). That from ancient times it has been a matter of controversy whether primogeniture belongs to good or to truth, or whether to charity or to faith, has also been shown above (n. 2435). [5] As the Lord in the supreme sense is the "Firstborn," consequently love to Him and charity toward the neighbor, therefore it was ordained as a law in the representative church that the firstborn should be Jehovah's, as we read in Moses: Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the sons of Israel, in man and in beast, let them be Mine (Exod. 13:2). Thou shalt cause to pass to Jehovah everything that openeth the womb, and everything that openeth the offspring of a beast, as many as shall be males to thee, shall be Jehovah's (Exod. 13:12). Everything that openeth the womb is Mine; therefore as to all thy cattle thou shalt give the male, that openeth of ox and small cattle (Exod. 34:19). Everything that openeth the womb of all flesh, which they shall bring to Jehovah, of men and of beasts, shall be thine; nevertheless every first born of man shalt thou surely redeem (Num. 18:15). Behold I have taken the Levites from the midst of the sons of Israel, instead of every firstborn that openeth the womb of the sons of Israel; that the Levites may be Mine (Num. 3:12). [6] As that which opens the womb is the firstborn, therefore where the word "firstborn" is mentioned, it is also said "that which openeth the womb;" in order that good may be signified. That this signifies good is evident from the particulars in the internal sense, especially from what is related of Tamar's sons-that Zerah opened the womb with his hand, by whom good is represented, as is evident from the double-dyed upon his hand (n. 4922). Moreover, the "womb," which is said to be "opened," is where good and truth are, consequently the church (n. 4918); and to "open the womb" is to give power that truth may be born. [7] As the Lord alone is the Firstborn - for He is good itself, and from His good is all truth - therefore in order that Jacob, who was not the firstborn, might represent Him, he was permitted to buy the primogeniture from Esau his brother; and because this was not sufficient, he was called Israel, in order that by this name he might represent the good of truth; for Israel in the representative sense is the good which comes by means of truth (n. 3654, 4286, 4598).


And she said, Wherefore hast thou broken upon thee a breach? That this signifies its apparent separation from good, is evident from the signification of a "breach," as being the infraction and perversion of truth by separation from good-of which presently. That "to break a breach" here is to pull off the double-dyed from the hand, and thus to separate good, is evident, for by "double-dyed" is signified good (n. 4922); that this was apparently so follows from the fact that it so appeared to the midwife; for this was not the one who had the double-dyed, but his brother, by whom is represented truth. On this subject see what is shown just above (n. 4925), namely that good is actually the firstborn, but truth apparently. This may be further illustrated from the uses and members in the human body. It appears as if the members and organs are prior, and that their uses follow; for the former are first presented to the eye, and are also known before the uses. Nevertheless the use is prior to the members and organs, these latter being from the uses, and therefore formed according to them; nay, the use itself forms them, and adapts them to itself. Unless this were so, all and each of the things in man would by no means conspire so unanimously to a one. It is similar with good and truth: it appears as if truth were prior, but it is good, for good forms truths and adapts them to itself; wherefore regarded in themselves truths are nothing else than goods formed, or forms of good. Truths also in respect to good are like the viscera and fibers in the body in respect to uses; and regarded in itself good is nothing else than use. [2] That a "breach" signifies infraction of truth and perversion of it by separation from good, is evident also from other passages in the Word, as in David: Our garners are full, affording from food to food; our flocks are thousands and ten thousands in our streets; our oxen are laden; there is no breach (Ps. 144:13-14); treating of the Ancient Church, such as it was in its youth; the "food with which the garners were full" denotes spiritual food, that is, truth and good; "flocks" and "oxen" denote internal and external goods; "there is no breach" denotes that truth is not infracted or broken through by separation from good. [3] In Amos: I will raise up the tent of David that is fallen, and fence up the breaches thereof; and I will restore its ruins, and I will build it according to the days of eternity (Amos 9:11); describing the church which is in good, the "tent of David that is fallen" being the good of love and charity from the Lord. (That "tent" is this good, may be seen above, n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312, 4128, 4391, 4599, and that "David" is the Lord, n. 1888.) To "fence up the breaches" means to amend the falsities which have entered by the separation of truth from good; "to build it according to the days of eternity" denotes according to the state of the church in ancient times; that state and those times are called in the Word the "days of eternity," the "days of an age," and also "of generation and generation" - as in Isaiah: [4] Builds of thee the wastes of an age, the foundations of generation and generation; and thou shall be called, The repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to dwell in (Isa. 58:12); describing the church in which charity and life is the essential. Here also "repairing the breach" denotes amending the falsities which have crept in by the separation of good from truth, every falsity being from this source; and "restoring paths to dwell in" denotes truths which are of good, for "paths" or "ways" are truths (n. 627, 2333), and "dwelling" is predicated of good (n. 2268, 2451, 2712, 3613). [5] Again: Ye saw the breaches of the city of David, that they were many; and ye gathered together the waters of the lower pool (Isa. 22:9); the "breaches of the city of David" denote falsities of doctrine, and the "waters of the lower pool" the traditions by which they made infractions of the truths that are in the Word (Matt. 15:1-6; Mark 7:1-14). In Ezekiel: Ye have not gone up into the breaches, neither have ye built up the fence for the house of Israel, that ye might stand in the war in the days of Jehovah (Ezek. 13:5). Again, I sought from them a man that buildeth the fence, and standeth in the breach before Me for the land, that I should not destroy it; but I found none (Ezek. 22:30); to "stand in the breach" denotes to defend and to take heed lest falsities break in. In David: Jehovah said that He would destroy the people, unless Moses His chosen had stood before Him in the breach (Ps. 106:23); where also "to stand in the breach" denotes to take heed lest falsities break in. "Moses" is the Word (see preface to Gen. 18, and n. 4859e). [6] In Amos: They shall draw out your posterity with fish-hooks. Ye shall go forth through the breaches, everyone straight before her; and ye shall throw down the palace (Amos 4:2-3); "to go forth through the breaches" denotes through falsities from reasonings; the "palace" is the Word, consequently the truth of doctrine which is from good. And as by "breaches" is signified the falsity which comes into existence by the separation of good from truth, the same is also signified, in the representative sense, by "strengthening and repairing the breaches of the house of Jehovah" (2 Kings 12:6-8, 12; 22:5). In the second book of Samuel: It grieved David because Jehovah had broken a breach upon Uzzah; therefore he called that place Perez-Uzzah (2 Sam. 6:8); speaking of Uzzah, who died because he touched the ark; by the ark was represented heaven, in the supreme sense the Lord, consequently Divine good; by Uzzah however was represented that which ministers, thus truth, for this ministers to good. The separation above described is signified by the "breach upon Uzzah."


And he called his name Perez. That this signifies the quality, namely, of the apparent separation of truth from good, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421). The quality itself is "Perez;" for in the original language "Perez" means a "breach."


And afterward came out his brother. That this signifies good actually prior, is evident from the representation of Zerah, who here is the "brother," as being good; for he it was who opened the womb, thus who was the firstborn, and upon whose hand was the double-dyed, which, as shown above (n. 4925), is good. That by his brother's coming out afterward is signified that good is actually prior, is because during man's regeneration good does not appear, because it conceals itself in the interior man, and only flows into truth through affection according to the degrees of conjunction of truth with it. But when truth has been conjoined with good, as when man has been regenerated, good manifests itself; for man then acts from good and regards truths as from good, because he is then more studious of life than of doctrine.


That had the double-dyed upon his hand. That this signifies acknowledgment that it is good, is evident from the fact that he was now acknowledged from the double-dyed upon his hand, thus it was acknowledged that it was good which opened the womb, or which was the firstborn. By the midwife's binding double-dyed upon his hand is signified that she marked who was the firstborn, and hence acknowledgment is here signified.


And he called his name Zerah. That this signifies the quality, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being the quality (see n. 4927). The quality which is signified by "Zerah," is the quality of what has been hitherto the subject treated of in the internal sense, namely, that good is actually the firstborn and truth only apparently so. The quality itself contains innumerable things within it which cannot be seen in the light of the world, but only in the light of heaven, thus before the angels. If man should see the quality of a single thing as it appears before the angels, he would be amazed, and would confess that he would never have believed it, and that in comparison he had known scarcely anything. "Zerah," in the original language, signifies a "rising," and is applied to the sun and to the first appearance of its light. He was named Zerah from this because it is similar with good in the man who is being regenerated, for this first rises and gives light, from which light are enlightened the things in the natural man, so that they may be seen, and acknowledged, and finally believed. Unless there were light from good inwardly in man, he would never be able to see truths so as to acknowledge and believe them, but would look upon them either as things to be called true on account of the common people, or else as falsities.


CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND MAN, HERE CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HANDS, ARMS, FEET, AND LOINS THEREWITH. It has been already shown that the whole heaven has reference to one Man with his several organs, members, and viscera; and this because heaven has reference to the Lord, for the Lord is the all in all of heaven, insomuch that heaven is in the proper sense the Divine good and Divine truth which are from the Lord. For this reason heaven is distinguished into as many provinces, so to speak, as there are viscera, organs, and members in man, and with these also there is correspondence. Unless there were such a correspondence of man with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord, man would not subsist even a single moment. All these things are kept in connection by influx. [2] But all these provinces have reference to two kingdoms - the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom. The celestial kingdom is the kingdom of the heart in the Grand Man, and the spiritual kingdom is the kingdom of the lungs; in like manner as in man, in the whole and every part of whom reign the heart and the lungs. These two kingdoms are wonderfully conjoined; and this conjunction is represented in the conjunction of the heart and lungs in man, and in the conjunction of their operations in the several members and viscera. [3] While man is an embryo, or while he is yet in the womb, he is in the kingdom of the heart; but when he has come forth from the womb, he comes into the kingdom of the lungs; and if through the truths of faith he suffers himself to be brought into the good of love, he then returns from the kingdom of the lungs into the kingdom of the heart in the Grand Man; for he thus comes a second time into the womb and is born again. Then also these two kingdoms are conjoined in him, but in an inverted order; for previously the kingdom of the heart in him was under the rule of the lungs, that is, the truth of faith previously ruled in him; but afterward the good of charity rules. That the heart corresponds to the good of love, and the lungs to the truth of faith, may be seen above (n. 3635, 3883-3896).


They in the Grand Man who correspond to the hands and arms, and also to the shoulders, are those who have power by the truth of faith from good. For those who are in the truth of faith from good are in the power of the Lord because they attribute all power to Him, and none to themselves; and the more they attribute none to themselves - not with the lips, but with the heart - the more they are in power. From this the angels are called potencies and powers.


That in the Grand Man the hands, arms, and shoulders correspond to power, is because the forces and powers of the whole body and of all its viscera have reference to them; for the body exerts its forces and powers by the arms and hands. It is for this reason also that power is signified in the Word by the "hands," "arms," and "shoulders." That this is signified by the "hands," may be seen above (n. 878, 3387); and that it is signified by the "arms" also, is plain from many passages, as from the following: Be Thou their arm every morning (Isa. 33:2). The Lord Jehovih cometh in strength, and His arm shall rule for Him (Isa. 40:10). He worketh it with the arm of His strength (Isa. 44:12). Mine arms shall judge the peoples (Isa. 51:5). Put on strength, O arm of Jehovah (Isa. 51:9). I looked, and there was no one helping, therefore Mine arm brought salvation unto Me (Isa. 63:5). Cursed is he that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm (Jer. 17:5). I have made the earth, the man, and the beast, by My great power and by My outstretched arm (Isa. 27:5; 32:17). The horn of Moab is cut off, and His arm is broken (Isa. 48:25). I break the arms of the king of Egypt, but I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon (Ezek. 30:22, 24-25). O Jehovah, break Thou the arm of the wicked (Ps. 10:15). According to the greatness of Thine arm reserve the sons of death (Ps. 79:11). Brought out of Egypt with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm (Deut. 7:19; 11:2-3; 26:8; Jer. 32:21; Ps. 136:12). From these passages it is also evident that by "right hand" in the Word is signified superior power, and by "sitting at the right hand of Jehovah," omnipotence (Matt. 26:63, 64; Luke 22:69; Mark 14:61, 62; 16:19).


I have seen a bare arm, bent forward, which was possessed of such force and such power to inflict terror that I was not only horrified, but felt as if I might be crushed to atoms, even as to my inmost things, for it was irresistible. This arm has been seen by me twice; and from it I was given to know that the arms signify strength, and the hands power. A warmth was also felt exhaling from that arm.


This bare arm is presented to view in various positions, according to which it excites terror, and in the position described just above, incredible terror; for it appears able to crush the bones and marrows in an instant. Even those who have not been timorous in the life of the body are thrown into extreme terror in the other life by this arm.


Several times spirits have been seen who had rods, and who were said to be magicians. They are in front, far away to the right, deep in caverns; and those who have been more malign magicians are hidden away still deeper. They seem to themselves to have rods, and they also by phantasies make many kinds of rods, and believe that they can perform miracles with them; for they suppose potency to be in the rods, and this because they are what support the right hand and arm, which by correspondence are strength and power. From this it was plain to me why men of old attributed rods to magicians; for the ancient Gentiles had this from the ancient representative church, in which rods, like hands, signified power (see n. 4876). And because they signified power, Moses was commanded, when miracles were wrought, to stretch out his rod, or his hand (Exod. 4:17, 20; 8:1-11, 16-18; 9:23; 10:3-21; 14:21, 26, 27; 17:5, 6, 11, 12; Num. 20:7-11).


Infernal spirits also sometimes by phantasy exhibit a shoulder, by which they cause force to be repelled; and it cannot go beyond this; but this is only for those who are in such phantasy, for they know that in the spiritual world the shoulder corresponds to all power. By the "shoulder," in the Word also is signified all power, as is evident in the following passages: Thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder (Isa. 9:4). Ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push with your horns (Ezek. 34:21). Thou cleavest for them every shoulder (Ezek. 29:7). That they may serve Jehovah with one shoulder (Zeph. 3:9). Unto us a Child is born, and the government shall be upon His shoulder (Isa. 9:6). The key of the house of David will I put upon his shoulder (Isa. 22:22).


They in the Grand Man who correspond to the feet, the soles of the feet, and the heels, are they who are natural; wherefore by "feet" in the Word are signified natural things (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280), by "soles of the feet" lower natural things, and by "heels" the lowest natural things. For in the Grand Man celestial things constitute the head, spiritual the body, and natural the feet; and they follow in this order. Celestial things also, which are highest, terminate in spiritual, which are middle; and spiritual in natural, which are last.


Once when I was elevated into heaven, it appeared to me as if I were there with my head, and below with my body, but with my feet still lower. And from this it was perceived how the higher and lower things in man correspond to those which are in the Grand Man, and how the one flows into the other, namely, that the celestial, which is the good of love and the first in order, flows into the spiritual, which is the truth thence derived and the second in order, and finally into the natural, which is the third in order. From this it is evident that natural things are like the feet, on which the higher things rest. Nature also is that in which the spiritual world and heaven terminate. Thence it is that universal nature is a theater representative of the Lord's kingdom, and that everything in it is representative (n. 2758, 3483); and that nature subsists from influx according to this order, and that without such influx it could not subsist even for a moment.


At another time when, encompassed with an angelic column, I was let down into the places of lower things, it was given me sensibly to perceive that they who were in the earth of lower things correspond to the feet, and to the soles of the feet. Moreover, these places are under the feet and the soles of the feet. I also conversed with the spirits there. They are such as have been in natural, and not in spiritual delight. (Concerning the lower earth see above, n. 4728.)


In these places also are they who have ascribed all things to nature, and but little to the Divine. I conversed with them there, and when the conversation turned on the Divine providence, they attributed everything to nature. Nevertheless when those who have led a good moral life have been detained there for a time, they successively put off such principles, and put on principles of truth.


While I was there, I heard in one of the rooms a noise as if there were some persons on the other side of the wall trying to break in. Those in the room were terrified at the sound, believing that it was thieves; and I was told that they who are there are kept in such fear in order that they may be deterred from evils, because fear is to some a means of amendment.


In the lower earth, under the feet and the soles of the feet, are also those who have placed merit in good deeds and in works. Some of them appear to themselves to cut wood. The place where they are is rather cold, and they seem to themselves to acquire warmth by their labor. With these also I conversed, and it was given me to ask them whether they wished to come out of that place. They replied that they had not yet merited it by their labor. But when this state has been passed through, they are taken out thence. These also are natural, because the desire to merit salvation is not spiritual; and moreover, they regard themselves as superior to others, and some of them even despise others. If such persons do not receive more joy than others in the other life, they are indignant against the Lord; and therefore when they cut wood there sometimes appears as it were somewhat of the Lord under the wood, and this from their indignation. But as they have led a pious life, and have acted in this way from ignorance, in which there was something of innocence, therefore angels are occasionally sent to them who console them. And sometimes there appears to them from above on the left as it were a sheep, at the sight of which they also receive consolation.


They who come out of the world from Christendom, and who have led a good moral life, and have had something of charity toward the neighbor, but have had little concern about spiritual things, are for the most part sent into the places under the feet and the soles of the feet; and are kept there until they put off the natural things in which they have been, and become imbued with spiritual and heavenly things insofar as they can be in accordance with their life; and when they have become imbued with these, they are elevated thence to heavenly societies. I have at times seen them emerging, and beheld their gladness at coming into heavenly light.


In what situation the places under the feet are, it has not yet been given me to know. There are very many of them, and all most distinct from one another. In general they are called the earth of lower things.


There are some who in the life of the body have become imbued with the idea that man ought not to be concerned about those things which are of the internal man, thus about spiritual things, but only about those which are of the external man, or that are natural, for the reason that interior things disturb the delights of their life, and produce discomfort. They acted upon the left knee, and a little above the knee in front, and also upon the sole of the right foot. I conversed with them in their place of abode; and they said that they had been of opinion in the life of the body that only external things are living, and that they did not understand what internal things are, consequently that they knew what is natural, but not what the spiritual is. But it was given me to tell them that by this means they had shut out from themselves innumerable things which might have flowed in from the spiritual world if they had acknowledged interior things, and thus had admitted them into the ideas of their thought. And it was also given to tell them that in every idea of thought there are innumerable things which to man, especially the natural man, appear merely as a single uncompounded thing; when yet there are indefinite things in it which flow in from the spiritual world, and in a spiritual man produce superior insight, by which he can see and also perceive whether anything is true or not. And because they were in doubt in regard to this, it was shown them by living experience. There was represented to them a single idea, which they saw as one simple idea, and thus as an obscure point (by a mode of representation very easy in the light of heaven); but when that idea was unfolded, and at the same time their interior sight opened, there was then manifested as it were a universe leading to the Lord; and it was said that so it is with every idea of good and truth, namely, that it is an image of the whole heaven, because it is from the Lord, who is the all of heaven, or that itself which is called heaven.


Under the soles of the feet are they also who in the life of the body have lived for the world and their own pleasure, being delighted with such things as are of the world, and have loved to live in splendor, but only from external cupidity or that of the body, not from internal desire or that of the mind; for they have not been proud in spirit - setting themselves before others - though in stations of honor; thus in so living they have acted from the body, and therefore have not rejected the teachings of the church, still less confirmed themselves against them, but at heart have said of them that it is so, because those who study the Word know it. In some who are of this character, the interiors are open toward heaven, and into them are successively inseminated heavenly things, such as justice, uprightness, piety, charity, and mercy; and they are afterward taken up into heaven.


Those, however, who in the life of the body have from within thought and taken interest in nothing else than what relates to self and the world, have closed to themselves every way or every influx from heaven; because the love of self and the world is opposite to heavenly love. Those of them who have lived at the same time in pleasures, or in a luxurious life conjoined with interior cunning, are under the sole of the right foot, but at a great depth there, thus beneath the earth of lower things, where is the hell of such spirits. In their dwellings is nothing but filth; they also seem to themselves to carry filth, for it corresponds to such a life. The stench of different kinds of filth is smelled there according to the genera and species of their life. Many have their abode there who have been among the more celebrated in the world.


There are some who have abodes under the soles of the feet, with whom I have occasionally conversed. I have seen some of them endeavoring to ascend, and it was also granted me to feel their endeavor, and this even to the knees; but they fell back again. In this manner is it represented to the sense when any are desirous of ascending from their own abodes to higher ones, as these were of ascending to the abodes of those who are in the province of the knees and thighs. I was told that such are they who have despised others in comparison with themselves; for which reason also they wish to emerge, and not only through the foot into the thigh, but also if possible above the head; yet still they fall back again. They are in a kind of stupidity; for such arrogance extinguishes and suffocates the light of heaven, and consequently intelligence. Wherefore the sphere which surrounds them appears like thick dregs.


Under the left foot, a little to the left, are such as have attributed all things to nature, but yet have made a confession of an Ens of the universe from which come all the things of nature. Exploration was made as to whether they had believed in any Ens of the universe, or Supreme Deity, that had created all things; but it was perceived from their thought communicated to me, that what they had believed in was like something inanimate, in which there was nothing of life; and from this it was evident that they had not acknowledged a Creator of the universe, but nature. They also said that they could have no idea of a living Deity.

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