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 With this saga, which describes a series of conflicts, Snorre's
 "Heimskringla" ends.  King Eystein died in 1177, but Magnus
 Erlingson continued to reign until his death in 1184.  The
 conflicts continued until the opposition party was led to victory
 by King Sverre.
 The only skald quoted is Thorbjorn Skakkaskald.
 When Erling got certain intelligence of the determinations of
 Hakon and his counsellors, he sent a message to all the chiefs
 who he knew had been steady friends of King Inge, and also to his
 court-men and his retinue, who had saved themselves by flight,
 and also to all Gregorius's house-men, and called them together
 to a meeting.  When they met, and conversed with each other, they
 resolved to keep their men together; and which resolution they
 confirmed by oath and hand-shake to each other.  Then they
 considered whom they should take to be king.  Erling Skakke first
 spoke, and inquired if it was the opinion of the chiefs and other
 men of power that Simon Skalp's son, the son of the daughter of
 King Harald Gille, should be chosen king, and Jon Halkelson be
 taken to lead the army; but Jon refused it.  Then it was inquired
 if Nikolas Skialdvarson, a sister's son of King Magnus Barefoot,
 would place himself at the head of the army; but he answered
 thus: -- It was his opinion that some one should be chosen king
 who was of the royal race; and, for leader of the troops, some
 one from whom help and understanding were to be looked for; and
 then it would be easier to gather an army.  It was now tried
 whether Arne would let any of his sons, King Inge's brothers, be
 proclaimed king.  Arne replies, that Kristin's son, she was the
 daughter of King Sigurd the Crusader, was nearest by propinquity
 of descent to the crown of Norway.  "And here is also a man to be
 his adviser, and whose duty it is to take care of him and of the
 kingdom; and that man is his father Erling, who is both prudent,
 brave, experienced in war, and an able man in governing the
 kingdom; he wants no capability of bringing this counsel into
 effect, if luck be with him."  Many thought well of this advice.
 Erling replied to it, "As far as I can see or hear in this
 meeting, the most will rather be excused from taking upon
 themselves such a difficult business.  Now it appears to me
 altogether uncertain, provided we begin this work, whether he who
 puts himself at the head of it will gain any honour; or whether
 matters will go as they have done before when any one undertakes
 such great things, that he loses all his property and possibly
 his life.  But if this counsel be adopted, there may be men who
 will undertake to carry it through; but he who comes under such
 an obligation must seek, in every way, to prevent any opposition
 or enmity from those who are now in this council."
 All gave assurance that they would enter into this confederacy
 with perfect fidelity.  Then said Erling, "I can say for myself
 that it would almost be my death to serve King Hakon; and however
 dangerous it may be, I will rather venture to adopt your advice,
 and take upon me to lead this force, if that be the will,
 counsel, and desire of you all, and if you will all bind
 yourselves to this agreement by oath."
 To this they all agreed; and in this meeting it was determined to
 take Erling's son Magnus to be king.  They afterwards held a
 Thing in the town; and at this Thing Magnus Erlingson, then five
 years old, was elected king of the whole country.  All who had
 been servants of King Inge went into his service, and each of
 them retained the office and dignity he had held under King Inge
 (A.D. 1161).
 Erling Skakke made himself ready to travel, fitted out ships, and
 had with him King Magnus, together with the household-men who
 were on the spot.  In this expedition were the king's relatives,
 -- Arne; Ingerid, King Inge's mother, with her two sons; besides
 Jon Kutiza, a son of Sigurd Stork, and Erling's house-men, as
 well as those who had been Gregorius's house-men; and they had in
 all ten ships.  They went south to Denmark to King Valdemar and
 Buriz Heinrekson, King Inge's brother.  King Valdemar was King
 Magnus's blood-relation; for Ingebjorg, mother of King Valdemar,
 and Malmfrid, mother of Kristin, King Magnus's mother, were
 cousins.  The Danish king received them hospitably, and he and
 Erling had private meetings and consultations: and so much was
 known of their counsels, that King Valdemar was to aid King
 Magnus with such help as might be required from his kingdom to
 win and retain Norway.  On the other hand, King Valdemar should
 get that domain in Norway which his ancestors Harald Gormson and 
 Svein Forked-beard had possessed; namely, the whole of Viken as
 far north as Rygiarbit.  This agreement was confirmed by oath and
 a fixed treaty.  Then Erling and King Magnus made themselves
 ready to leave Denmark, and they sailed out of Vendilskage.
 King Hakon went in spring, after the Easter week, north to
 Throndhjem, and had with him the whole fleet that had belonged to
 King Inge.  He held a Thing there in the merchant-town, and was
 chosen king of the whole country.  Then he made Sigurd of Reyr an
 earl, and gave him an earldom, and afterwards proceeded
 southwards with his followers all the way to Viken.  The king
 went to Tunsberg; but sent Earl Sigurd east to Konungahella, to
 defend the country with a part of the forces in case Erling
 should come from the south.  Erling and his fleet came to Agder,
 and went straight north to Bergen, where they killed Arne
 Brigdarskalle, King Hakon's officer, and came back immediately
 against King Hakon.  Earl Sigurd, who had not observed the
 journey of Erling and his followers from the south, was at that
 time east in the Gaut river, and King Hakon was in Tunsberg.
 Erling brought up at Hrossanes, and lay there some nights.  In
 the meantime King Hakon made preparations in the town.  When
 Erling and his fleet were coming up to the town, they took a
 merchant vessel, filled it with wood and straw, and set fire to
 it; and the wind blowing right towards the town, drove the vessel
 against the piers.  Erling had two cables brought on board the
 vessel, and made fast to two boats, and made them row along as
 the vessel drove.  Now when the fire was come almost abreast of
 the town, those who were in the boats held back the vessel by the 
 ropes, so that the town could not be set on fire; but so thick a
 smoke spread from it over the town, that one could not see from
 the piers where the king's array was.  Then Erling drew the whole
 fleet in where the wind carried the fire, and shot at the enemy.
 When the townspeople saw that the fire was approaching their
 houses, and many were wounded by the bowmen, they resolved to
 send the priest Hroald, the long-winded speaker, to Erling, to
 beg him to spare them and the town; and they dissolved the array
 in favour of Hakon, as soon as Hroald told them their prayer was
 granted.  Now when the array of towns-people had dispersed, the
 men on the piers were much thinned: however, some urged Hakon's
 men to make resistance: but Onund Simonson, who had most
 influence over the army, said, "I will not fight for Earl
 Sigurd's earldom, since he is not here himself."  Then Onund
 fled, and was followed by all the people, and by the king
 himself; and they hastened up the country.  King Hakon lost many
 men here; and these verses were made about it: --
      "Onund declares he will not go
      In battle 'gainst Earl Sigurd's foe,
      If Earl Sigurd does not come,
      But with his house-men sits at home.
      King Magnus' men rush up the street,
      Eager with Hakon's troop to meet;
      But Hakon's war-hawks, somewhat shy,
      Turn quick about, and off they fly."
 Thorbjorn Skakkaskald also said: --
      "The Tunsberg men would not be slow
      In thy good cause to risk a blow;
      And well they knew the chief could stain
      The wolves' mouths on a battle-plain.
      But the town champion rather fears
      The sharp bright glance of levelled spears;
      Their steel-clad warrior loves no fight
      Where bowstring twangs, or fire flies bright."
 King Hakon then took the land-road northwards to Throndhjem. 
 When Earl Sigurd heard of this, he proceeded with all the ships
 he could get the seaway north-wards, to meet King Hakon there.
 Erling Skakke took all the ships in Tunsberg belonging to King
 Hakon, and there he also took the Baekisudin which had belonged
 to King Inge.  Then Erling proceeded, and reduced the whole of
 Viken in obedience to King Magnus, and also the whole country
 north wheresoever he appeared up to Bergen, where he remained all
 winter.  There Erling killed Ingebjorn Sipil, King Hakon's
 lenderman of the north part of the Fjord district.  In winter
 (A.D. 1162) King Hakon was in Throndhjem; but in the following
 spring he ordered a levy, and prepared to go against Erling.  He
 had with him Earl Sigurd, Jon Sveinson, Eindride Unge, Onund
 Simonson, Philip Peterson, Philip Gyrdson, Ragnvald Kunta, Sigurd
 Kapa, Sigurd Hiupa, Frirek Keina, Asbjorn of Forland, Thorbjorn,
 a son of Gunnar the treasurer, and Stradbjarne.
 Erling was in Bergen with a great armament, and resolved to lay a
 sailing prohibition on all the merchant vessels which were going
 north to Nidaros; for he knew that King Hakon would soon get
 tidings of him, if ships were sailing between the towns. 
 Besides, he gave out that it was better for Bergen to get the
 goods, even if the owners were obliged to sell them cheaper than
 they wished than that they should fall into the hands of enemies
 and thereby strengthen them.  And now a great many vessels were
 assembled at Bergen, for many arrived every day, and none were
 allowed to go away.  Then Erling let some of the lightest of his
 vessels be laid ashore, and spread the report that he would wait
 for Hakon, and, with the help of his friends and relations,
 oppose the enemy there.  He then one day called a meeting of the
 ship-masters, and gave them and all the merchant ships and their
 steersmen leave to go where they pleased.  When the men who had
 charge of the cargoes, and were all ready to sail away with their
 goods, some for trade, others on various business, had got leave
 from Erling Skakke to depart, there was a soft and favourable
 wind for sailing north along the coast.  Before the evening all
 who were ready had set sail, and hastened on as fast as they
 could, according to the speed of their vessels, the one vying
 with the other.  When this fleet came north to More, Hakon's
 fleet had arrived there before them: and he himself was there
 fully engaged in collecting people, and summoning to him the
 lendermen, and all liable to serve in the levy, without having
 for a long time heard any news from Bergen.  Now, however, they
 heard, as the latest news, that Erling Skakke had laid his ships
 up in Bergen, and there they would find him; and also that he had
 a large force with him.  King Hakon sailed from thence to Veey,
 and sent away Earl Sigurd and Onund Simonson to gather people,
 and sent men also to both the More districts.  After King Hakon
 had remained a few days at the town he sailed farther, and
 proceeded to the South, thinking that it would both promote his
 journey and enable new levies to join him sooner.
 Erling Skakke had given leave on Sunday to all the merchant
 vessels to leave Bergen; and on Tuesday, as soon as the early
 mass was over, he ordered the warhorns to sound, summoned to him
 the men-at-arms and the townsmen, and let the ships which were
 laid up on shore be drawn down into the water.  Then Erling held
 a House-Thing with his men and the people of the levy; told them
 his intentions; named ship commanders; and had the names called
 over of the men who were to be on board of the king's ship.  This
 Thing ended with Erling's order to every man to make himself
 ready in his berth wherever a place was appointed him; and
 declared that he who remained in the town after the Baekisudin
 was hauled out, should be punished by loss of life or limb.  Orm,
 the king's brother, laid his ships out in the harbour immediately
 that evening, and many others, and the greater number were afloat
 On Wednesday, before mass was sung in the town, Erling sailed
 from Bergen with all his fleet, consisting of twenty-one ships;
 and there was a fresh breeze for sailing northwards along the
 coast.  Erling had his son King Magnus with him, and there were
 many lendermen accompanied by the finest men.  When Erling came
 north, abreast of the Fjord district, he sent a boat on shore to
 Jon Halkelson's farm, and took Nikolas, a son of Simon Skalp and
 of Maria, Harald Gille's daughter, and brought him out to the
 fleet, and put him on board the king's ship.  On Friday,
 immediately after matins, they sailed to Steinavag, and King
 Hakon, with thirteen ships, was lying in the harbour in the
 neighbourhood.  He himself and his men were up at play upon the
 island, and the lendermen were sitting on the hill, when they saw
 a boat rowing from the south with two men in it, who were bending
 back deep towards the keel, and taking hasty strokes with their
 oars.  When they came to the shore they did not belay the boat,
 but both ran from it.  The great men seeing this, said to each
 other, "These men must have some news to tell;" and got up to
 meet them.  When they met, Onund Simonson asked, "Have ye any
 news of Erling Skakke, that ye are running so fast?"
 They answered, as soon as they could get out the words, for they
 had lost their breath, "Here comes Erling against you, sailing
 from the south, with twenty-one ships, or thereabouts, of which
 many are great enough; and now ye will soon see their sails." 
 Then said Eindride Unge, "Too near to the nose, said the peasant,
 when his eye was knocked out."
 They went in haste now to where the games were playing, and
 immediately the war-horns resounded, and with the battle-call all
 the people were gathered down to the ships in the greatest haste.
 It was just the time of day when their meat was nearly cooked.
 All the men rushed to the ships, and each ran on board the vessel
 that was nearest to him, so that the ships were unequally manned. 
 Some took to the oars; some raised the masts, turned the heads of
 the vessels to the north, and steered for Veey, where they
 expected much assistance from the towns.
 Soon after they saw the sails of Erling's fleet, and both fleets
 came in sight of each other.  Eindride Unge had a ship called
 Draglaun, which was a large buss-like long-ship, but which had
 but a small crew; for those who belonged to her had run on board
 of other ships, and she was therefore the hindmost of Hakon's
 fleet.  When Eindride came abreast of the island Sek, the
 Baekisudin, which Erling Skakke himself commanded, came up with
 her; and these two ships were bound fast together.  King Hakon
 and his followers had arrived close to Veey; but when they heard
 the war-horn they turned again to assist Eindride.  Now they
 began the battle on both sides, as the vessels came up.  Many of
 the sails lay midships across the vessels; and the ships were not
 made fast to each other, but they lay side by side.  The conflict
 was not long before there came disorder in Hakon's ship; and some
 fell, and others sprang overboard.  Hakon threw over him a grey
 cloak, and jumped on board another ship; but when he had been
 there a short time he thought he had got among his enemies; and
 when he looked about him he saw none of his men nor of his ships
 near him.  Then he went into the Baekisudin to the forecastle-
 men, and begged his life.  They took him in their keeping, and
 gave him quarter.  In this conflict there was a great loss of
 people, but principally of Hakon's men.  In the Baekisudin fell
 Nikolas, Simon Skalp's son; and Erling's men are accused of
 having killed him themselves.  Then there was a pause in the
 battle, and the vessels separated.  It was now told to Erling
 that Hakon was on board of his ship; that the forecastle-men had
 taken him, and threatened that they would defend him with arms.
 Erling sent men forwards in the ship to bring the forecastle-men
 his orders to guard Hakon well, so that he should not get away.
 He at the same time let it be understood that he had no objection
 to giving the king life and safety, if the other chiefs were
 willing, and a peace could be established.  All the forecastle-
 men gave their chief great credit and honour for these words.
 Then Erling ordered anew a blast of the war-horns, and that the
 ships should be attacked which had not lost their men; saying
 that they would never have such another opportunity of avenging
 King Inge.  Thereupon they all raised a war-shout, encouraged
 each other, and rushed to the assault.  In this tumult King Hakon
 received his death-wound.  When his men knew he had fallen they
 rowed with all their might against the enemy, threw away their
 shields, slashed with both hands, and cared not for life.  This
 heat and recklessness, however, proved soon a great loss to them;
 for Erling's men saw the unprotected parts of their bodies, and
 where their blows would have effect.  The greater part of Hakon's
 men who remained fell here; and it was principally owing to the
 want of numbers, as they were not enough to defend themselves.
 They could not get quarter, also excepting those whom the chiefs
 took under their protection and bound themselves to pay ransom
 for.  The following of Hakon's people fell: Sigurd Kapa, Sigurd
 Hiupa, and Ragnvald Kunta; but some ships crews got away, rowed
 into the fjords, and thus saved their lives.  Hakon's body was
 carried to Raumsdal, and buried there; but afterwards his
 brother, King Sverre, had the body transported north to the
 merchant town Nidaros, and laid in the stone wall of Christ
 church south of the choir.
 Earl Sigurd, Eindride Unge, Onund Simonson, Frirek Keina, and
 other chiefs kept the troop together, left the ships in Raumsdal,
 and went up to the Uplands.  King Magnus and his father Erling
 sailed with their troops north to Nidaros in Throndhjem, and
 subdued the country as they went along.  Erling called together
 an Eyra-thing, at which King Magnus was proclaimed king of all
 Norway.  Erling, however, remained there but a short time; for he
 thought the Throndhjem people were not well affected towards him
 and his son.  King Magnus was then called king of the whole
 King Hakon had been a handsome man in appearance, well grown,
 tall and thin; but rather broad-shouldered, on which account his
 men called him Herdebreid.  As he was young in years, his
 lendermen ruled for him.  He was cheerful and friendly in
 conversation, playful and youthful in his ways, and was much
 liked by the people.
 There was an Upland man called Markus of Skog, who was a relation
 of Earl Sigurd.  Markus brought up a son of King Sigurd Mun, who
 was also called Sigurd.  This Sigurd was chosen king (A.D. 1162)
 by the Upland people, by the advice of Earl Sigurd and the other
 chiefs who had followed King Hakon.  They had now a great army,
 and the troops were divided in two bodies; so that Markus and the
 king were less exposed where there was anything to do, and Earl
 Sigurd and his troop, along with the lendermen, were most in the
 way of danger.  They went with their troops mostly through the
 Uplands, and sometimes eastwards to Viken.  Erling Skakke had his
 son King Magnus always with him, and he had also the whole fleet
 and the land defence under him.  He was a while in Bergen in
 autumn; but went from thence eastward to Viken, where he settled
 in Tunsberg for his winter quarters (A.D. 1163), and collected in
 Viken all the taxes and revenues that belonged to Magnus as king;
 and he had many and very fine troops.  As Earl Sigurd had but a
 small part of the country, and kept many men on foot, he soon was
 in want of money; and where there was no chief in the
 neighbourhood he had to seek money by unlawful ways, -- sometimes
 by unfounded accusations and fines, sometimes by open robbery.
 At that time the realm of Norway was in great prosperity.  The
 bondes were rich and powerful, unaccustomed to hostilities or
 violence, and the oppression of roving troops; so that there was
 soon a great noise and scandal when they were despoiled and
 robbed.  The people of Viken were very friendly to Erling and
 King Magnus, principally from the popularity of the late King
 Inge Haraldson; for the Viken people had always served under his
 banner.  Erling kept a guard in the town, and twelve men were on
 watch every night.  Erling had Things regularly with the bondes,
 at which the misdeeds of Sigurd's people were often talked over;
 and by the representations of Erling and his adherents, the
 bondes were brought unanimously to consider that it would be a
 great good fortune if these bands should be rooted out.  Arne,
 the king's relation, spoke well and long on this subject, and at
 last severely; and required that all who were at the Thing, --
 men-at-arms, bondes, towns-men, and merchants, -- should come to
 the resolution to sentence according to law Earl Sigurd and all
 his troop, and deliver them to Satan, both living and dead.  From
 the animosity and hatred of the people, this was agreed to by
 all; and thus the unheard-of deed was adopted and confirmed by
 oath, as if a judgment in the case was delivered there by the
 Thing according to law.  The priest Hroald the Long-winded, who
 was a very eloquent man, spoke in the case; but his speech was to
 the same purpose as that of others who had spoken before.  Erling
 gave a feast at Yule in Tunsberg, and paid the wages of the
 men-at-arms at Candlemas.
 Earl Sigurd went with his best troops down to Viken, where many
 people were obliged to submit to his superior force, and many had
 to pay money.  He drove about thus widely higher up the country,
 penetrating into different districts.  But there were some in his
 troop who desired privately to make peace with Erling; but they
 got back the answer, that all who asked for their lives should
 obtain quarter, but they only should get leave to remain in the
 country who had not been guilty of any great offenses against
 Erling.  And when Sigurd's adherents heard that they would not
 get leave to remain in the country, they held together in one
 body; for there were many among them who knew for certain that
 Erling would look upon them as guilty of offences against him.
 Philip Gyrdson made terms with Erling, got his property back, and
 went home to his farm; but soon after Sigurd's men came there,
 and killed him.  They committed many crimes against each other,
 and many men were slain in their mutual persecution; but here
 what was committed by the chiefs only is written down.
 It was in the beginning of Lent that news came to Erling that
 Earl Sigurd intended to come upon him; and news of him came here
 and there, sometimes nearer, sometimes farther off.  Erling sent
 out spies in all quarters around to discover where they were.
 Every evening he assembled all the men-at-arms by the war-horn
 out of the town; and for a long time in the winter they lay under
 arms all night, ready to be drawn up in array.  At last Erling
 got intelligence that Sigurd and his followers were not far
 distant, up at the farm Re.  Erling then began his expedition out
 of the town, and took with him all the towns-people who were able
 to carry arms and had arms, and likewise all the merchants; and
 left only twelve men behind to keep watch in the town.  Erling
 went out of the town on Thursday afternoon, in the second week of
 Lent (February 19); and every man had two days' provisions with
 him.  They marched by night, and it was late before they got out
 of the town with the men.  Two men were with each shield and each
 horse; and the people, when mustered, were about 1200 men.  When
 they met their spies, they were informed that Sigurd was at Re,
 in a house called Rafnnes, and had 500 men.  Then Erling called
 together his people; told them the news he had received, and all
 were eager to hasten their march, fall on them in the houses, or
 engage them by night.
 Erling replied to them thus: -- "It is probable that we and Earl
 Sigurd shall soon meet.  There are also many men in this band
 whose handy-work remains in our memories; such as cutting down
 King Inge, and so many more of our friends, that it would take
 long to reckon them up.  These deeds they did by the power of
 Satan, by witchcraft, and by villainy; for it stands in our laws
 and country rights, that however highly a man may have been
 guilty, it shall be called villainy and cowardly murder to kill
 him in the night.  This band has had its luck hitherto by
 following the counsel of men acquainted with witchcraft and
 fighting by night, and not in the light of day; and by this
 proceeding have they been victorious hitherto over the chiefs
 whose heads they have laid low on the earth.  Now we have often
 seen, and proved, how unsuitable and improper it is to go into
 battle in the nighttime; therefore let us rather have before our
 eyes the example of chiefs better known to us, and who deserve
 better to be imitated, and fight by open day in regular battle
 array, and not steal upon sleeping men in the night.  We have
 people enough against them, so few as they are.  Let us,
 therefore, wait for day and daylight, and keep together in our
 array in case they attack us."
 Thereafter the whole army sat down.  Some opened up bundles of
 hay, and made a bed of it for themselves; some sat upon their
 shields, and thus waited the daydawn.  The weather was raw, and
 there was a wet snowdrift.
 Earl Sigurd got the first intelligence of Erling's army, when it
 was already near to the house.  His men got up, and armed
 themselves; but not knowing how many men Erling had with him,
 some were inclined to fly, but the most determined to stand. 
 Earl Sigurd was a man of understanding, and could talk well, but
 certainly was not considered brave enough to take a strong
 resolution; and indeed the earl showed a great inclination to
 fly, for which he got many stinging words from his men-at-arms.
 As day dawned, they began on both sides to draw up their battle
 array.  Earl Sigurd placed his men on the edge of a ridge between
 the river and the house, at a place at which a little stream runs
 into the river.  Erling and his people placed their array on the
 other side of the river; but at the back of his array were men on
 horseback well armed, who had the king with them.  When Earl
 Sigurd's men saw that there was so great a want of men on their
 side, they held a council, and were for taking to the forest. 
 But Earl Sigurd said, "Ye alleged that I had no courage, but it
 will now be proved; and let each of you take care not to fail, or
 fly, before I do so.  We have a good battle-field.  Let them
 cross the bridge; but as soon as the banner comes over it let us
 then rush down the hill upon them, and none desert his
 Earl Sigurd had on a red-brown kirtle, and a red cloak, of which
 the corners were tied and turned back; shoes on his feet; and a
 shield and sword called Bastard.  The earl said, "God knows that
 I would rather get at Erling Skakke with a stroke of Bastard,
 than receive much gold."
 Erling Skakke's army wished to go on to the bridge; but Erling
 told them to go up along the river, which was small, and not
 difficult to cross, as its banks were flat; and they did so. 
 Earl Sigurd's array proceeded up along the ridge right opposite
 to them; but as the ridge ended, and the ground was good and
 level over the river, Erling told his men to sing a Paternoster,
 and beg God to give them the victory who best deserved it.  Then
 they all sang aloud "Kyrie Eleison", and struck with their
 weapons on their shields.  But with this singing 300 men of
 Erling's people slipped away and fled.  Then Erling and his
 people went across the river, and the earl's men raised the
 war-shout; but there was no assault from the ridge down upon
 Erling's array, but the battle began upon the hill itself.  They
 first used spears then edge weapons; and the earl's banner soon
 retired so far back, that Erling and his men scaled the ridge.
 The battle lasted but a short time before the earl's men fled to
 the forest, which they had close behind them.  This was told Earl
 Sigurd, and his men bade him fly; but he replied, "Let us on
 while we can."  And his men went bravely on, and cut down on all
 sides.  In this tumult fell Earl Sigurd and Jon Sveinson, and
 nearly sixty men.  Erling lost few men, and pursued the fugitives
 to the forest.  There Erling halted his troops, and turned back.
 He came just as the king's slaves were about stripping the
 clothes off Earl Sigurd, who was not quite lifeless.  He had put
 his sword in the sheath, and it lay by his side.  Erling took it,
 struck the slaves with it, and drove them away.  Then Erling,
 with his troops, returned, and sat down in Tunsberg.  Seven days
 after Earl Sigurd's fall Erling's men took Eindride Unge
 prisoner, and killed him, with all his ship's crew.
 Markus of Skog, and King Sigurd, his foster-son, rode down to
 Viken towards spring, and there got a ship; but when Erling heard
 it he went eastwards against them, and they met at Konungahella.
 Markus fled with his followers to the island Hising; and there
 the country people of Hising came down in swarms, and placed
 themselves in Markus's and Sigurd's array.  Erling and his men
 rowed to the shore; but Markus's men shot at them.  Then Erling
 said to his people, "Let us take their ships, but not go up to
 fight with a land force.  The Hisingers are a bad set to quarrel
 with, -- hard, and without understanding.  They will keep this
 troop but a little while among them, for Hising is but a small
 spot."  This was done: they took the ships, and brought them over
 to Konungahella.  Markus and his men went up to the forest
 district, from which they intended to make assaults, and they had
 spies out on both sides.  Erling had many men-at-arms with him,
 whom he brought from other districts, and they made attacks on
 each other in turn.
 Eystein, a son of Erlend Himaide, was selected to be archbishop,
 after Archbishop Jon's death; and he was consecrated the same
 year King Inge was killed.  Now when Archbishop Eystein came to
 his see, he made himself beloved by all the country, as an
 excellent active man of high birth.  The Throndhjem people, in
 particular, received him with pleasure; for most of the great
 people in the Throndhjem district were connected with the
 archbishop by relationship or other connection, and all were his
 friends.  The archbishop brought forward a request to the bondes
 in a speech, in which he set forth the great want of money for
 the see, and also how much greater improvement of the revenues
 would be necessary to maintain it suitably, as it was now of much
 more importance than formerly when the bishop's see was first
 established.  He requested of the bondes that they should give
 him, for determining law-suits, an ore of silver value, instead
 of what they had before paid, which was an ore of judgment money,
 of that kind which was paid to the king in judging cases; and the
 difference between the two kinds of ore was, that the ore he
 desired was a half greater than the other.  By help of the
 archbishop's relations and friends, and his own activity, this
 was carried; and it was fixed by law in all the Throndhjem
 district, and in all the districts belonging to his
 When Sigurd and Markus lost their ships in the Gaut river, and
 saw they could get no hold on Erling, they went to the Uplands,
 and proceeded by land north to Throndhjem.  Sigurd was received
 there joyfully, and chosen king at an Eyra-thing; and many
 gallant men, with their sons, attached themselves to his party.
 They fitted out ships, rigged them for a voyage, and proceeded
 when summer came southwards to More, and took up all the royal
 revenues wheresoever they came.  At this time the following
 lendermen were appointed in Bergen for the defence of the
 country: -- Nikolas Sigurdson, Nokve Palson, and several military
 leaders; as Thorolf Dryl, Thorbjorn Gjaldkere, and many others.
 As Markus and Sigurd sailed south, they heard that Erling's men
 were numerous in Bergen; and therefore they sailed outside the
 coast-rocks, and southwards past Bergen.  It was generally
 remarked, that Markus's men always got a fair wind, wherever they
 wished to sail to.
 As soon as Erling Skakke heard that Sigurd and Markus had sailed
 southwards, he hastened to Viken, and drew together an armed
 force; and he soon had a great many men, and many stout ships.
 But when he came farther in Viken, he met with a strong contrary
 wind, which kept him there in port the whole summer.  Now when
 Sigurd and Markus came east to Lister, they heard that Erling had
 a great force in Viken; so they turned to the north again.  But
 when they reached Hordaland, with the intention of sailing to
 Bergen, and came opposite the town, Nikolas and his men rowed out
 against them, with more men and larger ships than they had.
 Sigurd and Markus saw no other way of escaping but to row away
 southwards.  Some of them went out to sea, others got south to
 the sound, and some got into the Fjords.  Markus, and some people
 with him, sprang upon an isle called Skarpa.  Nikolas and his men
 took their ships, gave Jon Halkelson and a few others quarter,
 but killed the most of them they could get hold of.  Some days
 after Eindride Heidafylja found Sigurd and Markus, and they were
 brought to Bergen.  Sigurd was beheaded outside of Grafdal, and
 Markus and another man were hanged at Hvarfsnes.  This took place
 on Michaelmas day (September 29, 1163), and the band which had
 followed them was dispersed.
 Frirek Keina and Bjarne the Bad, Onund Simonson and Ornolf Skorpa
 had rowed out to sea with some ships, and sailed outside along
 the land to the east.  Wheresoever they came to the land they
 plundered, and killed Erling's friends.  Now when Erling heard
 that Sigurd and Markus were killed, he gave leave to the
 lendermen and people of the levy to return home; but he himself,
 with his men, set his course eastward across the Folden fjord,
 for he heard of Markus's men there.  Erling sailed to
 Konungahella, where he remained the autumn; and in the first week
 of winter Erling went out to the island Hising with his men, and
 called the bondes to a Thing.  When the Hising people came to the
 Thing, Erling laid his law-suit against them for having joined
 the bands of Sigurd and Markus, and having raised men against
 him.  Assur was the name of one of the greatest of the bondes on
 the island, and he answered Erling on account of the others.  The
 Thing was long assembled; but at the close the bondes gave the
 case into Erling's own power, and he appointed a meeting in the
 town within one week, and named fifteen bondes who should appear
 there.  When they came, he condemned them to pay a penalty of 300
 head of cattle; and the bondes returned home ill pleased at this
 sentence.  Soon after the Gaut river was frozen, and Erling's
 ships were fast in the ice; and the bondes kept back the mulct,
 and lay assembled for some time.  Erling made a Yule feast in the
 town; but the Hising people had joint-feasts with each other, and
 kept under arms during Yule.  The night after the fifth day of
 Yule Erling went up to Hising, surrounded Assur's house, and
 burnt him in it.  He killed one hundred men in all, burnt three
 houses, and then returned to Konungahella.  The bondes came then,
 according to agreement, to pay the mulct.
 Erling Skakke made ready to sail in spring as soon as he could
 get his ships afloat for ice, and sailed from Konungahella; for
 he heard that those who had formerly been Markus's friends were
 marauding in the north of Viken.  Erling sent out spies to learn
 their doings, searched for them, and found them lying in a
 harbour.  Onund Simonson and Ornolf Skorpa escaped, but Frirek
 Keina and Bjarne the Bad were taken, and many of their followers
 were killed.  Erling had Frirek bound to an anchor and thrown
 overboard; and for that deed Erling was much detested in the
 Throndhjem country, for the most powerful men there were
 relatives of Frirek.  Erling ordered Bjarne the Bad to be hanged;
 and he uttered, according to his custom, many dreadful
 imprecations during his execution.  Thorbjorn Skakkaskald tells
 of this business: --
      "East of the Fjord beyond the land,
      Unnoticed by the pirate band,
      Erling stole on them ere they knew,
      And seized and killed all Keina's crew.
      Keina, fast to an anchor bound,
      Was thrown into the deep-blue Sound;
      And Bjarne swung high on gallows-tree,
      A sight all good men loved to see."
 Onund and Ornolf, with the band that had escaped, fled to
 Denmark; but were sometimes in Gautland, or in Viken.
 Erling Skakke sailed after this to Tunsberg, and remained there
 very long in spring (A.D. 1164); but when summer came he
 proceeded north to Bergen, where at that time a great many people
 were assembled.  There was the legate from Rome, Stephanus; the
 Archbishop Eystein, and other bishops of the country.  There was
 also Bishop Brand, who was consecrated bishop of Iceland, and Jon
 Loptson, a daughter's son of King Magnus Barefoot; and on this
 occasion King Magnus and Jon's other relations acknowledged the
 relationship with him.
 Archbishop Eystein and Erling Skakke often conversed together in
 private; and, among other things, Erling asked one day, "Is it
 true, sir, what people tell me, that you have raised the value of
 the ore upon the people north in Throndhjem, in the law cases in
 which money-fees are paid you ?"
 "It is so," said the archbishop, "that the bondes have allowed me
 an advance on the ore of law casualties; but they did it
 willingly, and without any kind of compulsion, and have thereby
 added to their honour for God and the income of the bishopric."
 Erling replies, "Is this according to the law of the holy Olaf?
 or have you gone to work more arbitrarily in this than is written
 down in the lawbook?"
 The archbishop replies, "King Olaf the Holy fixed the laws, to
 which he received the consent and affirmative of the people; but
 it will not be found in his laws that it is forbidden to increase
 God's right."
 Erling: "If you augment your right, you must assist us to augment
 as much the king's right."
 The archbishop: "Thou hast already augmented enough thy son's
 power and dominion; and if I have exceeded the law in taking an
 increase of the ore from the Throndhjem people, it is, I think, a
 much greater breach of the law that one is king over the country
 who is not a king's son, and which has neither any support in the
 law, nor in any precedent here in the country."
 Erling: "When Magnus was chosen king, it was done with your
 knowledge and consent, and also of all the other bishops here in
 the country."
 Archbishop: "You promised then, Erling, that provided we gave our
 consent to electing Magnus king, you would, on all occasions, and
 with all your power, strengthen God's rights."
 Erling: "I may well admit that I have promised to preserve and
 strengthen God's commands and the laws of the land with all my
 power, and with the king's strength; and now I consider it to be
 much more advisable, instead of accusing each other of a breach
 of our promises, to hold firmly by the agreement entered into
 between us.  Do you strengthen Magnus in his dominion, according
 to what you have promised; and I will, on my part, strengthen
 your power in all that can be of advantage or honour."
 The conversation now took a more friendly turn; and Erling said,
 "Although Magnus was not chosen king according to what has been
 the old custom of this country, yet can you with your power give
 him consecration as king, as God's law prescribes, by anointing
 the king to sovereignty; and although I be neither a king, nor of
 kingly race, yet most of the kings, within my recollection, have
 not known the laws or the constitution of the country so well as
 I do.  Besides, the mother of King Magnus is the daughter of a
 king and queen born in lawful wedlock, and Magnus is son of a
 queen and a lawfully married wife.  Now if you will give him
 royal consecration, no man can take royalty from him.  William
 Bastard was not a king's son; but he was consecrated and crowned
 king of England, and the royalty in England has ever since
 remained with his race, and all have been crowned.  Svein Ulfson
 was not a king's son in Denmark, and still he was a crowned king,
 and his sons likewise, and all his descendants have been crowned
 kings.  Now we have here in Norway an archiepiscopal seat, to the
 glory and honour of the country; let us also have a crowned king,
 as well as the Danes and Englishmen."
 Erling and the archbishop afterwards talked often of this matter,
 and they were quite agreed.  Then the archbishop brought the
 business before the legate, and got him easily persuaded to give
 his consent.  Thereafter the archbishop called together the
 bishops, and other learned men, and explained the subject to
 them.  They all replied in the same terms, that they would follow
 the counsels of the archbishop, and all were eager to promote the
 consecration as soon as the archbishop pleased.
 Erling Skakke then had a great feast prepared in the king's
 house.  The large hall was covered with costly cloth and
 tapestry, and adorned with great expense.  The court-men and all
 the attendants were there entertained, and there were numerous
 guests, and many chiefs.  Then King Magnus received the royal
 consecration from the Archbishop Eystein; and at the consecration
 there were five other bishops and the legate, besides a number of
 other clergy.  Erling Skakke, and with him twelve other
 lendermen, administered to the king the oath of the law; and the
 day of the consecration the king and Erling had the legate, the
 archbishop, and all the other bishops as guests; and the feast
 was exceedingly magnificent, and the father and son distributed
 many great presents.  King Magnus was then eight years of age,
 and had been king for three years.
 When the Danish king Valdemar heard the news from Norway that
 Magnus was become king of the whole country, and all the other
 parties in the country were rooted out, he sent his men with a
 letter to King Magnus and Erling, and reminded them of the
 agreement which Erling had entered into, under oath, with King
 Valdemar, of which we have spoken before; namely, that Viken from
 the east to Rygiarbit should be ceded to King Valdemar, if Magnus
 became the sole king of Norway.  When the ambassadors came
 forward and showed Erling the letter of the Danish king, and he
 heard the Danish king's demand upon Norway, he laid it before the
 other chiefs by whose counsels he usually covered his acts.  All,
 as one man, replied that the Danes should never hold the
 slightest portion of Norway; for never had things been worse in
 the land than when the Danes had power in it.  The ambassadors of
 the Danish king were urgent with Erling for an answer, and
 desired to have it decided; but Erling begged them to proceed
 with him east to Viken, and said he would give his final answer
 when he had met with the men of most understanding and influence
 in Viken.
 Erling Skakke proceeded in autumn to Viken, and stayed in
 Tunsberg, from whence he sent people to Sarpsborg to summon a
 Thing (1) of four districts; and then Erling went there with his
 When the Thing was seated Erling made a speech in which he
 explained the resolutions which had been settled upon between him
 and the Danish king, the first time he collected troops against
 his enemies.  "I will," said Erling, "keep faithfully the
 agreement which we then entered into with the king, if it be your
 will and consent, bondes, rather to serve the Danish king than
 the king who is now consecrated and crowned king of this
 The bondes replied thus to Erling's speech: "Never will we become
 the Danish king's men, as long as one of us Viken men is in
 life."  And the whole assembly, with shouts and cries, called on
 Erling to keep the oath he had taken to defend his son's
 dominions, "should we even all follow thee to battle."  And so
 the Thing was dissolved.
 The ambassadors of the Danish king then returned home, and told
 the issue of their errand.  The Danes abused Erling, and all
 Northmen, and declared that evil only proceeded from them; and
 the report was spread, that in Spring the Danish king would send
 out an army and lay waste Norway.  Erling returned in autumn
 north to Bergen, stayed there all winter, and gave their pay to
 his people.
 (1)  This reference to a Thing of the people in the affairs of
      the country is a striking example of the right of the Things
      being recognised, in theory at least, as fully as the right
      of our parliaments in later times. -- L.
 The same winter (A.D. 1165) some Danish people came by land
 through the Uplands, saying they were to go, as was then the
 general practice, to the holy King Olaf's festival.  But when
 they came to the Throndhjem country, they went to many men of
 influence, and told their business; which was, that the Danish
 king had sent them to desire their friendship, and consent, if he
 came to the country, promising them both power and money.  With
 this verbal message came also the Danish king's letter and seal,
 and a message to the Throndhjem people that they should send back
 their letters and seals to him.  They did so, and the most of
 them received well the Danish king's message; whereupon the
 messengers returned back towards Lent.  Erling was in Bergen; and
 towards spring Erling's friends told him the loose reports they
 had heard by some merchant vessels that had arrived from
 Throndhjem, that the Throndhjem people were in hostility openly
 against him; and had declared that if Erling came to Throndhjem,
 he should never pass Agdanes in life.  Erling said this was mere
 folly and idle talk.  Erling now made it known that he would go
 to Unarheim to the Gangdag-thing; and ordered a cutter of twenty
 rowing benches to be fitted out, a boat of fifteen benches, and a
 provision-ship.  When the vessels were ready, there came a strong
 southerly gale.  On the Thursday of the Ascension week, Erling
 called his people by sound of trumpet to their departure; but the
 men were loath to leave the town, and were ill inclined to row
 against the wind.  Erling brought his vessels to Biskupshafn.
 "Well," said Erling, "since ye are so unwilling to row against
 the wind, raise the mast, hoist the sails, and let the ship go
 north."  They did so, and sailed northwards both day and night.
 On Wednesday, in the evening, they sailed in past Agdanes, where
 they found a fleet assembled of many merchant vessels, rowing
 craft, and boats, all going towards the town to the celebration
 of the festival, -- some before them, some behind them -- so that
 the townspeople paid no attention to the long-ships coming.
 Erling came to the town just as vespers was being sung in Christ
 church.  He and his men ran into the town, to where it was told
 them that the lenderman, Alf Rode, a son of Ottar Birting, was
 still sitting at table, and drinking with his men.  Erling fell
 upon them; and Alf was killed, with almost all his men.  Few
 other men were killed; for they had almost all gone to church, as
 this was the night before Christ's Ascension-day.  In the morning
 early, Erling called all the people by sound of trumpet to a
 Thing out upon Evrar.  At the Thing Erling laid a charge against
 the Throndhjem people, accusing them of intending to betray the
 country, and take it from the king; and named Bard Standale, Pal
 Andreason, and Razabard, who then presided over the town's
 affairs, and many others.  They, in their defence, denied the
 accusation; but Erling's writer stood up, produced many letters
 with seals, and asked if they acknowledged their seals which they
 had sent to the Danish king; and thereupon the letters were read.
 There was also a Danish man with Erling who had gone with the
 letters in winter, and whom Erling for that purpose had taken
 into his service.  He told to these men the very words which each
 of them had used.  "And you, Razabard, spoke, striking your
 breast; and the very words you used were, `Out of this breast are
 all these counsels produced.'"  Bard replied, "I was wrong in the
 head, sirs, when I spoke so."  There was now nothing to be done
 but to submit the case entirely to the sentence Erling might give
 upon it.  He took great sums of money from many as fines, and
 condemned all those who had been killed as lawless, and their
 deeds as lawless; making their deaths thereby not subject to
 mulct.  Then Erling returned south to Bergen.
 The Danish king Valdemar assembled in spring (A.D. 1165) a great
 army, and proceeded with it north to Viken.  As soon as he
 reached the dominions of the king of Norway, the bondes assembled
 in a great multitude.  The king advanced peacefully; but when
 they came to the mainland, the people shot at them even when
 there were only two or three together, from which the ill-will of
 the country people towards them was evident.  When they came to
 Tunsberg, King Valdemar summoned a Hauga-thing; but nobody
 attended it from the country parts.  Then Valdemar spoke thus to
 his troops: "It is evident that all the country-people are
 against us; and now we have two things to choose: the one to go
 through the country, sword in hand, sparing neither man nor
 beast; the other is to go back without effecting our object.  And
 it is more my inclination to go with the army to the East against
 the heathens, of whom we have enough before us in the East
 country, than to kill Christian people here, although they have
 well deserved it."  All the others had a greater desire for a
 foray; but the king ruled, and they all returned back to Denmark
 without effecting their purpose.  They pillaged, however, all
 around in the distant islands, or where the king was not in the
 neighbourhood.  They then returned south to Denmark without doing
 As soon as Erling heard that a Danish force had come to Viken, he
 ordered a levy through all the land, both of men and ships, so
 that there was a great assemblage of men in arms; and with this
 force he proceeded eastward along the coast.  But when he came to
 Lidandisnes, he heard that the Danish army had returned south to
 Denmark, after plundering all around them in Viken.  Then Erling
 gave all the people of the levy permission to return home; but he
 himself and some lendermen, with many vessels, sailed to Jutland
 after the Danes.  When they came to a place called Dyrsa, the
 Danes who had returned from the expedition lay there with many
 ships.  Erling gave them battle, and there was a fight, in which
 the Danes soon fled with the loss of many people; and Erling and
 his men plundered the ships and the town, and made a great booty,
 with which they returned to Norway.  Thereafter, for a time,
 there was hostility between Norway and Denmark.
 The princess Krisfin went south in autumn (A.D. 1165) to Denmark,
 to visit her relation King Valdemar, who was her cousin.  The
 king received her kindly, and gave her fiefs in his kingdom, so
 that she could support her household well.  She often conversed
 with the king, who was remarkably kind towards her.  In the
 spring following (A.D. 1166) Kristin sent to Erling, and begged
 him to pay a visit to the Danish king, and enter into a peace
 with him.  In summer Erling was in Viken, where he fitted out a
 long-ship, manned it with his finest lads, and sailed (a single
 ship) over to Jutland.  When he heard that the Danish king
 Valdemar was in Randaros, Erling sailed thither, and came to the
 town just as the king sat at the dinner-table, and most of the
 people were taking their meal.  When his people had made
 themselves ready according to Erling's orders, set up the
 ship-tents, and made fast the ship, Erling landed with twelve
 men, all in armour, with hats over their helmets, and swords
 under their cloaks.  They went to the king's lodging, where the
 doors stood open, and the dishes were being carried in.  Erling
 and his people went in immediately, and drew up in front of the
 high-seat.  Erling said, "Peace and safe conduct we desire, king,
 both here and to return home."
 The king looked at him, and said, "Art thou here, Erling?"
 He replies, "Here is Erling; and tell us, at once, if we shall
 have peace and safe conduct."
 There were eighty of the king's men in the room, but all unarmed.
 The king replies, "Peace ye shall have, Erling, according to thy
 desire; for I will not use force or villainy against a man who
 comes to visit me."
 Erling then kissed the king's hand, went out, and down to his
 ship.  Erling stayed at Randaros some time with the king, and
 they talked about terms of peace between them and between the
 countries.  They agreed that Erling should remain as hostage with
 the Danish king; and that Asbjorn Snara, Bishop Absalon's
 brother, should go to Norway as hostage on the other part. 
 In a conference which King Valdemar and Erling once had together.
 Erling said, "Sire, it appears to me likely that it might lead to
 a peace between the countries if you got that part of Norway
 which was promised you in our agreement; but if it should be so,
 what chief would you place over it?  Would he be a Dane?"
 "No," replied the king; "no Danish chief would go to Norway,
 where he would have to manage an obstinate hard people, when he
 has it so easy here with me."
 Erling: "It was on that very consideration that I came here; for
 I would not on any account in the world deprive myself of the
 advantage of your friendship.  In days of old other men, Hakon
 Ivarson and Fin Arnason, came also from Norway to Denmark, and
 your predecessor, King Svein, made them both earls.  Now I am not
 a man of less power in Norway than they were then, and my
 influence is not less than theirs; and the king gave them the
 province of Halland to rule over, which he himself had and owned
 before.  Now it appears to me, sire, that you, if I become your
 man and vassal, can allow me to hold of you the fief which my son
 Magnus will not deny me, by which I will be bound in duty, and
 ready, to undertake all the service belonging to that title."
 Erling spoke such things, and much more in the same strain, until
 it came at last to this, that Erling became Valdemar's man and
 vassal; and the king led Erling to the earl's seat one day, and
 gave him the title of earl, and Viken as a fief under his rule.
 Earl Erling went thereafter to Norway, and was earl afterwards as
 long as he lived; and also the peace with the Danish king was
 afterwards always preserved.  Earl Erling had four sons by his
 concubines.  The one was called Hreidar, the next Ogmund; and
 these by two different mothers: the third was called Fin; the
 fourth Sigurd: these were younger, and their mother was Asa the
 Fair.  The princess Kristin and Earl Erling had a daughter called
 Ragnhild, who was married to Jon Thorbergson of Randaberg.
 Kristin went away from the country with a man called Grim Rusle;
 and they went to Constantinople, where they were for a time, and
 had some children.
 Olaf, a son of Gudbrand Skafhaug, and Maria, a daughter of King
 Eystein Magnuson, were brought up in the house of Sigurd Agnhot
 in the Uplands.  While Earl Erling was in Denmark (A.D. 1166),
 Olaf and his foster-father gathered a troop together, and many
 Upland people joined them; and Olaf was chosen king by them. 
 They went with their bands through the Uplands, and sometimes
 down to Viken, and sometimes east to the forest settlements; but
 never came on board of ships.  Now when, Earl Erling got news of
 this troop, he hastened to Viken with his forces; and was there
 in summer in his ships, and in Oslo in autumn (A.D. 1167) and
 kept Yule there.  He had spies up the country after this troop,
 and went himself, along with Orm, the King-brother, up the
 country to follow them.  Now when they came to a lake called....
 .... (1) they took all the vessels that were upon the lake.
 (1)  The name of the lake not given.
 The priest who performed divine service at a place called
 Rydiokul, close by the lake, invited the earl to a feast at
 Candlemas.  The earl promised to come; and thinking it would be
 good to hear mass there, he rowed with his attendants over the
 lake the night before Candlemas day.  But the priest had another
 plan on hand.  He sent men to bring Olaf news of Earl Erling's
 arrival.  The priest gave Erling strong drink in the evening, and
 let him have an excessive quantity of it.  When the earl wished
 to lie down and sleep, the beds were made ready in the drinking-
 room; but when they had slept a short time the earl awoke, and
 asked if it was not the hour for matins.  The priest replied,
 that only a small part of the night was gone, and told him to
 sleep in peace.  The earl replied, "I dream of many things
 to-night, and I sleep ill." He slumbered again, but awoke soon,
 and told the priest to get up and sing mass.  The priest told the
 earl to sleep, and said it was but midnight.  Then the earl again
 lay down, slept a little while, and, springing out of bed,
 ordered his men to put on their clothes.  They did so; took their
 weapons, went to the church, and laid their arms outside while
 the priest was singing matins.
 As Olaf got the message in the evening, they travelled in the
 night six miles, which people considered an extraordinarily long
 march.  They arrived at Rydiokul while the priest was still
 singing mass, and it was pitch-dark.  Olaf and his men went into
 the room, raised a war-shout, and killed some of the earl's men
 who had not gone to the early mass.  Now when Erling and his men
 heard the war-shout, they ran to their weapons, and hastened down
 to their ships.  Olaf and his men met them at a fence, at which
 there was a sharp conflict.  Erling and his men retreated along
 the fence, which protected them.  Erling had far fewer men, and
 many of them had fallen, and still more were wounded.  What
 helped Earl Erling and his men the most was, that Olaf's men
 could not distinguish them, it was so dark; and the earl's men
 were always drawing down to their ships.  Are Thorgeirson, father
 of Bishop Gudmund fell there, and many other of Erling's court-
 men.  Erling himself was wounded in the left side; but some say
 he did it himself in drawing his sword.  Orm the King-brother was
 also severely wounded; and with great difficulty they escaped to
 their ships, and instantly pushed off from land.  It was
 generally considered as a most unlucky meeting for Olaf's people,
 as Earl Erling was in a manner sold into their hands, if they had
 proceeded with common prudence.  He was afterwards called Olaf
 the Unlucky; but others called his people Hat-lads.  They went
 with their bands through the Uplands as before.  Erling again
 went down to Viken to his ships, and remained there all summer.
 Olaf was in the Uplands, and sometimes east in the forest
 districts, where he and his troop remained all the next winter
 (A.D. 1168).
 The following spring the Hat-lads went down to Viken, and raised
 the king's taxes all around, and remained there long in summer.
 When Earl Erling heard this, he hastened with his troops to meet
 them in Viken, and fell in with them east of the Fjord, at a
 place called Stangar; where they had a great battle, in which
 Erling was victorious.  Sigurd Agnhot, and many others of Olaf's
 men, fell there; but Olaf escaped by flight, went south to
 Denmark, and was all winter (A.D. 1169) in Alaborg in Jutland.
 The following spring Olaf fell into an illness which ended in
 death, and he was buried in the Maria church; and the Danes call
 him a saint.
 King Magnus had a lenderman called Nikolas Kufung, who was a son
 of Pal Skaptason.  He took Harald prisoner, who called himself a
 son of King Sigurd Haraldson and the princess Kristin, and a
 brother of King Magnus by the mother's side.  Nikolas brought
 Harald to Bergen, and delivered him into Earl Erling's hands.  It
 was Erling's custom when his enemies came before him, that he
 either said nothing to them, or very little, and that in all
 gentleness, when he had determined to put them to death; or rose
 with furious words against them, when he intended to spare their
 lives.  Erling spoke but little to Harald, and many, therefore,
 suspected his intentions; and some begged King Magnus to put in a
 good word for Harald with the earl; and the king did so.  The
 earl replies, "Thy friends advise thee badly.  Thou wouldst
 govern this kingdom but a short time in peace and safety, if thou
 wert to follow the counsels of the heart only."  Earl Erling
 ordered Harald to be taken to Nordnes, where he was beheaded.
 There was a man called Eystein, who gave himself out for a son of
 King Eystein Haraldson.  He was at this time young, and not full
 grown.  It is told of him that he one summer appeared in
 Svithjod, and went to Earl Birger Brosa, who was then married to
 Brigida, Eystein's aunt, a daughter of King Harald Gille. 
 Eystein explained his business to him, and asked their
 assistance.  Both Earl Birger and his wife listened to him in a
 friendly way, and promised him their confidence, and he stayed
 with them a while.  Earl Birger gave him some assistance of men,
 and a good sum for travelling expenses; and both promised him
 their friendship on his taking leave.  Thereafter Eystein
 proceeded north into Norway (A.D. 1174), and when he came down to
 Viken people flocked to him in crowds; and Eystein was there
 proclaimed king, and he remained in Viken in winter.  As they
 were very poor in money, they robbed all around, wherefore the
 lendermen and bondes raised men against them; and being thus
 overpowered by numbers, they fled away to the forests and
 deserted hill grounds, where they lived for a long time.  Their
 clothes being worn out, they wound the bark of the birch-tree
 about their legs, and thus were called by the bondes Birkebeins.
 They often rushed down upon the settled districts, pushed on here
 or there, and made an assault where they did not find many people
 to oppose them.  They had several battles with the bondes with
 various success; and the Birkebeins held three battles in regular
 array, and gained the victory in them all.  At Krokaskog they had
 nearly made an unlucky expedition, for a great number of bondes
 and men-at-arms were assembled there against them; but the
 Birkebeins felled brushwood across the roads, and retired into
 the forest.  They were two years (A.D. 1175-1176) in Viken before
 they showed themselves in the northern parts of the country.
 Magnus had been king for thirteen years when the Birkebeins first
 made their appearance.  They got themselves ships in the third
 summer (A.D. 1176), with which they sailed along the coast
 gathering goods and men.  They were first in Viken; but when
 summer advanced they proceeded northwards, and so rapidly that no
 news preceded them until they came to Throndhjem.  The
 Birkebeins' troop consisted principally of hill-men and Elfgrims,
 and many were from Thelemark; and all were well armed.  Their
 king, Eystein, was a handsome man, and with a little but good
 countenance; and he was not of great stature, for his men called
 him Eystein Meyla.  King Magnus and Earl Erling were in Bergen
 when the Birkebeins sailed past it to the north; but they did not
 hear of them.
 Earl Erling was a man of great understanding and power, an
 excellent leader in war, and an able and prudent ruler of the
 country; but he had the character of being cruel and severe.  The
 cause of this was principally that he never allowed his enemies
 to remain in the country, even when they prayed to him for mercy;
 and therefore many joined the bands which were collected against
 him.  Erling was a tall strong-made man, somewhat short-necked
 and high-shouldered; had a long and sharp countenance of a light
 complexion, and his hair became very grey.  He bore his head a
 little on one side; was free and agreeable in his manners.  He
 wore the old fashion of clothes, -- long body-pieces and long
 arms to his coats, foreign cloak, and high shoes.  He made the
 king wear the same kind of dress in his youth; but when he grew
 up, and acted for himself, he dressed very sumptuously.
 King Magnus was of a light turn of mind, full of jokes; a great
 lover of mirth, and not less of women.
 Nikolas was a son of Sigurd Hranason and of Skialdvor, a daughter
 of Brynjolf Ulfalde, and a sister of Haldor Brynjolfson by the
 father's side, and of King Magnus Barefoot by the mother's side.
 Nikolas was a distinguished chief, who had a farm at Ongul in
 Halogaland, which was called Steig.  Nikolas had also a house in
 Nidaros, below Saint Jon's church, where Thorgeir the scribe
 lately dwelt.  Nikolas was often in the town, and was president
 of the townspeople.  Skialdvor, Nikolas's daughter, was married
 to Eirik Arnason, who was also a lenderman.
 As the people of the town were coming from matins the last day of
 Marymas (September 8th), Eirik came up to Nikolas, and said,
 "Here are some fishermen come from the sea, who report that some
 long-ships are sailing into the fjord; and people conjecture that
 these may be the Birkebeins.  It would be advisable to call the
 townspeople together with the war-horns, to meet under arms out
 on Eyrar."
 Nikolas replies, "I don't go after fishermen's reports; but I
 shall send out spies to the fjord, and in the meantime hold a
 Thing to-day."
 Eirik went home; but when they were ringing to high mass, and
 Nikolas was going to church, Eirik came to hint again, and said,
 "I believe the news to be true; for here are men who say they saw
 them under sail; and I think it would be most advisable to ride
 out of town, and gather men with arms; for it appears to me the
 townspeople will be too few."
 Nikolas replies, "Thou art mixing everything together; let us
 first hear mass, and then take our resolution."
 Nikolas then went into the church.  When the mass was over Eirik
 went to Nikolas, and said, "My horses are saddled; I will ride
 Nikolas replies, "Farewell, then: we will hold a Thing to-day on
 the Eyrar, and examine what force of men there may be in the
 Eirik rode away, and Nikolas went to his house, and then to
 The meat was scarcely put on the table, when a man came into the
 house to tell Nikolas that the Birkebeins were roving up the
 river.  Then Nikolas called to his men to take their weapons.
 When they were armed Nikolas ordered them to go up into the loft.
 But that was a most imprudent step; for if they had remained in
 the yard, the townspeople might have come to their assistance;
 but now the Birkebeins filled the whole yard, and from thence
 scrambled from all sides up to the loft.  They called to Nikolas,
 and offered him quarter, but he refused it.  Then they attacked
 the loft.  Nikolas and his men defended themselves with bow-shot,
 hand-shot, and stones of the chimney; but the Birkebeins hewed
 down the houses, broke up the loft, and returned shot for shot
 from bow or hand.  Nikolas had a red shield in which were gilt
 nails, and about it was a border of stars.  The Birkebeins shot
 so that the arrows went in up to the arrow feather.  Then said
 Nikolas, "My shield deceives me."  Nikolas and a number of his
 people fell, and his death was greatly lamented.  The Birkebeins
 gave all the towns-people their lives.
 Eystein was then proclaimed king, and all the people submitted to
 him.  He stayed a while in the town, and then went into the
 interior of the Throndhjem land, where many joined him, and among
 them Thorfin Svarte of Snos with a troop of people.  When the
 Birkebeins, in the beginning of winter (A.D. 1177), came again
 into the town, the sons of Gudrun from Saltnes, Jon Ketling,
 Sigurd, and William, joined them; and when they proceeded
 afterwards from Nidaros up Orkadal, they could number nearly 2000
 men.  They afterwards went to the Uplands, and on to Thoten and
 Hadaland, and from thence to Ringerike, and subdued the country
 wheresover they came.
 King Magnus went eastward to Viken in autumn with a part of his
 men and with him Orm, the king's brother; but Earl Erling
 remained behind in Bergen to meet the Berkebeins in case they
 took the sea route.  King Magnus went to Tunsberg, where he and
 Orm held their Yule (A.D. 1177).  When King Magnus heard that the
 Birkebeins were up in Re, the king and Orm proceeded thither with
 their men.  There was much snow, and it was dreadfully cold. 
 When they came to the farm they left the beaten track on the
 road, and drew up their array outside of the fence, and trod a
 path through the snow with their men, who were not quite 1500 in
 number.  The Birkebeins were dispersed here and there in other
 farms, a few men in each house.  When they perceived King
 Magnus's army they assembled, and drew up in regular order; and
 as they thought their force was larger than his, which it
 actually was, they resolved to fight; but when they hurried
 forward to the road only a few could advance at a time, which
 broke their array, and the men fell who first advanced upon the
 beaten way.  Then the Birkebeins' banner was cut down; those who
 were nearest gave way and some took to flight.  King Magnus's men
 pursued them, and killed one after the other as they came up with
 them.  Thus the Birkebeins could never form themselves in array;
 and being exposed to the weapons of the enemy singly, many of
 them fell, and many fled.  It happened here, as it often does,
 that although men be brave and gallant, if they have once been
 defeated and driven to flight, they will not easily be brought to
 turn round.  Now the main body of the Birkebeins began to fly,
 and many fell; because Magnus's men killed all they could lay
 hold of, and not one of them got quarter.  The whole body became
 scattered far and wide.  Eystein in his flight ran into a house,
 and begged for his life, and that the bonde would conceal him;
 but the bonde killed him, and then went to King Magnus, whom he
 found at Rafnnes, where the king was in a room warming himself by
 the fire along with many people.  Some went for the corpse, and
 bore it into the room, where the king told the people to come and
 inspect the body.  A man was sitting on a bench in the corner,
 and he was a Birkebein, but nobody had observed him; and when he
 saw and recognised his chief's body he sprang up suddenly and
 actively, rushed out upon the floor, and with an axe he had in
 his hands made a blow at King Magnus's neck between the
 shoulders.  A man saw the axe swinging, and pulled the king to a
 side, by which the axe struck lower in the shoulder, and made a
 large wound.  He then raised the axe again, and made a blow at
 Orm, the King-brother, who was lying on a bench, and the blow was
 directed at both legs; but Orm seeing the man about to kill him,
 drew in his feet instantly, threw them over his head, and the
 blow fell on the bench, in which the axe stuck fast; and then the
 blows at the Birkebein came so thick that he could scarcely fall
 to the ground.  It was discovered that he had dragged his
 entrails after him over the floor; and this man's bravery was
 highly praised.  King Magnus's men followed the fugitives, and
 killed so many that they were tired of it.  Thorfin of Snos, and
 a very great number of Throndhjem people, fell there.
 The faction which called itself the Birkebeins had gathered
 together in great numbers.  They were a hardy people, and the
 boldest of men under arms; but wild, and going forward madly when
 they had a strong force.  They had few men in their faction who
 were good counsellors, or accustomed to rule a country by law, or
 to head an army; and if there were such men among them who had
 more knowledge, yet the many would only allow of those measures
 which they liked, trusting always to their numbers and courage.
 Of the men who escaped many were wounded, and had lost both their
 clothes and their arms, and were altogether destitute of money.
 Some went east to the borders, some went all the way east to
 Svithjod; but the most of them went to Thelemark, where they had
 their families.  All took flight, as they had no hope of getting
 their lives from King Magnus or Earl Erling.
 King Magnus then returned to Tunsberg, and got great renown by
 this victory; for it had been an expression in the mouths of all,
 that Earl Erling was the shield and support of his son and
 himself.  But after gaining a victory over so strong and numerous
 a force with fewer troops, King Magnus was considered by all as
 surpassing other leaders, and that he would become a warrior as
 much greater than his father, Earl Erling, as he was younger.
 [End of Snorri Sturlson's "Heimskringla"]