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 Harald, son of Sigurd Syr, was born in the year A.D. 1015, and
 left Norway A.D. 1030.  He was called Hardrade, that is, the
 severe counsellor, the tyrant, though the Icelanders never
 applied this epithet to him.  Harald helped the Icelanders in the
 famine of A.D. 1056, and sent them timber for a church at
 Thingvol.  It was the Norwegians who gave him the name tyrant in
 contrast to the "debonairete" of Magnus.  He came to Norway in
 A.D. 1046, and became sole king in A.D. 1047.  He died in A.D.
 1066, and his son and successor Magnus died in A.D. 1069.
 His saga is to be compared with "Agrip", "Fagrskinna", and
 The skalds quoted are: Thiodolf, Bolverk, Illuge Bryndalaskald,
 Stuf the skald, Thorarin Skeggjason, Valgard o' Val, Od
 Kikinaskald, Grane Skald, Thorleik the Fair, Stein Herdison, Ulf
 the Marshal, Arnor the earls' skald, Thorkel Skallason, and King
 Harald Hardrade himself.
 Harald, son of Sigurd Syr, brother of Olaf the Saint, by the same
 mother, was at the battle of Stiklestad, and was fifteen years
 old when King Olaf the Saint fell, as was before related.  Harald
 was wounded, and escaped with other fugitives.  So says Thiodolf:
      "At Haug the fire-sparks from his shield
      Flew round the king's head on the field,
      As blow for blow, for Olaf's sake,
      His sword and shield would give and take. 
      Bulgaria's conqueror, I ween,
      Had scarcely fifteen winters seen,
      When from his murdered brother's side
      His unhelmed head he had to hide."
 Ragnvald Brusason led Harald from the battle, and the night after
 the fray took him to a bonde who dwelt in a forest far from other
 people.  The peasant received Harald, and kept him concealed; and
 Harald was waited upon until he was quite cured of his wounds.
 Then the bonde's son attended him on the way east over the ridge
 of the land, and they went by all the forest paths they could,
 avoiding the common road.  The bonde's son did not know who it
 was he was attending; and as they were riding together between
 two uninhabited forests, Harald made these verses:
      "My wounds were bleeding as I rode;
      And down below the bondes strode,
      Killing the wounded with the sword,
      The followers of their rightful lord.
      From wood to wood I crept along,
      Unnoticed by the bonde-throng;
      `Who knows,' I thought, `a day may come
      My name will yet be great at home.'"
 He went eastward over the ridge through Jamtaland and
 Helsingjaland, and came to Svithjod, where he found Ragnvald
 Brusason, and many others of King Olaf's men who had fled from
 the battle at Stiklestad, and they remained there till winter was
 The spring after (A.D. 1031) Harald and Ragnvald got ships, and
 went east in summer to Russia to King Jarisleif, and were with
 him all the following winter.  So says the skald Bolverk: --
      "The king's sharp sword lies clean and bright,
      Prepared in foreign lands to fight:
      Our ravens croak to have their fill,
      The wolf howls from the distant hill.
      Our brave king is to Russia gone, --
      Braver than he on earth there's none;
      His sharp sword will carve many feast
      To wolf and raven in the East."
 King Jarisleif gave Harald and Ragnvald a kind reception, and
 made Harald and Ellif, the son of Earl Ragnvald, chiefs over the
 land-defence men of the king.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "Where Ellif was, one heart and hand
      The two chiefs had in their command;
      In wedge or line their battle order
      Was ranged by both without disorder.
      The eastern Vindland men they drove
      Into a corner; and they move
      The Lesians, although ill at ease,
      To take the laws their conquerors please."
 Harald remained several years in Russia, and travelled far and
 wide in the Eastern land.  Then he began his expedition out to
 Greece, and had a great suite of men with him; and on he went to
 Constantinople.  So says Bolverk: --
      "Before the cold sea-curling blast
      The cutter from the land flew past,
      Her black yards swinging to and fro,
      Her shield-hung gunwale dipping low.
      The king saw glancing o'er the bow
      Constantinople's metal glow
      From tower and roof, and painted sails
      Gliding past towns and wooded vales."
 At that time the Greek empire was ruled by the Empress Zoe the
 Great, and with her Michael Catalactus.  Now when Harald came to
 Constantinople he presented himself to the empress, and went into
 her pay; and immediately, in autumn, went on board the galleys
 manned with troops which went out to the Greek sea.  Harald had
 his own men along with him.  Now Harald had been but a short time
 in the army before all the Varings flocked to him, and they all
 joined together when there was a battle.  It thus came to pass
 that Harald was made chief of the Varings.  There was a chief
 over all the troops who was called Gyrger, and who was a relation
 of the empress.  Gyrger and Harald went round among all the Greek
 islands, and fought much against the corsairs.
 It happened once that Gyrger and the Varings were going through
 the country, and they resolved to take their night quarters in a
 wood; and as the Varings came first to the ground, they chose the
 place which was best for pitching their tents upon, which was the
 highest ground; for it is the nature of the land there to be soft
 when rain falls, and therefore it is bad to choose a low
 situation for your tents.  Now when Gyrger, the chief of the
 army, came up, and saw where the Varings had set up their tents,
 he told them to remove, and pitch their tents elsewhere, saying
 he would himself pitch his tents on their ground.  Harald
 replies, "If ye come first to the night quarter, ye take up your
 ground, and we must go pitch our tents at some other place where
 we best can.  Now do ye so, in the same way, and find a place
 where ye will.  It is, I think, the privilege of us Varings here
 in the dominions of the Greek emperor to be free, and independent
 of all but their own commanders, and bound only to serve the
 emperor and empress."  They disputed long and hotly about this,
 and both sides armed themselves, and were on the way to fight for
 it; but men of understanding came between and separated them.
 They said it would be better to come to an agreement about such
 questions, so that in future no dispute could arise.  It came
 thus to an arbitration between them, at which the best and most
 sagacious men should give their judgment in the case.  At this
 arbitration it was determined, with the consent of all parties,
 that lots should be thrown into a box, and the Greeks and Varings
 should draw which was first to ride, or to row, or to take place
 in a harbour, or to choose tent ground; and each side should be
 satisfied with what the drawing of the lots gave them. 
 Accordingly the lots were made and marked.  Harald said to
 Gyrger, "Let me see what mark thou hast put upon thy lot, that
 we may not both mark our lots in the same way."  He did so.  Then
 Harald marked his lot, and put it into the box along with the
 other.  The man who was to draw out the lots then took up one of
 the lots between his fingers, held it up in the air, and said,
 "This lot shall be the first to ride, and to row, and to take
 place in harbour and on the tent field."  Harald seized his band,
 snatched the die, and threw it into the sea, and called out,
 "That was our lot!"  Gyrger said, "Why did you not let other
 people see it?"  Harald replies, "Look at the one remaining in
 the box, -- there you see your own mark upon it."  Accordingly
 the lot which was left behind was examined, and all men saw that
 Gyrger's mark was upon it, and accordingly the judgment was given
 that the Varings had gained the first choice in all they had been
 quarrelling about.  There were many things they quarrelled about,
 but the end always was that Harald got his own way.
 They went out all on a campaign in summer.  When the whole army
 was thus assembled Harald kept his men out of the battle, or
 wherever he saw the least danger, under pretext of saving his
 men; but where he was alone with his own men only, he fought so
 desperately that they must either come off victorious or die.  It
 thus happened often that when he commanded the army he gained
 victories, while Gyrger could do nothing.  The troops observed
 this, and insisted they would be more successful if Harald alone
 was chief of the whole army, and upbraided the general with never
 effecting anything, neither himself, nor his people.  Gyrger
 again said that the Varings would give him no assistance, and
 ordered Harald to go with his men somewhere else, and he, with
 the rest of his army, would win what they could.  Harald
 accordingly left the army with the Varings and the Latin men, and
 Gyrger on his side went off with the Greek troops.  Then it was
 seen what each could do.  Harald always gained victories and
 booty; but the Greeks went home to Constantinople with their
 army, all except a few brave men, who, to gain booty and money,
 joined themselves to Harald, and took him for their leader.  He
 then went with his troops westward to Africa, which the Varings
 call Serkland, where he was strengthened with many men.  In
 Serkland he took eighty castles, some of which surrendered, and
 others were stormed.  He then went to Sicily.  So says Thiodolf:
      "The serpent's bed of glowing gold
      He hates -- the generous king, the bold!
      He who four score towers laid low,
      Ta'en from the Saracenic foe.
      Before upon Sicilian plains,
      Shield joined to shield, the fight he gains,
      The victory at Hild's war game;
      And now the heathens dread his name."
 So says also Illuge Bryndala-skald: --
      "For Michael's empire Harald fought,
      And southern lands to Michael brought;
      So Budle's son his friendship showed
      When he brought friends to his abode."
 Here it is said that Michael was king of the Greeks at that time.
 Harald remained many years in Africa, where he gathered great
 wealth in gold, jewels, and all sorts of precious things; and all
 the wealth he gathered there which he did not need for his
 expenses, he sent with trusty men of his own north to Novgorod to
 King Jarisleif's care and keeping.  He gathered together there
 extraordinary treasure, as is reasonable to suppose; for he had
 the plundering of the part of the world richest in gold and
 valuable things, and he had done such great deeds as with truth
 are related, such as taking eighty strongholds by his valour.
 Now when Harald came to Sicily he plundered there also, and sat
 down with his army before a strong and populous castle.  He
 surrounded the castle; but the walls were so thick there was no
 possibility of breaking into it, and the people of the castle had
 enough of provisions, and all that was necessary for defence.
 Then Harald hit upon an expedient.  He made his bird-catchers
 catch the small birds which had their nests within the castle,
 but flew into the woods by day to get food for their young.  He
 had small splinters of tarred wood bound upon the backs of the
 birds, smeared these over with wax and sulphur, and set fire to
 them. As soon as the birds were let loose they all flew at once
 to the castle to their young, and to their nests, which they had
 under the house roofs that were covered with reeds or straw.  The
 fire from the birds seized upon the house roofs; and although
 each bird could only carry a small burden of fire, yet all at
 once there was a mighty flame, caused by so many birds carrying
 fire with them and spreading it widely among the house roofs.
 Thus one house after the other was set on fire, until the castle
 itself was in flames.  Then the people came out of the castle and
 begged for mercy; the same men who for many days had set at
 defiance the Greek army and its leader.  Harald granted life and
 safety to all who asked quarter, and made himself master of the
 There was another castle before which Harald had come with his
 army.  This castle was both full of people and so strong, that
 there was no hope of breaking into it.  The castle stood upon a
 flat hard plain.  Then Harald undertook to dig a passage from a
 place where a stream ran in a bed so deep that it could not be
 seen from the castle.  They threw out all the earth into the
 stream, to be carried away by the water.  At this work they
 laboured day and night, and relieved each other in gangs; while
 the rest of the army went the whole day against the castle, where
 the castle people shot through their loop-holes.  They shot at
 each other all day in this way, and at night they slept on both
 sides.  Now when Harald perceived that his underground passage
 was so long that it must be within the castle walls, he ordered
 his people to arm themselves.  It was towards daybreak that they
 went into the passage.  When they got to the end of it they dug
 over their heads until they came upon stones laid in lime which
 was the floor of a stone hall.  They broke open the floor and
 rose into the hall.  There sat many of the castle-men eating and
 drinking, and not in the least expecting such uninvited wolves;
 for the Varings instantly attacked them sword in hand, and killed
 some, and those who could get away fled.  The Varings pursued
 them; and some seized the castle gate, and opened it, so that the
 whole body of the army got in.  The people of the castle fled;
 but many asked quarter from the troops, which was granted to all
 who surrendered.  In this way Harald got possession of the place,
 and found an immense booty in it.
 They came to a third castle, the greatest and strongest of them
 all, and also the richest in property and the fullest of people.
 Around this castle there were great ditches, so that it evidently
 could not be taken by the same device as the former; and they lay
 a long time before it without doing anything.  When the castle-
 men saw this they became bolder, drew up their array on the
 castle walls, threw open the castle gates, and shouted to the
 Varings, urging them, and jeering at them, and telling them to
 come into the castle, and that they were no more fit for battle
 than so many poultry.  Harald told his men to make as if they did
 not know what to do, or did not understand what was said.  "For,"
 says he, "if we do make an assault we can effect nothing, as they
 can throw their weapons under their feet among us; and if we get
 in the castle with a party of our people, they have it in their
 power to shut them in. and shut out the others; for they have all
 the castle gates beset with men.  We shall therefore show them
 the same scorn they show us, and let them see we do not fear
 them.  Our men shall go out upon the plain nearest to the castle;
 taking care, however, to keep out of bow-shot.  All our men shall
 go unarmed, and be playing with each other, so that the castle-
 men may see we do not regard them or their array."  Thus it went
 on for some days, without anything being done.
 Two Iceland men were then with Harald; the one was Haldor (1), a
 son of the gode Snorre, who brought this account to Iceland; the
 other was Ulf Uspakson, a grandson of Usvifer Spake.  Both were
 very strong men, bold under arms, and Harald's best friends; and
 both were in this play.  Now when some days were passed the
 castle people showed more courage, and would go without weapons
 upon the castle wall, while the castle gates were standing open.
 The Varings observing this, went one day to their sports with the
 sword under their cloaks, and the helmet under their hats.  After
 playing awhile they observed that the castle people were off
 their guard; and instantly seizing their weapons, they made at
 the castle gate.  When the men of the castle saw this they went
 against them armed completely, and a battle began in the castle
 gate.  The Varings had no shields, but wrapped their cloaks round
 their left arms.  Some of them were wounded, some killed, and all
 stood in great danger.  Now came Harald with the men who had
 remained in the camp, to the assistance of his people; and the
 castle-men had now got out upon the walls, from which they shot
 and threw stones down upon them; so that there was a severe
 battle, and those who were in the castle gates thought that help
 was brought them slower than they could have wished.  When Harald
 came to the castle gate his standard-bearer fell, and Harald said
 to Haldor, "Do thou take up the banner now."  Haldor took up the
 banner, and said foolishly, "Who will carry the banner before
 thee, if thou followest it so timidly as thou hast done for a
 while?"  But these were words more of anger than of truth; for
 Harald was one of the boldest of men under arms.  Then they
 pressed in, and had a hard battle in the castle; and the end was
 that Harald gained the victory and took the castle.  Haldor was
 much wounded in the face, and it gave him great pain as long as
 he lived.
 (1)  One of the descendants of this Haldor was Snorre Sturlason,
      the author of "Heimskring1a".
 The fourth castle which Harald came to was the greatest of all we
 have been speaking about.  It was so strong that there was no
 possibility of breaking into it.  They surrounded the castle, so
 that no supplies could get into it.  When they had remained here
 a short time Harald fell sick, and he betook himself to his bed.
 He had his tent put up a little from the camp, for he found
 quietness and rest out of the clamour and clang of armed men. 
 His men went usually in companies to or from him to hear his
 orders; and the castle people observing there was something new
 among the Varings, sent out spies to discover what this might
 mean.  When the spies came back to the castle they had to tell of
 the illness of the commander of the Varings, and that no assault
 on that account had been made on the castle.  A while after
 Harald's strength began to fail, at which his men were very
 melancholy and cast down; all which was news to the castle-men.
 At last Harald's sickness increased so rapidly that his death was
 expected through all the army.  Thereafter the Varings went to
 the castle-men; told them, in a parley, of the death of their
 commander; and begged of the priests to grant him burial in the
 castle.  When the castle people heard this news, there were many
 among them who ruled over cloisters or other great establishments
 within the place, and who were very eager to get the corpse for
 their church, knowing that upon that there would follow very rich
 presents.  A great many priests, therefore, clothed themselves in
 all their robes, and went out of the castle with cross and shrine
 and relics and formed a beautiful procession.  The Varings also
 made a great burial.  The coffin was borne high in the air, and
 over it was a tent of costly linen and before it were carried
 many banners.  Now when the corpse was brought within the castle
 gate the Varings set down the coffin right across the entry,
 fixed a bar to keep the gates open, and sounded to battle with
 all their trumpets, and drew their swords.  The whole army of the
 Varings, fully armed. rushed from the camp to the assault of the
 castle with shout and cry; and the monks and other priests who
 had gone to meet the corpse and had striven with each other who
 should be the first to come out and take the offering at the
 burial, were now striving much more who should first get away
 from the Varings; for they killed before their feet every one who
 was nearest, whether clerk or unconsecrated.  The Varings
 rummaged so well this castle that they killed all the men,
 pillaged everything and made an enormous booty.
 Harald was many years in these campaigns, both in Serkland and
 in Sicily.  Then he came back to Constantinople with his troops
 and stayed there but a little time before he began his expedition
 to Jerusalem.  There he left the pay he had received from the
 Greek emperor and all the Varings who accompanied him did the
 same.  It is said that on all these expeditions Harald had fought
 eighteen regular battles.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "Harald the Stern ne'er allowed
      Peace to his foemen, false and proud;
      In eighteen battles, fought and won,
      The valour of the Norseman shone.
      The king, before his home return,
      Oft dyed the bald head of the erne
      With bloody specks, and o'er the waste
      The sharp-claw'd wolf his footsteps traced."
 Harald went with his men to the land of Jerusalem and then up to
 the city of Jerusalem, and wheresoever he came in the land all
 the towns and strongholds were given up to him.  So says the
 skald Stuf, who had heard the king himself relate these tidings:
      "He went, the warrior bold and brave,
      Jerusalem, the holy grave,
      And the interior of the land,
      To bring under the Greeks' command;
      And by the terror of his name
      Under his power the country came,
      Nor needed wasting fire and sword
      To yield obediance to his word."
 Here it is told that this land came without fire and sword under
 Harald's command.  He then went out to Jordan and bathed therein,
 according to the custom of other pilgrims.  Harald gave great
 gifts to our Lord's grave, to the Holy Cross, and other holy
 relics in the land of Jerusalem.  He also cleared the whole road
 all the way out to Jordan, by killing the robbers and other
 disturbers of the peace.  So says the skald Stuf: --
      "The Agder king cleared far and wide
      Jordan's fair banks on either side;
      The robber-bands before him fled,
      And his great name was widely spread.
      The wicked people of the land
      Were punished here by his dread hand,
      And they hereafter will not miss
      Much worse from Jesus Christ than this."
 Thereafter he went back to Constantinople.  When Harald returned
 to Constantinople from Jerusalem he longed to return to the North
 to his native land; and when he heard that Magnus Olafson, his
 brother's son, had become king both of Norway and Denmark, he
 gave up his command in the Greek service.  And when the empress
 Zoe heard of this she became angry and raised an accusation
 against Harald that he had misapplied the property of the Greek
 emperor which he had received in the campaigns in which he was
 commander of the army.  There was a young and beautiful girl
 called Maria, a brother's daughter of the empress Zoe, and Harald
 had paid his addresses to her; but the empress had given him a
 refusal.  The Varings, who were then in pay in Constantinople,
 have told here in the North that there went a report among
 well-informed people that the empress Zoe herself wanted Harald
 for her husband, and that she chiefly blamed Harald for his
 determination to leave Constantinople, although another reason
 was given out to the public.  Constantinus Monomachus was at
 that time emperor of the Greeks and ruled along with Zoe.  On
 this account the Greek emperor had Harald made prisoner and
 carried to prison.
 When Harald drew near to the prison King Olaf the Saint stood
 before him and said he would assist him.  On that spot of the
 street a chapel has since been built and consecrated to Saint
 Olaf and which chapel has stood there ever since.  The prison was
 so constructed that there was a high tower open above, but a door
 below to go into it from the street.  Through it Harald was
 thrust in, along with Haldor and Ulf.  Next night a lady of
 distinction with two servants came, by the help of ladders, to
 the top of the tower, let down a rope into the prison and hauled
 them up.  Saint Olaf had formerly cured this lady of a sickness
 and he had appeared to her in a vision and told her to deliver
 his brother.  Harald went immediately to the Varings, who all
 rose from their seats when he came in and received him with joy.
 The men armed themselves forthwith and went to where the emperor
 slept.  They took the emperor prisoner and put out both the eyes
 of him.  So says Thorarin Skeggjason in his poem: --
      "Of glowing gold that decks the hand
      The king got plenty in this land;
      But it's great emperor in the strife
      Was made stone-blind for all his life."
 So says Thiodolf, the skald, also: --
      "He who the hungry wolf's wild yell
      Quiets with prey, the stern, the fell,
      Midst the uproar of shriek and shout
      Stung tho Greek emperor's eyes both out:
      The Norse king's mark will not adorn,
      The Norse king's mark gives cause to mourn;
      His mark the Eastern king must bear,
      Groping his sightless way in fear."
 In these two songs, and many others, it is told that Harald
 himself blinded the Greek emperor; and they would surely have
 named some duke, count, or other great man, if they had not known
 this to be the true account; and King Harald himself and other
 men who were with him spread the account.
 The same night King Harald and his men went to the house where
 Maria slept and carried her away by force.  Then they went down
 to where the galleys of the Varings lay, took two of them and
 rowed out into Sjavid sound.  When they came to the place where
 the iron chain is drawn across the sound, Harald told his men to
 stretch out at their oars in both galleys; but the men who were
 not rowing to run all to the stern of the galley, each with his
 luggage in his hand.  The galleys thus ran up and lay on the iron
 chain.  As soon as they stood fast on it, and would advance no
 farther, Harald ordered all the men to run forward into the bow.
 Then the galley, in which Harald was, balanced forwards and swung
 down over the chain; but the other, which remained fast athwart
 the chain, split in two, by which many men were lost; but some
 were taken up out of the sound.  Thus Harald escaped out of
 Constantinople and sailed thence into the Black Sea; but before
 he left the land he put the lady ashore and sent her back with a
 good escort to Constantinople and bade her tell her relation, the
 Empress Zoe, how little power she had over Harald, and how little
 the empress could have hindered him from taking the lady.  Harald
 then sailed northwards in the Ellipalta and then all round the
 Eastern empire.  On this voyage Harald composed sixteen songs for
 amusement and all ending with the same words.  This is one of
 them: --
      "Past Sicily's wide plains we flew,
      A dauntless, never-wearied crew;
      Our viking steed rushed through the sea,
      As viking-like fast, fast sailed we.
      Never, I think, along this shore
      Did Norsemen ever sail before;
      Yet to the Russian queen, I fear,
      My gold-adorned, I am not dear."
 With this he meant Ellisif, daughter of King Jarisleif in
 When Harald came to Novgorod King Jarisleif received him in the
 most friendly way and he remained there all winter (A.D. 1045).
 Then he took into his own keeping all the gold and the many kinds
 of precious things which he had sent there from Constantinople
 and which together made up so vast a treasure that no man in the
 Northern lands ever saw the like of it in one man's possession.
 Harald had been three times in the poluta-svarf while he was in
 Constantinople.  It is the custom, namely, there, that every time
 one of the Greek emperors dies, the Varings are allowed
 poluta-svarf; that is, they may go through all the emperor's
 palaces where his treasures are and each may take and keep what
 he can lay hold of while he is going through them.
 This winter King Jarisleif gave Harald his daughter Elisabeth in
 marriage.  She is called by the Northmen Ellisif.  This is
 related by Stuf the Blind, thus: --
      "Agder's chief now got the queen
      Who long his secret love had been.
      Of gold, no doubt, a mighty store
      The princess to her husband bore."
 In spring he began his journey from Novgorod and came to
 Aldeigjuborg, where he took shipping and sailed from the East in
 summer.  He turned first to Svithjod and came to Sigtuna.  So
 says Valgard o' Val: --
      "The fairest cargo ship e'er bore,
      From Russia's distant eastern shore
      The gallant Harald homeward brings --
      Gold, and a fame that skald still sings.
      The ship through dashing foam he steers,
      Through the sea-rain to Svithjod veers,
      And at Sigtuna's grassy shores
      His gallant vessel safely moors."
 Harald found there before him Svein Ulfson, who the autumn before
 (A.D. 1045) had fled from King Magnus at Helganes; and when they
 met they were very friendly on both sides.  The Swedish king,
 Olaf the Swede, was brother of the mother of Ellisif, Harald's
 wife; and Astrid, the mother of Svein, was King Olaf's sister.
 Harald and Svein entered into friendship with each other and
 confirmed it by oath.  All the Swedes were friendly to Svein,
 because he belonged to the greatest family in the country; and
 thus all the Swedes were Harald's friends and helpers also, for
 many great men were connected with him by relationship.  So says
      "Cross the East sea the vessel flew, --
      Her oak-keel a white furrow drew
      From Russia's coast to Swedish land.
      Where Harald can great help command.
      The heavy vessel's leeward side
      Was hid beneath the rushing tide;
      While the broad sail and gold-tipped mast
      Swung to and fro in the hard blast."
 Then Harald and Svein fitted out ships and gathered together a
 great force; and when the troops were ready they sailed from the
 East towards Denmark.  So says Valgard: --
      "Brave Yngve!  to the land decreed
      To thee by fate, with tempest speed
      The winds fly with thee o'er the sea --
      To thy own udal land with thee.
      As past the Scanlan plains they fly,
      The gay ships glances 'twixt sea and sky,
      And Scanian brides look out, and fear
      Some ill to those they hold most dear."
 They landed first in Seeland with their men and herried and
 burned in the land far and wide.  Then they went to Fyen, where
 they also landed and wasted.  So says Valgard: --
      "Harald! thou hast the isle laid waste,
      The Seeland men away hast chased,
      And the wild wolf by daylight roams
      Through their deserted silent homes.
      Fiona too could not withstand
      The fury of thy wasting hand.
      Helms burst, shields broke, -- Fiona's bounds.
      Were filled with death's terrific sounds.
      "Red flashing in the southern sky,
      The clear flame sweeping broad and high,
      From fair Roeskilde's lofty towers,
      On lowly huts its fire-rain pours;
      And shows the housemates' silent train
      In terror scouring o'er the plain,
      Seeking the forest's deepest glen,
      To house with wolves, and 'scape from men.
      "Few were they of escape to tell,
      For, sorrow-worn, the people fell:
      The only captives form the fray
      Were lovely maidens led away.
      And in wild terror to the strand,
      Down to the ships, the linked band
      Of fair-haired girls is roughly driven,
      Their soft skins by the irons riven."
 King Magnus Olafson sailed north to Norway in the autumn after
 the battle at Helganes (A.D. 1045).  There he hears the news that
 Harald Sigurdson, his relation, was come to Svithjod; and
 moreover that Svein Ulfson and Harald had entered into a friendly
 bond with each other and gathered together a great force,
 intending first to subdue Denmark and then Norway.  King Magnus
 then ordered a general levy over all Norway and he soon collected
 a great army.  He hears then that Harald and Svein were come to
 Denmark and were burning and laying waste the land and that the
 country people were everywhere submitting to them.  It was also
 told that King Harald was stronger and stouter than other men,
 and so wise withal that nothing was impossible to him, and he had
 always the victory when he fought a battle; and he was also so
 rich in gold that no man could compare with him in wealth. 
 Thiodolf speaks thus of it:
      "Norsemen, who stand the sword of foe
      Like forest-stems unmoved by blow!
      My hopes are fled, no peace is near, --
      People fly here and there in fear.
      On either side of Seeland's coast
      A fleet appears -- a white winged host;
      Magnus form Norway takes his course,
      Harald from Sweden leads his force.
 Those of Harald's men who were in his counsel said that it would
 be a great misfortune if relations like Harald and Magnus should
 fight and throw a death-spear against each other; and therefore
 many offered to attempt bringing about some agreement between
 them, and the kings, by their persuasion, agreed to it. 
 Thereupon some men were sent off in a light boat, in which they
 sailed south in all haste to Denmark, and got some Danish men,
 who were proven friends of King Magnus, to propose this matter to
 Harald.  This affair was conducted very secretly.  Now when
 Harald heard that his relation, King Magnus, would offer him a
 league and partition, so that Harald should have half of Norway
 with King Magnus, and that they should divide all their movable
 property into two equal parts, he accepted the proposal, and the
 people went back to King Magnus with this answer.
 A little after this it happened that Harald and Svein one evening
 were sitting at table drinking and talking together, and Svein
 asked Harald what valuable piece of all his property he esteemed
 the most.
 He answered, it was his banner Land-waster.
 Svein asked what was there remarkable about it, that he valued it
 so highly.
 Harald replied, it was a common saying that he must gain the
 victory before whom that banner is borne, and it had turned out
 so ever since he had owned it.
 Svein replies, "I will begin to believe there is such virtue in
 the banner when thou hast held three battles with thy relation
 Magnus, and hast gained them all."
 Then answered Harald with an angry voice, "I know my relationship
 to King Magnus, without thy reminding me of it; and although we
 are now going in arms against him, our meeting may be of a better
 Svein changed colour, and said, "There are people, Harald, who
 say that thou hast done as much before as only to hold that part
 of an agreement which appears to suit thy own interest best."
 Harald answers, "It becomes thee ill to say that I have not stood
 by an agreement, when I know what King Magnus could tell of thy
 proceedings with him."
 Thereupon each went his own way.  At night, when Harald went to
 sleep within the bulwarks of his vessel, he said to his footboy,
 "I will not sleep in my bed to-night, for I suspect there may be
 treachery abroad.  I observed this evening that my friend Svein
 was very angry at my free discourse.  Thou shalt keep watch,
 therefore, in case anything happen in the night."  Harald then
 went away to sleep somewhere else, and laid a billet of wood in
 his place.  At midnight a boat rowed alongside to the ship's
 bulwark; a man went on board, lifted up the cloth of the tent of
 the bulwarks, went up, and struck in Harald's bed with a great
 ax, so that it stood fast in the lump of wood.  The man instantly
 ran back to his boat again, and rowed away in the dark night, for
 the moon was set; but the axe remained sticking in the piece of
 wood as an evidence.  Thereupon Harald waked his men and let them
 know the treachery intended.  "We can now see sufficiently," said
 he, "that we could never match Svein if he practises such
 deliberate treachery against us; so it will be best for us to get
 away from this place while we can.  Let us cast loose our vessel
 and row away as quietly as possible."  They did so, and rowed
 during the night northwards along the land; and then proceeded
 night and day until they came to King Magnus, where he lay with
 his army.  Harald went to his relation Magnus, and there was a
 joyful meeting betwixt them.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "The far-known king the order gave,
      In silence o'er the swelling wave,
      With noiseless oars, his vessels gay
      From Denmark west to row away;
      And Olaf's son, with justice rare,
      Offers with him the realm to share.
      People, no doubt, rejoiced to find
      The kings had met in peaceful mind."
 Afterwards the two relatives conversed with each other and all
 was settled by peaceful agreement.
 King Magnus lay at the shore and had set up tents upon the land.
 There he invited his relation, King Harald, to be his guest at
 table; and Harald went to the entertainment with sixty of his men
 and was feasted excellently.  Towards the end of the day King
 Magnus went into the tent where Harald sat and with him went men
 carrying parcels consisting of clothes and arms.  Then the king
 went to the man who sat lowest and gave him a good sword, to the
 next a shield, to the next a kirtle, and so on, -- clothes, or
 weapons, or gold; to all he gave one or the other valuable gift,
 and the more costly to the more distinguished men among them.
 Then he placed himself before his relation Harald, holding two
 sticks in his hand, and said, "Which of these two sticks wilt
 thou have, my friend?"
 Harald replies, "The one nearest me."
 "Then," said King Magnus, "with this stick I give thee half of
 the Norwegian power, with all the scat and duties, and all the
 domains thereunto belonging, with the condition that everywhere
 thou shalt be as lawful king in Norway as I am myself; but when
 we are both together in one place, I shall be the first man in
 seat, service and salutation; and if there be three of us
 together of equal dignity, that I shall sit in the middle, and
 shall have the royal tent-ground and the royal landing-place. 
 Thou shalt strengthen and advance our kingdom, in return for
 making thee that man in Norway whom we never expected any man
 should be so long as our head was above ground."  Then Harald
 stood up, and thanked him for the high title and dignity.
 Thereupon they both sat down, and were very merry together.  The
 same evening Harald and his men returned to their ships.
 The following morning King Magnus ordered the trumpets to sound
 to a General Thing of the people; and when it was seated, he made
 known to the whole army the gift he had given to his relation
 Harald.  Thorer of Steig gave Harald the title of King there at
 the Thing; and the same day King Harald invited King Magnus to
 table with him, and he went with sixty men to King Harald's
 land-tent, where he had prepared a feast.  The two kings sat
 together on a high-seat, and the feast was splendid; everything
 went on with magnificence, and the kings' were merry and glad.
 Towards the close of the day King Harald ordered many caskets to
 be brought into the tent, and in like manner people bore in
 weapons, clothes and other sorts of valuables; and all these King
 Harald divided among King Magnus's men who were at the feast.
 Then he had the caskets opened and said to King Magnus,
 "Yesterday you gave us a large kingdom, which your hand won from
 your and our enemies, and took us in partnership with you, which
 was well done; and this has cost you much.  Now we on our side
 have been in foreign parts, and oft in peril of life, to gather
 together the gold which you here see.  Now, King Magnus, I will
 divide this with you.  We shall both own this movable property,
 and each have his equal share of it, as each has his equal half
 share of Norway.  I know that our dispositions are different, as
 thou art more liberal than I am; therefore let us divide this
 property equally between us, so that each may have his share free
 to do with as he will."  Then Harald had a large ox-hide spread
 out, and turned the gold out of the caskets upon it.  Then scales
 and weights were taken and the gold separated and divided by
 weight into equal parts; and all people wondered exceedingly that
 so much gold should have come together in one place in the
 northern countries.  But it was understood that it was the Greek
 emperor's property and wealth; for, as all people say, there are
 whole houses there full of red gold.  The kings were now very
 merry.  Then there appeared an ingot among the rest as big as a
 man's hand.  Harald took it in his hands and said, "Where is the
 gold, friend Magnus, that thou canst show against this piece?"
 King Magnus replied, "So many disturbances and levies have been
 in the country that almost all the gold and silver I could lay up
 is gone.  I have no more gold in my possession than this ring." 
 And he took the ring off his hand and gave it to Harald.
 Harald looked at it, and said, "That is but little gold, friend.
 for the king who owns two kingdoms; and yet some may doubt
 whether thou art rightful owner of even this ring."
 Then King Magnus replied, after a little reflection, "If I be not
 rightful owner of this ring, then I know not what I have got
 right to; for my father, King Olaf the Saint, gave me this ring
 at our last parting."
 Then said King Harald, laughing, "It is true, King Magnus, what
 thou sayest.  Thy father gave thee this ring, but he took the
 ring from my father for some trifling cause; and in truth it was
 not a good time for small kings in Norway when thy father was in
 full power."
 King Harald gave Thorer of Steig at that feast a bowl of mountain
 birch, that was encircled with a silver ring and had a silver
 handle, both which parts were gilt; and the bowl was filled with
 money of pure silver.  With that came also two gold rings, which
 together stood for a mark.  He gave him also his cloak of dark
 purple lined with white skins within, and promised him besides
 his friendship and great dignity.  Thorgils Snorrason, an
 intelligent man, says he has seen an altar-cloth that was made of
 this cloak; and Gudrid, a daughter of Guthorm, the son of Thorer
 of Steig, said, according to Thorgil's account, that she had seen
 this bowl in her father Guthorm's possession.  Bolverk also tells
 of these matters: --
      "Thou, generous king, I have been told,
      For the green land hast given gold;
      And Magnus got a mighty treasure,
      That thou one half might'st rule at pleasure.
      The people gained a blessed peace,
      Which 'twixt the kings did never cease;
      While Svein, disturbed with war's alarms,
      Had his folk always under arms."
 The kings Magnus and Harald both ruled in Norway the winter after
 their agreement (A.D. 1047), and each had his court.  In winter
 they went around the Upland country in guest-quarters; and
 sometimes they were both together, sometimes each was for
 himself.  They went all the way north to Throndhjem, to the town
 of Nidaros.  King Magnus had taken special care of the holy
 remains of King Olaf after he came to the country; had the hair
 and nails clipped every twelve month, and kept himself the keys
 that opened the shrine.  Many miracles were worked by King Olaf's
 holy remains.  It was not long before there was a breach in the
 good understanding between the two kings, as many were so
 mischievous as to promote discord between them.
 Svein Ulfson remained behind in the harbour after Harald had gone
 away, and inquired about his proceedings.  When he heard at last
 of Magnus and Harald having agreed and joined their forces, he
 steered with his forces eastward along Scania, and remained there
 until towards winter, when he heard that King Magnus and King
 Harald had gone northwards to Norway.  Then Svein, with his
 troops, came south to Denmark and took all the royal income that
 winter (A.D. 1047).
 Towards spring (A.D. 1047) King Magnus and his relation, King
 Harald, ordered a levy in Norway.  It happened once that the
 kings lay all night in the same harbour and next day, King
 Harald, being first ready, made sail.  Towards evening he brought
 up in the harbour in which Magnus and his retinue had intended to
 pass the night.  Harald laid his vessel in the royal ground, and
 there set up his tents.  King Magnus got under sail later in the
 day and came into the harbour just as King Harald had done
 pitching his tents.  They saw then that King Harald had taken up
 the king's ground and intended to lie there.  After King Magnus
 had ordered the sails to be taken in, he said, "The men will now
 get ready along both sides of the vessel to lay out their oars,
 and some will open the hatches and bring up the arms and arm
 themselves; for, if they will not make way for us, we will fight
 them."  Now when King Harald sees that King Magnus will give him
 battle, he says to his men, "Cut our land-fastenings and back the
 ship out of the ground, for friend Magnus is in a passion."  They
 did so and laid the vessel out of the ground and King Magnus laid
 his vessel in it.  When they were now ready on both sides with
 their business, King Harald went with a few men on board of King
 Magnus's ship.  King Magnus received him in a friendly way, and
 bade him welcome.  King Harald answered, "I thought we were come
 among friends; but just now I was in doubt if ye would have it
 so.  But it is a truth that childhood is hasty, and I will only
 consider it as a childish freak."  Then said King Magnus, "It is
 no childish whim, but a trait of my family, that I never forget
 what I have given, or what I have not given.  If this trifle had
 been settled against my will, there would soon have followed'
 some other discord like it.  In all particulars I will hold the
 agreement between us; but in the same way we will have all that
 belongs to us by that right."  King Harald coolly replied, that
 it is an old custom for the wisest to give way; and returned to
 his ship.  From such circumstances it was found difficult to
 preserve good understanding between the kings.  King Magnus's men
 said he was in the right; but others, less wise, thought there
 was some slight put upon Harald in the business.  King Harald's
 men, besides, insisted that the agreement was only that King
 Magnus should have the preference of the harbour-ground when they
 arrived together, but that King Harald was not bound to draw out
 of his place when he came first.  They observed, also, that King
 Harald had conducted himself well and wisely in the matter. 
 Those who viewed the business in the worst light insisted that
 King Magnus wanted to break the agreement, and that he had done
 King Harald injustice, and put an affront on him.  Such disputes
 were talked over so long among foolish people, that the spirit of
 disagreeing affected the kings themselves.  Many other things
 also occurred, in which the kings appeared determined to have
 each his own way; but of these little will be set down here.
 The kings, Magnus and Harald, sailed with their fleet south to
 Denmark; and when Svein heard of their approach, he fled away
 east to Scania.  Magnus and Harald remained in Denmark late in
 summer, and subdued the whole country.  In autumn they were in
 Jutland.  One night, as King Magnus lay in his bed, it appeared
 to him in a dream that he was in the same place as his father,
 Saint Olaf, and that he spoke to him thus: "Wilt thou choose, my
 son, to follow me, or to become a mighty king, and have long
 life; but to commit a crime which thou wilt never be able to
 expiate?"  He thought he made the answer, "Do thou, father,
 choose for me."  Then the king thought the answer was, "Thou
 shalt follow me."  King Magnus told his men this dream.  Soon
 after he fell sick and lay at a place called Sudathorp.  When he
 was near his death he sent his brother, Thorer, with tokens to
 Svein Ulfson, with the request to give Thorer the aid he might
 require.  In this message King Magnus also gave the Danish
 dominions to Svein after his death; and said it was just that
 Harald should rule over Norway and Svein over Denmark.  Then King
 Magnus the Good died (A.D. 1047), and great was the sorrow of all
 the people at his death.  So says Od Kikinaskald: --
      "The tears o'er good King Magnus' bier,
      The people's tears, were all sincere:
      Even they to whom he riches gave
      Carried him heavily to the grave.
      All hearts were struck at the king's end;
      His house-thralls wept as for a friend;
      His court-men oft alone would muse,
      As pondering o'er unthought of news."
 After this event King Harald held a Thing of his men-at-arms, and
 told them his intention to go with the army to Viborg Thing, and
 make himself be proclaimed king over the whole Danish dominions,
 to which, he said, he had hereditary right after his relation
 Magnus, as well as to Norway.  He therefore asked his men for
 their aid, and said he thought the Norway man should show himself
 always superior to the Dane.  Then Einar Tambaskelfer replies
 that he considered it a greater duty to bring his foster-son King
 Magnus's corpse to the grave, and lay it beside his father, King
 Olaf's, north in Throndhjem town, than to be fighting abroad and
 taking another king's dominions and property.  He ended his
 speech with saying that he would rather follow King Magnus dead
 than any other king alive.  Thereupon he had the body adorned in
 the most careful way, so that most magnificent preparations were
 made in the king's ship.  Then all the Throndhjem people and all
 the Northmen made themselves ready to return home with the king's
 body, and so the army was broken up.  King Harald saw then that
 it was better for him to return to Norway to secure that kingdom
 first, and to assemble men anew; and so King Harald returned to
 Norway with all his army.  As soon as he came to Norway he held a
 Thing with the people of the country, and had himself proclaimed
 king everywhere.  He proceeded thus from the East through Viken,
 and in every district in Norway he was named king.  Einar
 Tambaskelfer, and with him all the Throndhjem troops, went with
 King Magnus's body and transported it to the town of Nidaros,
 where it was buried in St. Clement's church, where also was the
 shrine of King Olaf the Saint.  King Magnus was of middle size,
 of long and clear-complexioned countenance, and light hair, spoke
 well and hastily, was brisk in his actions, and extremely
 generous.  He was a great warrior, and remarkably bold in arms. 
 He was the most popular of kings, prized even by enemies as well
 as friends.
 Svein Ulfson remained that autumn in Scania (A.D. 1047), and was
 making ready to travel eastward to Sweden, with the intention of
 renouncing the title of king he had assumed in Denmark; but just
 as he was mounting his horse some men came riding to him with the
 first news that King Magnus was dead, and all the Northmen had
 left Denmark.  Svein answered in haste, "I call God to witness
 that I shall never again fly from the Danish dominions as long as
 I live."  Then he got on his horse and rode south into Scania,
 where immediately many people crowded to him.  That winter he
 brought under his power all the Danish dominions, and all the
 Danes took him for their king.  Thorer, King Magnus's brother,
 came to Svein in autumn with the message of King Magnus, as
 before related, and was well received; and Thorer remained long
 with Svein and was well taken care of.
 King Harald Sigurdson took the royal power over all Norway after
 the death of King Magnus Olafson; and when he had reigned over
 Norway one winter and spring was come (A.D. 1048), he ordered a
 levy through all the land of one-half of all men and ships and
 went south to Jutland.  He herried and burned all summer wide
 around in the land and came into Godnarfjord, where King Harald
 made these verses: --
      "While wives of husbands fondly dream,
      Here let us anchor in the stream,
      In Godnarfjord; we'll safely moor
      Our sea-homes, and sleep quite secure."
 Then he spoke to Thiodolf, the skald, and asked him to add to it
 what it wanted, and he sang: --
      "In the next summer, I foresee,
      Our anchorage in the South will be;
      To hold our sea-homes on the ground,
      More cold-tongued anchors will be found."
 To this Bolverk alludes in his song also, that Harald went to
 Denmark the summer after King Magnus's death.  Bolverk sings
 thus: --
      "Next summer thou the levy raised,
      And seawards all the people gazed,
      Where thy sea-steeds in sunshine glancing
      Over the waves were gaily prancing;
      While the deep ships that plunder bore
      Seemed black specks from the distant shore.
      The Danes, from banks or hillocks green,
      Looked with dismay upon the scene."
 Then they burned the house of Thorkel Geysa, who was a great
 lord, and his daughters they carried off bound to their ships.
 They had made a great mockery the winter before of King Harald's
 coming with war-ships against Denmark; and they cut their cheese
 into the shape of anchors, and said such anchors might hold all
 the ships of the Norway king.  Then this was composed: --
      "The Island-girls, we were told,
      Made anchors all our fleet to hold:
      Their Danish jest cut out in cheese
      Did not our stern king's fancy please.
      Now many a maiden fair, may be,
      Sees iron anchors splash the sea,
      Who will not wake a maid next morn
      To laugh at Norway's ships in scorn."
 It is said that a spy who had seen the fleet of King Harald said
 to Thorkel Geysa's daughters, "Ye said, Geysa's daughters, that
 King Harald dared not come to Denmark."  Dotta, Thorkel's
 daughter, replied, "That was yesterday."  Thorkel had to ransom
 his daughters with a great sum.  So says Grane: --
      "The gold-adorned girl's eye
      Through Hornskeg wood was never dry,
      As down towards the sandy shore
      The men their lovely prizes bore.
      The Norway leader kept at bay
      The foe who would contest the way,
      And Dotta's father had to bring
      Treasure to satisfy the king."
 King Harald plundered in Denmark all that summer, and made
 immense booty; but he had not any footing in the land that summer
 in Denmark.  He went to Norway again in autumn and remained there
 all winter (A.D. 1049).
 The winter after King Magnus the Good died, King Harald took
 Thora, daughter of Thorberg Arnason, and they had two sons; the
 oldest called Magnus, and the other Olaf.  King Harald and Queen
 Ellisif had two daughters; the one Maria, the other Ingegerd. 
 The spring after the foray which has just been related King
 Harald ordered the people out and went with them to Denmark (A.D.
 1049), and herried there, and did so summer after summer
 thereafter.  So says Stuf, the skald: --
      "Falster lay waste, as people tell, --
      The raven in other isles fared well.
      The Danes were everywhere in fear,
      For the dread foray every year."
 King Svein ruled over all the Danish dominions after King
 Magnus's death.  He sat quiet all the winter; but in summer he
 lay out in his ships with all his people and it was said he would
 go north to Norway with the Danish army and make not less havoc
 there than King Harald had made in Denmark.  King Svein proposed
 to King Harald in winter (A.D. 1049) to meet him the following
 summer at the Gaut river and fight until in the battle-field
 their differences were ended, or they were settled peacefully.
 They made ready on both sides all winter with their ships, and
 called out in summer one-half of all the fighting men.  The same
 summer came Thorleik the Fair out of Iceland, and composed a poem
 about King Svein Ulfson.  He heard, when he arrived in Norway,
 that King Harald had sailed south to the Gaut river against King
 Svein.  Then Thorleik sang this: --
      "The wily Svein, I think, will meet
      These inland Norsemen fleet to fleet;
      The arrow-storm, and heaving sea,
      His vantage-fight and field will be.
      God only knows the end of strife,
      Or which shall have his land and life;
      This strife must come to such an end,
      For terms will never bind King Svein."
 He also sang these verses: --
      "Harald, whose red shield oft has shone
      O'er herried coasts, and fields hard won,
      Rides in hot wrath, and eager speeds
      O'er the blue waves his ocean-steeds.
      Svein, who in blood his arrows stains,
      Brings o'er the ocean's heaving plains
      His gold-beaked ships, which come in view
      Out from the Sound with many a hue."
 King Harald came with his forces to the appointed meeting-place;
 but there he heard that King Svein was lying with his fleet at
 the south side of Seeland.  Then King Harald divided his forces;
 let the greater part of the bonde-troops return home; and took
 with him his court-men, his lendermen, the best men-at-arms, and
 all the bonde-troops who lived nearest to the Danish land.  They
 sailed over to Jutland to the south of Vendilskage, and so south
 to Thioda; and over all they carried fire and sword.  So says
 Stuf, the skald: --
      "In haste the men of Thyland fly
      From the great monarch's threat'ning eye;
      At the stern Harald's angry look
      The boldest hearts in Denmark shook."
 They went forward all the way south to Heidaby, took the merchant
 town and burnt it.  Then one of Harald's men made the following
 verses: --
      "All Heidaby is burned down!
      Strangers will ask where stood the town.
      In our wild humour up it blazed,
      And Svein looks round him all amazed.
      All Heidaby is burned down!
      From a far corner of the town
      I saw, before the peep of morning,
      Roofs, walls, and all in flame high burning."
 To this also Thorleik alludes in his verses, when he heard there
 had been no battle at the Gaut river: --
      "The stranger-warrior may inquire
      Of Harald's men, why in his ire
      On Heidaby his wrath he turns,
      And the fair town to ashes burns?
      Would that the day had never come
      When Harald's ships returned home
      From the East Sea, since now the town,
      Without his gain, is burned down!"
 Then King Harald sailed north and had sixty ships and the most of
 them large and heavily laden with the booty taken in summer; and
 as they sailed north past Thioda King Svein came down from the
 land with a great force and he challenged King Harald to land and
 fight.  King Harald had little more than half the force of King
 Svein and therefore he challenged Svein to fight at sea.  So says
 Thorleik the Fair: --
      "Svein, who of all men under heaven
      Has had the luckiest birth-hour given,
      Invites his foemen to the field,
      There to contest with blood-stained shield.
      The king, impatient of delay,
      Harald, will with his sea-hawks stay;
      On board will fight, and fate decide
      If Svein shall by his land abide."
 After that King Harald sailed north along Vendilskage; and the
 wind then came against them, and they brought up under Hlesey,
 where they lay all night.  A thick fog lay upon the sea; and when
 the morning came and the sun rose they saw upon the other side of
 the sea as if many lights were burning.  This was told to King
 Harald; and he looked at it, and said immediately, "Strike the
 tilts down on the ships and take to the oars.  The Danish forces
 are coming upon us, and the fog there where they are must have
 cleared off, and the sun shines upon the dragon-heads of their
 ships, which are gilded, and that is what we see."  It was so as
 he had said.  Svein had come there with a prodigious armed force.
 They rowed now on both sides all they could.  The Danish ships
 flew lighter before the oars; for the Northmen's ships were both
 soaked with water and heavily laden, so that the Danes approached
 nearer and nearer.  Then Harald, whose own dragon-ship was the
 last of the fleet, saw that he could not get away; so he ordered
 his men to throw overboard some wood, and lay upon it clothes and
 other good and valuable articles; and it was so perfectly calm
 that these drove about with the tide.  Now when the Danes saw
 their own goods driving about on the sea, they who were in
 advance turned about to save them; for they thought it was easier
 to take what was floating freely about, than to go on board the
 Northmen to take it.  They dropped rowing and lost ground.  Now
 when King Svein came up to them with his ship, he urged them on,
 saying it would be a great shame if they, with so great a force,
 could not overtake and master so small a number.  The Danes then
 began again to stretch out lustily at their oars.  When King
 Harald saw that the Danish ships went faster he ordered his men
 to lighten their ships, and cast overboard malt, wheat, bacon,
 and to let their liquor run out, which helped a little.  Then
 Harald ordered the bulwarkscreens, the empty casks and puncheons
 and the prisoners to be thrown overboard; and when all these were
 driving about on the sea, Svein ordered help to be given to save
 the men.  This was done; but so much time was lost that they
 separated from each other.  The Danes turned back and the
 Northmen proceeded on their way.  So says Thorleik the Fair: --
      "Svein drove his foes from Jutland's coast, --
      The Norsemen's ships would have been lost,
      But Harald all his vessels saves,
      Throwing his booty on the waves.
      The Jutlanders saw, as he threw,
      Their own goods floating in their view;
      His lighten'd ships fly o'er the main
      While they pick up their own again."
 King Svein returned southwards with his ships to Hlesey, where he
 found seven ships of the Northmen, with bondes and men of the
 levy.  When King Svein came to them they begged for mercy, and
 offered ransom for themselves.  So says Thorleik the Fair: --
      "The stern king's men good offers make,
      If Svein will ransom for them take;
      Too few to fight, they boldly say
      Unequal force makes them give way.
      The hasty bondes for a word
      Would have betaken them to the sword,
      And have prolonged a bloody strife --
      Such men can give no price for life."
 King Harald was a great man, who ruled his kingdom well in home-
 concerns.  Very prudent was he, of good understanding; and it is
 the universal opinion that no chief ever was in northern lands of
 such deep judgment and ready counsel as Harald.  He was a great
 warrior; bold in arms; strong and expert in the use of his
 weapons beyond any others, as has been before related, although
 many of the feats of his manhood are not here written down.  This
 is owing partly to our uncertainty about them, partly to our wish
 not to put stories into this book for which there is no
 testimony.  Although we have heard, many things talked about, and
 even circumstantially related, yet we think it better that
 something may be added to, than that it should be necessary to
 take something away from our narrative.  A great part of his
 history is put in verse by Iceland men, which poems they
 presented to him or his sons, and for which reason he was their
 great friend.  He was, indeed. a great friend to all the people
 of that country; and once, when a very dear time set in, he
 allowed four ships to transport meal to Iceland, and fixed that
 the shippund should not be dearer than 100 ells of wadmal.  He
 permitted also all poor people, who could find provisions to keep
 them on the voyage across the sea, to emigrate from Iceland to
 Norway; and from that time there was better subsistence in the
 country, and the seasons also turned out better.  King Harold
 also sent from Norway a bell for the church of which Olaf the
 Saint had sent the timbers to Iceland, and which was erected on
 the Thing-plain.  Such remembrances of King Harald are found here
 in the country, besides many great gifts which he presented to
 those who visited him.
 Haldor Snorrason and Ulf Uspakson, as before related, came to
 Norway with King Harald.  They were, in many respects, of
 different dispositions.  Haldor was very stout and strong, and
 remarkably handsome in appearance.  King Harald gave him this
 testimony, that he, among all his men, cared least about doubtful
 circumstances, whether they betokened danger or pleasure; for,
 whatever turned up, he was never in higher nor in lower spirits,
 never slept less nor more on account of them, nor ate or drank
 but according to his custom.  Haldor was not a man of many words,
 but short in conversation, told his opinion bluntly and was
 obstinate and hard; and this could not please the king, who had
 many clever people about him zealous in his service.  Haldor
 remained a short time with the king; and then came to Iceland,
 where he took up his abode in Hjardarholt, and dwelt in that farm
 to a very advanced age.
 Ulf Uspakson stood in great esteem with King Harald; for he was a
 man of great understanding, clever in conversation, active and
 brave, and withal true and sincere.  King Harald made Ulf his
 marshal, and married him to Jorun, Thorberg's daughter, a sister
 of Harald's wife, Thora.  Ulf and Jorun's children were Joan the
 Strong of Rasvol, and Brigida, mother of Sauda-Ulf, who was
 father of Peter Byrdar-Svein, father of Ulf Fly and Sigrid.  Joan
 the Strong's son was Erlend Himalde, father of Archbishop Eystein
 and his brothers.  King Harald gave Ulf the marshal the rights of
 a lenderman and a fief of twelve marks income, besides a half-
 district in the Throndhjem land.  Of this Stein Herdison speaks
 in his song about Ulf.
 King Magnus Olafson built Olaf's church in the town (Nidaros), on
 the spot where Olaf's body was set down for the night, and which,
 at that time, was above the town.  He also had the king's house
 built there.  The church was not quite finished when the king
 died; but King Harald had what was wanting completed.  There,
 beside the house, he began to construct a stone hall, but it was
 not finished when he died.  King Harald had the church called
 Mary Church built from the foundations up, at the sandhill close
 to the spot where the king's holy remains were concealed in the
 earth the first winter after his fall.  It was a large temple,
 and so strongly built with lime that it was difficult to break it
 when the Archbishop Eystein had it pulled down.  Olaf's holy
 remains were kept in Olaf's church while Mary Church was
 building.  King Harald had the king's house erected below Mary
 Kirk, at the side of the river, where it now is; and he had the
 house in which he had made the great hall consecrated and called
 Gregorius Church.
 There was a man called Ivar the White, who was a brave lenderman
 dwelling in the Uplands, and was a daughter's son of Earl Hakon
 the Great.  Ivar was the handsomest man that could be seen.
 Ivar's son was called Hakon; and of him it was said that he was
 distinguished above all men then in Norway for beauty, strength
 and perfection of figure.  In his very youth he had been sent out
 on war expeditions, where he acquired great honour and
 consideration, and became afterwards one of the most celebrated
 Einar Tambaskelfer was the most powerful lenderman in the
 Throndhjem land.  There was but little friendship between him and
 King Harald, although Einar retained all the fiefs he had held
 while Magnus the Good lived.  Einar had many large estates, and
 was married to Bergliot, a daughter of Earl Hakon, as related
 above.  Their son Eindride was grown up, and married to Sigrid, a
 daughter of Ketil Kalf and Gunhild, King Harald's sister's
 daughter.  Eindride had inherited the beauty of his mother's
 father, Earl Hakon, and his sons; and in size and strength he
 took after his father, Einar, and also in all bodily perfections
 by which Einar had been distinguished above other men.  He was,
 also, as well as his father, the most popular of men, which the
 sagas, indeed, show sufficiently.
 Orm was at that time earl in the Uplands.  His mother was
 Ragnhild, a daughter of Earl Hakon the Great, and Orm was a
 remarkably clever man.  Aslak Erlingson was then in Jadar at
 Sole, and was married to Sigrid, a daughter of Earl Svein
 Hakonson.  Gunhild, Earl Svein's other daughter, was married to
 the Danish king, Svein Ulfson.  These were the descendants of
 Earl Hakon at that time in Norway, besides many other
 distinguished people; and the whole race was remarkable for their
 very beautiful appearance, and the most of them were gifted with
 great bodily perfection, and were all distinguished and important
 King Harald was very proud, and his pride increased after he was
 established in the country; and it came so far that at last it
 was not good to speak against him, or to propose anything
 different from what he desired.  So says Thiodolf, the skald: --
      "In arms 'tis right the common man
      Should follow orders, one by one, --
      Should stoop or rise, or run or stand,
      As his war-leader may command;
      But now to the king who feeds the ravens
      The people bend like heartless cravens --
      Nothing is left them, but consent
      To what the king calls his intent."
 Einar Tambaskelfer was the principal man among the bondes all
 about Throndhjem, and answered for them at the Things even
 against the king's men.  Einar knew well the law, and did not
 want boldness to bring forward his opinion at Things, even if the
 king was present; and all the bondes stood by him.  The king was
 very angry at this, and it came so far that they disputed eagerly
 against each other.  Einar said that the bondes would not put up
 with any unlawful proceedings from him if he broke through the
 law of the land; and this occurred several times between them.
 Einar then began to keep people about him at home, and he had
 many more when he came into the town if the king was there.  It
 once happened that Einar came to the town with a great many men
 and ships; he had with him eight or nine great war-ships and
 nearly 500 men.  When he came to the town he went up from the
 strand with his attendants.  King Harald was then in his house,
 standing out in the gallery of the loft; and when he saw Einar's
 people going on shore, it is said Harald composed these verses:
      "I see great Tambaskelfer go,
      With mighty pomp, and pride, and show,
      Across the ebb-shore up the land, --
      Before, behind, an armed band.
      This bonde-leader thinks to rule,
      And fill himself the royal stool.
      A goodly earl I have known
      With fewer followers of his own.
      He who strikes fire from the shield,
      Einar, may some day make us yield,
      Unless our axe-edge quickly ends,
      With sudden kiss, what he intends."
 Einar remained several days in the town.
 One day there was a meeting held in the town, at which the king
 himself was present.  A thief had been taken in the town, and he
 was brought before the Thing.  The man had before been in the
 service of Einar, who had been very well satisfied with him. 
 This was told to Einar, and he well knew the king would not let
 the man off, and more because he took an interest in the matter.
 Einar, therefore, let his men get under arms, went to the Thing,
 and took the man by force.  The friends on both sides then came
 between and endeavoured to effect a reconciliation; and they
 succeeded so far that a meeting-place was appointed, to which
 both should come.  There was a Thing-room in the king's house at
 the river Nid, and the king went into it with a few men, while
 the most of his people were out in the yard.  The king ordered
 the shutters of the loft-opening to be turned, so that there was
 but a little space left clear.  When Einar came into the yard
 with his people, he told his son Eindride to remain outside with
 the men, "for there is no danger here for me."  Eindride remained
 standing outside at the room-door.  When Einar came into the
 Thing-room, he said, "It is dark in the king's Thing-room."  At
 that moment some men ran against him and assaulted him, some with
 spears, some with swords.  When Eindride heard this he drew his
 sword and rushed into the room; but he was instantly killed along
 with his father.  The king's men then ran up and placed
 themselves before the door, and the bondes lost courage, having
 no leader.  They urged each other on, indeed, and said it was a
 shame they should not avenge their chief; but it came to nothing
 with their attack.  The king went out to his men, arrayed them in
 battle order, and set up his standard: but the bondes did not
 venture to assault.  Then the king went with all his men on board
 of his ships, rowed down the river, and then took his way out of
 the fjord.  When Einar's wife Bergliot, who was in the house
 which Einar had possessed in the town, heard of Einar's fall, she
 went immediately to the king's house where the bondes army was
 and urged them to the attack; but at the same moment the king was
 rowing out of the river.  Then said Bergliot, "Now we want here
 my relation, Hakon Ivarson: Einar's murderer would not be rowing
 out of the river if Ivar stood here on the riverbank."  Then
 Bergliot adorned Einar's and Eindride's corpses and buried them
 in Olaf's church, beside King Magnus Olafson's burial-place.
 After Einar's murder the king was so much disliked for that deed
 that there was nothing that prevented the lendermen and bondes
 from attacking the king, and giving him battle, but the want of
 some leader to raise the banner in the bonde army.
 Fin Arnason dwelt at Austrat in Yrjar, and was King Harald's
 lenderman there.  Fin was married to Bergliot, a daughter of
 Halfdan, who was a son of Sigurd Syr, and brother of Olaf the
 Saint and of King Harald.  Thora, King Harald's wife, was Fin
 Arnason's brother's daughter: and Fin and all his brothers were
 the king's dearest friends.  Fin Arnason had been for some
 summers on a viking cruise in the West sea; and Fin, Guthorm
 Gunhildson and Hakon Ivarson had all been together on that
 cruise.  King Harald now proceeded out of Throndhjem fjord to
 Austrat, where he was well received.  Afterwards the king and Fin
 conversed with each other about this new event of Einar's and his
 son's death, and of the murmuring and threatening which the
 bondes made against the king.
 Fin took up the conversation briskly, and said, "Thou art
 managing ill in two ways: first, in doing all manner of mischief;
 and next, in being so afraid that thou knowest not what to do."
 The king replied, laughing, "I will send thee, friend, into the
 town to bring about a reconciliation with the bondes; and if that
 will not do, thou must go to the Uplands and bring matters to
 such an understanding with Hakon Ivarson that he shall not be my
 Fin replies, "And how wilt thou reward me if I undertake this
 dangerous errand; for both the people of Throndhjem and the
 people of Upland are so great enemies to thee that it would not
 be safe for any of thy messengers to come among them, unless he
 were one who would be spared for his own sake?"
 The king replies, "Go thou on this embassy, for I know thou wilt
 succeed in it if any man can, and bring about a reconciliation;
 and then choose whatever favour from us thou wilt."
 Fin says, "Hold thou thy word, king, and I will choose my
 petition.  I will desire to have peace and safe residence in the
 country for my brother Kalf, and all his estates restored; and
 also that he receive all the dignity and power he had when he
 left the country."
 The king assented to all that Fin laid down, and it was confirmed
 by witnesses and shake of hand.
 Then said Fin, "What shall I offer Hakon, who rules most among
 his relations in the land, to induce him to agree to a treaty and
 reconciliation with thee?"
 The king replies, "Thou shalt first hear what Hakon on his part
 requires for making an agreement; then promote my interest as
 thou art best able; and deny him nothing in the end short of the
 Then King Harald proceeded southwards to More, and drew together
 men in considerable numbers.
 Fin Arnason proceeded to the town and had with him his house-
 servants, nearly eighty men.  When he came into the town he held
 a Thing with the town's people.  Fin spoke long and ably at the
 Thing; and told the town's people, and bondes, above all things
 not to have a hatred against their king, or to drive him away. 
 He reminded them of how much evil they had suffered by acting
 thus against King Olaf the Saint; and added, that the king was
 willing to pay penalty for this murder, according to the judgment
 of understanding and good men.  The effect of Fin's speech was
 that the bondes promised to wait quietly until the messengers
 came back whom Bergliot had sent to the Uplands to her relative,
 Hakon Ivarson.  Fin then went out to Orkadal with the men who had
 accompanied him to the town.  From thence he went up to
 Dovrefield, and eastwards over the mountains.  He went first to
 his son-in-law, Earl Orm, who was married to Sigrid, Fin's
 daughter, and told him his business.
 Then Fin and Earl Orm appointed a meeting with Hakon Ivarson; and
 when they met Fin explained his errand to Hakon, and the offer
 which King Harald made him.  It was soon seen, from Hakon's
 speech, that he considered it to be his great duty to avenge the
 death of his relative, Eindride; and added, that word was come to
 him from Throndhjem, from which he might expect help in making
 head against the king.  Then Fin represented to Hakon how much
 better it would be for him to accept of as high a dignity from
 the king as he himself could desire, rather than to attempt
 raising a strife against the king to whom he was owing service
 and duty.  He said if he came out of the conflict without
 victory, he forfeited life and property: "And even if thou hast
 the victory, thou wilt still be called a traitor to thy
 sovereign."  Earl Orm also supported Fin's speech.  After Hakon
 had reflected upon this he disclosed what lay on his mind, and
 said, "I will be reconciled with King Harald if he will give me
 in marriage his relation Ragnhild, King Magnus Olafson's
 daughter, with such dower as is suitable to her and she will be
 content with."  Fin said he would agree to this on the king's
 part; and thus it was settled among them.  Fin then returned to
 Throndhjem, and the disturbance and enmity was quashed, so that
 the king could retain his kingdom in peace at home; and the
 league was broken which Eindride's relations had made among
 themselves for opposing King Harald.
 When the day arrived for the meeting at which this agreement with
 Harald should be finally concluded, Hakon went to King Harald;
 and in their conference the king said that he, for his part,
 would adhere to all that was settled in their agreement.  "Thou
 Hakon," says he, "must thyself settle that which concerns
 Ragnhild, as to her accepting thee in marriage; for it would not
 be advisable for thee, or for any one, to marry Ragnhild without
 her consent."  Then Hakon went to Ragnhild, and paid his
 addresses to her.  She answered him thus: "I have often to feel
 that my father, King Magnus, is dead and gone from me, since I
 must marry a bonde; although I acknowledge thou art a handsome
 man, expert in all exercises.  But if King Magnus had lived he
 would not have married me to any man less than a king; so it is
 not to be expected that I will take a man who has no dignity or
 title."  Then Hakon went to King Harald and told him his
 conversation with Ragnhild, and also repeated the agreement which
 was made between him and Fin, who was with him, together with
 many others of the persons who had been present at the
 conversation between him and Fin.  Hakon takes them all to
 witness that such was the agreement that the king should give
 Ragnhild the dower she might desire.  "And now since she will
 have no man who has not a high dignity, thou must give me such a
 title of honour; and, according to the opinion of the people, I
 am of birth, family and other qualifications to be called earl."
 The king replies, "When my brother, King Olaf, and his son, King
 Magnus, ruled the kingdom, they allowed only one earl at a time
 to be in the country, and I have done the same since I came to
 the kingly title; and I will not take away from Orm the title of
 honour I had before given him."
 Hakon saw now that his business had not advanced, and was very
 ill pleased; and Fin was outrageously angry.  They said the king
 had broken his word; and thus they all separated.
 Hakon then went out of the country with a well-manned ship.  When
 he came to Denmark he went immediately to his relative, King
 Svein, who received him honourably and gave him great fiefs.
 Hakon became King Svein's commander of the coast defence against
 the vikings, -- the Vindland people, Kurland people, and others
 from the East countries, -- who infested the Danish dominions;
 and he lay out with his ships of war both winter and summer.
 There was a man called Asmund, who is said to have been King
 Svein's sister's son, and his foster-son.  This Asmund was
 distinguished among all by his boldness and was much disliked by
 the king.  When Asmund came to years, and to age of discretion,
 he became an ungovernable person given to murder and
 manslaughter.  The king was ill pleased at this, and sent him
 away, giving him a good fief, which might keep him and his
 followers well.  As soon as Asmund had got this property from the
 king he drew together a large troop of people; and as the estate
 he had got from the king was not sufficient for his expenses he
 took as his own much more which belonged to the king.  When the
 king heard this he summoned Asmund to him, and when they met the
 king said that Asmund should remain with the court without
 keeping any retinue of his own; and this took place as the king
 desired.  But when Asmund had been a little time in the king's
 court he grew weary of being there, and escaped in the night,
 returned to his former companions and did more mischief than
 ever.  Now when the king was riding through the country he came
 to the neighbourhood where Asmund was, and he sent out men-at-
 arms to seize him.  The king then had him laid in irons, and kept
 him so for some time in hope he would reform; but no sooner did
 Asmund get rid of his chains than he absconded again, gathered
 together people and men-at-arms and betook himself to plunder,
 both abroad and at home.  Thus he made great forays, killing and
 plundering all around.  When the people who suffered under these
 disturbances came to the king and complained to him of their
 losses, he replied, "Why do ye tell me of this?  Why don't you go
 to Hakon Ivarson, who is my officer for the land-defence, placed
 on purpose to keep the peace for you peasants, and to hold the
 vikings in check?  I was told that Hakon was a gallant and brave
 man, but I think he is rather shy when any danger of life is in
 the way."  These words of the king were brought to Hakon, with
 many additions.  Then Hakon went with his men in search of
 Asmund, and when their ships met Hakon gave battle immediately --
 and the conflict was sharp, and many men were killed.  Hakon
 boarded Asmund's ship and cut down the men before his feet.  At
 last he and Asmund met and exchanged blows until Asmund fell.
 Hakon cut off his head, went in all haste to King Svein and found
 him just sitting down to the dinner-table.  Hakon presented
 himself before the table, laid Asmund's head upon the table
 before the king, and asked if he knew it.  The king made no
 reply, but became as red as blood in the face.  Soon after the
 king sent him a message, ordering him to leave his service
 immediately. "Tell him I will do him no harm; but I cannot keep
 watch over all our relations (1).
 (1)  This incident shows how strong, in those ages, was the tie
      of relationship, and the point of honour of avenging its
      injuries -- the clanship spirit. -- L.
 Hakon then left Denmark, and came north to his estates in Norway.
 His relation Earl Orm was dead.  Hakon's relations and friends
 were glad to see Hakon, and many gallant men gave themselves much
 trouble to bring about a reconciliation between King Harald and
 Hakon.  It was at last settled in this way, that Hakon got
 Ragnhild, the king's daughter, and that King Harald gave Hakon
 the earldom, with the same power Earl Orm had possessed.  Hakon
 swore to King Harald an oath of fidelity to all the services he
 was liable to fulfill.
 Kalf Arnason had been on a viking cruise to the Western countries
 ever since he had left Norway; but in winter he was often in the
 Orkney Islands with his relative, Earl Thorfin.  Fin Arnason sent
 a message to his brother Kalf, and told him the agreement which
 he had made with King Harald, that Kalf should enjoy safety in
 Norway, and his estates, and all the fiefs he had held from King
 Magnus.  When this message came to Kalf he immediately got ready
 for his voyage, and went east to Norway to his brother Fin.  Then
 Fin obtained the king's peace for Kalf, and when Kalf and the
 king met they went into the agreement which Fin and the king had
 settled upon before.  Kalf bound himself to the king in the same
 way as he had bound himself to serve King Magnus, according to
 which Kalf should do all that the king desired and considered of
 advantage to his realm.  Thereupon Kalf received all the estates
 and fiefs he had before.
 The summer following (A.D. 1050) King Harald ordered out a levy,
 and went to Denmark, where he plundered during the summer; but
 when he came south to Fyen he found a great force assembled
 against him.  Then the king prepared to land his men from the
 ships and to engage in a land-fight.  He drew up his men on board
 in order of battle; set Kalf Arnason at the head of one division;
 ordered him to make the first attack, and told him where they
 should direct their assault, promising that he would soon make a
 landing with the others, and come to their assistance.  When Kalf
 came to the land with his men a force came down immediately to
 oppose them, and Kalf without delay engaged in battle, which,
 however, did not last long; for Kalf was immediately overpowered
 by numbers, and betook himself to flight with his men.  The Danes
 pursued them vigorously, and many of the Northmen fell, and among
 them Kalf Arnason.  Now King Harald landed with his array; and
 they soon came on their way to the field of battle, where they
 found Kalf's body, and bore it down to the ships.  But the king
 penetrated into the country, killing many people and destroying
 much.  So says Arnor: --
      "His shining sword with blood he stains,
      Upon Fyona's grassy plains;
      And in the midst of fire and smoke,
      The king Fyona's forces broke."
 After this Fin Arnason thought he had cause to be an enemy of the
 king upon account of his brother Kalf's death; and said the king
 had betrayed Kalf to his fall, and had also deceived him by
 making him entice his brother Kalf to come over from the West and
 trust to King Harald's faith.  When these speeches came out among
 people, many said that it was very foolish in Fin to have ever
 supposed that Kalf could obtain the king's sincere friendship and
 favour; for they thought the king was the man to seek revenge for
 smaller offences than Kalf had committed against the king.  The
 king let every one say what he chose, and he himself neither said
 yes or no about the affair; but people perceived that the king
 was very well pleased with what had happened.  King Harald once
 made these verses: --
      "I have, in all, the death-stroke given
      To foes of mine at least eleven;
      Two more, perhaps, if I remember,
      May yet be added to this number,
      I prize myself upon these deeds,
      My people such examples needs.
      Bright gold itself they would despise,
      Or healing leek-herb underprize,
      If not still brought before their eyes."
 Fin Arnason took the business so much to heart that he left the
 country and went to Denmark to King Svein, where he met a
 friendly reception.  They spoke together in private for a long
 time; and the end of the business was that Fin went into King
 Svein's service, and became his man.  King Svein then gave Fin an
 earldom, and placed him in Halland, where he was long earl and
 defended the country against the Northmen.
 Ketil Kalf and Gunhild of Ringanes had a son called Guthorm, and
 he was a sister's son to King Olaf and Harald Sigurdson.  Guthorm
 was a gallant man, early advanced to manhood.  He was often with
 King Harald, who loved him much, and asked his advice; for he was
 of good understanding, and very popular.  Guthorm had also been
 engaged early in forays, and had marauded much in the Western
 countries with a large force.  Ireland was for him a land of
 peace; and he had his winter quarters often in Dublin, and was in
 great friendship with King Margad.
 The summer after King Margad, and Guthorm with him, went out on
 an expedition against Bretland, where they made immense booty.
 But when the king saw the quantity of silver which was gathered
 he wanted to have the whole booty, and regarded little his
 friendship for Guthorm.  Guthorm was ill pleased that he and his
 men should be robbed of their share; but the king said, "Thou
 must choose one of two things, -- either to be content with what
 we determine, or to fight; and they shall have the booty who gain
 the victory; and likewise thou must give up thy ships, for them I
 will have."  Guthorm thought there were great difficulties on
 both sides; for it was disgraceful to give up ships and goods
 without a stroke, and yet it was highly dangerous to fight the
 king and his force, the king having sixteen ships and Guthorm
 only five.  Then Guthorm desired three days' time to consider the
 matter with his people, thinking in that time to pacify the king,
 and come to a better understanding with him through the mediation
 of others; but he could not obtain from the king what he desired. 
 This was the day before St. Olaf's day.  Guthorm chose the
 condition that they would rather die or conquer like men, than
 suffer disgrace, contempt and scorn, by submitting to so great a
 loss.  He called upon God, and his uncle Saint Olaf, and
 entreated their help and aid; promising to give to the holy man's
 house the tenth of all the booty that fell to their share, if
 they gained the victory.  Then he arranged his men, placed them
 in battle order against the great force, prepared for battle, and
 gave the assault.  By the help of God, and the holy Saint Olaf,
 Guthorm won the battle.  King Margad fell, and every man, old and
 young, who followed him; and after that great victor, Guthorm and
 all his people returned home joyfully with all the booty they had
 gained by the battle.  Every tenth penny of the booty they had
 made was taken, according to the vow, to King Olaf the Saint's
 shrine; and there was so much silver that Guthorm had an image
 made of it, with rays round the head, which was the size of his
 own, or of his forecastle-man's head; and the image was seven
 feet high.  The image thus produced was given by Guthorm to King
 Olaf of the Saint's temple, where it has since remained as a
 memorial of Guthorm's victory and King Olaf the Saint's miracle.
 There was a wicked, evil-minded count in Denmark who had a
 Norwegian servant-girl whose family belonged to Throndhjem
 district.  She worshipped King Olaf the Saint, and believed
 firmly in his sanctity.  But the above mentioned count doubted
 all that was told of the holy man's miracles, insisted that it
 was nothing but nonsense and idle talk, and made a joke and scorn
 of the esteem and honour which all the country people showed the
 good king.  Now when his holyday came, on which the mild monarch
 ended his life, and which all Northmen kept sacred, this
 unreasonable count would not observe it, but ordered his servant-
 girl to bake and put fire in the oven that day.  She knew well
 the count's mad passion, and that he would revenge himself
 severely on her if she refused doing as he ordered.  She went,
 therefore, of necessity, and baked in the oven, but wept much at
 her work; and she threatened King Olaf that she never would
 believe in him, if he did not avenge this misdeed by some
 mischance or other.  And now shall ye come to hear a well-
 deserved vengeance, and a true miracle.  It happened, namely, in
 the same hour that the count became blind of both eyes, and the
 bread which she had shoved into the oven was turned into stone!
 Of these stones some are now in St. Olaf's temple, and in other
 places; and since that time O1afsmas has been always held holy in
 West in Valland, a man had such bad health that he became a
 cripple, and went on his knees and elbows.  One day he was upon
 the road, and had fallen asleep.  He dreamt that a gallant man
 came up to him and asked him where he was going.  When he named
 the neighbouring town, the man said to him, "Go to Saint Olaf's
 church that stands in London, and there thou shalt be cured."
 There-upon he awoke, and went straightway to inquire the road to
 Olaf's church in London.  At last he came to London Bridge, and
 asked the men of the castle if they could tell him where Olaf's
 church was; but they replied, there were so many churches that
 they could not tell to whom each of them was consecrated.  Soon
 after a man came up and asked him where he wanted to go, and he
 answered to Olaf's church.  Then said the man, "We shall both go
 together to Olaf's church, for I know the way to it."  Thereupon
 they went over the bridge to the shrine where Olaf's church was;
 and when they came to the gates of the churchyard the man mounted
 over the half-door that was in the gate, but the cripple rolled
 himself in, and rose up immediately sound and strong: when he
 looked about him his conductor had vanished.
 King Harald had built a merchant town in the East at Oslo, where
 he often resided; for there was good supply from the extensive
 cultivated district wide around.  There also he had a convenient
 station to defend the country against the Danes, or to make an
 attack upon Denmark, which he was in the custom of doing often,
 although he kept no great force on foot.  One summer King Harald
 went from thence with a few light ships and a few men.  He
 steered southwards out from Viken, and, when the wind served,
 stood over to Jutland, and marauded; but the country people
 collected and defended the country.  Then King Harald steered to
 Limfjord, and went into the fjord.  Limfjord is so formed that
 its entrance is like a narrow river; but when one gets farther
 into the fjord it spreads out into a wide sea.  King Harald
 marauded on both sides of the land; and when the Danes gathered
 together on every side to oppose him, he lay at a small island
 which was uncultivated.  They wanted drink on board his ships,
 and went up into the island to seek water; but finding none, they
 reported it to the king.  He ordered them to look for some long
 earthworms on the island, and when they found one they brought it
 to the king.  He ordered the people to bring the worm to a fire,
 and bake it before it, so that it should be thirsty.  Then he
 ordered a thread to be tied round the tail of the worm, and to
 let it loose.  The worm crept away immediately, while thread
 wound off from the clew as the worm took it away; and the people
 followed the worm until it sought downwards in the earth.  There
 the king ordered them to dig for water, which they did, and found
 so much water that they had no want of it.  King Harald now heard
 from his spies that King Svein was come with a large armament to
 the mouth of the fjord; but that it was too late for him to come
 into it, as only one ship at a time can come in.  King Harald
 then steered with his fleet in through the fjord to where it was
 broadest to a place called Lusbreid.  In the inmost bight, there
 is but a narrow neck of land dividing the fjord from the West
 sea.  Thither King Harald rowed with his men towards evening; and
 at night when it was dark he unloaded his ships, drew them over
 the neck of land into the West sea, loaded them again, and was
 ready with all this before day.  He then steered northwards along
 the Jutland coast.  People then said that Harald had escaped from
 the hands of the Danes.  Harald said that he would come to
 Denmark next time with more people and larger vessels.  King
 Harald then proceeded north to Throndhjem.
 King Harald remained all winter at Nidaros (A.D. 1062) and had a
 vessel built out upon the strand, and it was a buss.  The ship
 was built of the same size as the Long Serpent, and every part of
 her was finished with the greatest care.  On the stem was a
 dragon-head, and on the stern a dragon-tail, and the sides of the
 bows of the ship were gilt.  The vessel was of thirty-five rowers
 benches, and was large for that size, and was remarkably
 handsome; for the king had everything belonging to the ship's
 equipment of the best, both sails and rigging, anchors and
 cables.  King Harald sent a message in winter south to Denmark to
 King Svein, that he should come northwards in spring; that they
 should meet at the Gaut river and fight, and so settle the
 division of the countries that the one who gained the victory
 should have both kingdoms.
 King Harald during this winter called out a general levy of all
 the people of Norway, and assembled a great force towards spring.
 Then Harald had his great ship drawn down and put into the river
 Nid, and set up the dragon's head on her.  Thiodolf, the skald,
 sang about it thus: --
      "My lovely girl!  the sight was grand
      When the great war-ships down the strand
      Into the river gently slid,
      And all below her sides was hid.
      Come, lovely girl, and see the show! --
      Her sides that on the water glow,
      Her serpent-head with golden mane,
      All shining back from the Nid again."
 Then King Harald rigged out his ship, got ready for sea, and when
 he had all in order went out of the river.  His men rowed very
 skilfully and beautifully.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "It was upon a Saturday,
      Ship-tilts were struck and stowed away,
      And past the town our dragon glides,
      That girls might see our glancing sides.
      Out from the Nid brave Harald steers;
      Westward at first the dragon veers;
      Our lads together down with oars,
      The splash is echoed round the shores.
      "Their oars our king's men handle well,
      One stroke is all the eye can tell:
      All level o'er the water rise;
      The girls look on in sweet surprise.
      Such things, they think, can ne'er give way;
      The little know the battle day.
      The Danish girls, who dread our shout,
      Might wish our ship-gear not so stout.
      "'Tis in the fight, not on the wave,
      That oars may break and fail the brave.
      At sea, beneath the ice-cold sky,
      Safely our oars o'er ocean ply;
      And when at Throndhjem's holy stream
      Our seventy cars in distance gleam,
      We seem, while rowing from the sea,
      An erne with iron wings to be."
 King Harald sailed south along the land, and called out the levy
 everywhere of men and ships.  When they came east to Viken they
 got a strong wind against them and the forces lay dispersed about
 in the harbour; some in the isles outside, and some in the
 fjords.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "The cutters' sea-bleached bows scarce find
      A shelter from the furious wind
      Under the inland forests' side,
      Where the fjord runs its farthest tide.
      In all the isles and creeks around
      The bondes' ships lie on the ground,
      And ships with gunwales hung with shields
      Seek the lee-side of the green fields."
 In the heavy storm that raged for some time the great ship had
 need of good ground tackle.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "With lofty bow above the seas,
      Which curl and fly before the breeze,
      The gallant vessel rides and reels,
      And every plunge her cable feels.
      The storm that tries the spar and mast
      Tries the main-anchor at the last:
      The storm above, below the rock,
      Chafe the thick cable with each shock."
 When the weather became favourable King Harald sailed eastwards
 to the Gaut river with his fleet and arrived there in the
 evening.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "The gallant Harald now has come
      To Gaut, full half way from his home,
      And on the river frontier stands,
      To fight with Svein for life and lands.
      The night passed o'er, the gallant king
      Next day at Thumia calls a Thing,
      Where Svein is challenged to appear --
      A day which ravens wish were near."
 When the Danes heard that the Northmen's army was come to the
 Gaut river they all fled who had opportunity to get away.  The
 Northmen heard that the Danish king had also called out his
 forces and lay in the south, partly at Fyen and partly about
 Seeland.  When King Harald found that King Svein would not hold a
 meeting with him, or a fight, according to what had been agreed
 upon between them, he took the same course as before -- letting
 the bonde troops return home, but manning 150 ships, with which
 he sailed southwards along Halland, where he herried all round,
 and then brought up with his fleet in Lofufjord, and laid waste
 the country.  A little afterwards King Svein came upon them with
 all the Danish fleet, consisting of 300 ships.  When the Northmen
 saw them King Harald ordered a general meeting of the fleet to be
 called by sound of trumpet; and many there said it was better to
 fly, as it was not now advisable to fight.  The king replied,
 "Sooner shall all lie dead one upon another than fly."  So says
 Stein Herdison: --
      "With falcon eye, and courage bright,
      Our king saw glory in the fight;
      To fly, he saw, would ruin bring
      On them and him -- the folk and king.
      `Hands up the arms to one and all!'
      Cries out the king; `we'll win or fall!
      Sooner than fly, heaped on each other
      Each man shall fall across his brother!'"
 Then King Harald drew up his ships to attack, and brought forward
 his great dragon in the middle of his fleet.  So says Thiodolf:
      "The brave king through his vessels' throng
      His dragon war-ship moves along;
      He runs her gaily to the front,
      To meet the coming battle's brunt."
 The ship was remarkably well equipt, and fully manned.  So says
 Thiodolf: --
      "The king had got a chosen crew --
      He told his brave lads to stand true.
      The ring of shields seemed to enclose
      The ship's deck from the boarding foes.
      The dragon, on the Nis-river flood,
      Beset with men, who thickly stood,
      Shield touching shield, was something rare,
      That seemed all force of man to dare."
 Ulf, the marshal, laid his ship by the side of the king's and
 ordered his men to bring her well forward.  Stein Herdison, who
 was himself in Ulf's ship, sings of it thus: --
      "Our oars were stowed, our lances high,
      As the ship moved swung in the sky.
      The marshal Ulf went through our ranks,
      Drawn up beside the rowers' banks:
      The brave friend of our gallant king
      Told us our ship well on to bring,
      And fight like Norsemen in the cause --
      Our Norsemen answered with huzzas."
 Hakon Ivarson lay outside on the other wing, and had many ships
 with him, all well equipt.  At the extremity of the other side
 lay the Throndhjem chiefs, who had also a great and strong force.
 Svein, the Danish king, also drew up his fleet, and laid his ship
 forward in the center against King Harald's ship, and Fin Arnason
 laid his ship next; and then the Danes laid their ships,
 according as they were bold or well-equipt.  Then, on both sides,
 they bound the ships together all through the middle of the
 fleets; but as the fleets were so large, very many ships remained
 loose, and each laid his ship forward according to his courage,
 and that was very unequal.  Although the difference among the men
 was great, altogether there was a very great force on both sides.
 King Svein had six earls among the people following him.  So says
 Stein Herdison: --
      "Danger our chief would never shun,
      With eight score ships he would not run:
      The Danish fleet he would abide,
      And give close battle side by side.
      From Leire's coast the Danish king
      Three hundred ocean steeds could bring,
      And o'er the sea-weed plain in haste
      Thought Harald's vessels would be chased."
 As soon as King Harald was ready with his fleet, he orders the
 war-blast to sound, and the men to row forward to the attack.  So
 says Stein Herdison: --
      "Harald and Svein first met as foes,
      Where the Nis in the ocean flows;
      For Svein would not for peace entreat,
      But, strong in ships, would Harald meet.
      The Norsemen prove, with sword in hand,
      That numbers cannot skill withstand.
      Off Halland's coast the blood of Danes
      The blue sea's calm smooth surface stains."
 Soon the battle began, and became very sharp; both kings urging
 on their men.  So says Stein Herdison: --
      "Our king, his broad shield disregarding,
      More keen for striking than for warding,
      Now tells his lads their spears to throw, --
      Now shows them where to strike a blow.
      From fleet to fleet so short the way,
      That stones and arrows have full play;
      And from the keen sword dropped the blood
      Of short-lived seamen in the flood."
 It was late in the day when the battle began, and it continued
 the whole night.  King Harald shot for a long time with his bow.
 So says Thiodolf: --
      "The Upland king was all the night
      Speeding the arrows' deadly flight.
      All in the dark his bow-string's twang
      Was answered; for some white shield rang,
      Or yelling shriek gave certain note
      The shaft had pierced some ring-mail coat,
      The foemen's shields and bulwarks bore
      A Lapland arrow-scat(1) or more."
 Earl Hakon, and the people who followed him, did not make fast
 their ships in the fleet, but rowed against the Danish ships that
 were loose, and slew the men of all the ships they came up with.
 When the Danes observed this each drew his ship out of the way of
 the earl; but he set upon those who were trying to escape, and
 they were nearly driven to flight.  Then a boat came rowing to
 the earl's ship and hailed him and said that the other wing of
 King Harald's fleet was giving way and many of their people had
 fallen.  Then the earl rowed thither and gave so severe an
 assault that the Danes had to retreat before him.  The earl went
 on in this way all the night, coming forward where he was most
 wanted, and wheresoever he came none could stand against him.
 Hakon rowed outside around the battle.  Towards the end of the
 night the greatest part of the Danish fleet broke into flight,
 for then King Harald with his men boarded the vessel of King
 Svein; and it was so completely cleared that all the crew fell in
 the ship, except those who sprang overboard.  So says Arnor, the
 earls' skald: --
      "Brave Svein did not his vessel leave
      Without good cause, as I believe:
      Oft on his casque the sword-blade rang,
      Before into the sea he sprang.
      Upon the wave his vessel drives;
      All his brave crew had lost their lives.
      O'er dead courtmen into the sea
      The Jutland king had now to flee."
 And when King Svein's banner was cut down, and his ship cleared
 of its crew, all his forces took to flight, and some were killed.
 The ships which were bound together could not be cast loose, so
 the people who were in them sprang overboard, and some got to the
 other ships that were loose; and all King Svein's men who could
 get off rowed away, but a great many of them were slain.  Where
 the king himself fought the ships were mostly bound together, and
 there were more than seventy left behind of King Svein's vessels.
 So says Thiodolf: --
      "Svein's ships rode proudly o'er the deep,
      When, by a single sudden sweep,
      Full seventy sail, as we are told,
      Were seized by Norway's monarch bold."
 King Harald rowed after the Danes and pursued them; but that was
 not easy, for the ships lay so thick together that they scarcely
 could move.  Earl Fin Arnason would not flee; and being also
 shortsighted, was taken prisoner.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "To the six Danish earls who came
      To aid his force, and raise his name,
      No mighty thanks King Svein is owing
      For mighty actions of their doing.
      Fin Arnason, in battle known,
      With a stout Norse heart of his own,
      Would not take flight his life to gain,
      And in the foremost ranks was ta'en."
 (1)  The Laplanders paid their seat, or yearly tax, in bows and
      arrows; and the meaning of the skald appears to be, that as
      many as were paid in a year were shot at the foe. -- L.
 Earl Hakon lay behind with his ships, while the king and the rest
 of the forces were pursuing the fugitives; for the earls' ships
 could not get forward on account of the ships which lay in the
 way before him.  Then a man came rowing in a boat to the earl's
 ship and lay at the bulwarks.  The man was stout and had on a
 white hat.  He hailed the ship, "Where is the earl?" said he.
 The earl was in the fore-hold, stopping a man's blood.  The earl
 cast a look at the man in the hat and asked what his name was. 
 He answered, "Here is Vandrad: speak to me, earl."
 The earl leant over the ship's side to him.  Then the man in the
 boat said, "Earl, I will accept of my life from thee, if thou
 wilt give it."
 Then the earl raised himself up, called two men who were friends
 dear to him, and said to them, "Go into the boat; bring Vandrad
 to the land; attend him to my friend's Karl the bonde; and tell
 Karl, as a token that these words come from me, that he let
 Vandrad have the horse which I gave to him yesterday, and also
 his saddle, and his son to attend him."
 Thereupon they went into the boat and took the oars in hand,
 while Vandrad steered.  This took place just about daybreak,
 while the vessels were in movement, some rowing towards the land,
 some towards the sea, both small and great.  Vandrad steered
 where he thought there was most room between the vessels; and
 when they came near to Norway's ships the earl's men gave their
 names and then they all allowed them to go where they pleased.
 Vandrad steered along the shore, and only set in towards the land
 when they had come past the crowd of ships.  They then went up to
 Karl the bonde's farm, and it was then beginning to be light.
 They went into the room where Karl had just put on his clothes.
 The earl's men told him their message and Karl said they must
 first take some food; and he set a table before them and gave
 them water to wash with.
 Then came the housewife into the room and said, "I wonder why we
 could get no peace or rest all night with the shouting and
 Karl replies, "Dost thou not know that the kings were fighting
 all night?"
 She asked which had the better of it.
 Karl answered, "The Northmen gained."
 "Then," said she, "our king will have taken flight."
 "Nobody knows," says Karl, "whether he has fled or is fallen."
 She says, "What a useless sort of king we have!  He is both slow
 and frightened."
 Then said Vandrad, "Frightened he is not; but he is not lucky."
 Then Vandrad washed his hands; but he took the towel and dried
 them right in the middle of the cloth.  The housewife snatched
 the towel from him, and said, "Thou hast been taught little good;
 it is wasteful to wet the whole cloth at one time.
 Vandrad replies, "I may yet come so far forward in the world as
 to be able to dry myself with the middle of the towel."
 Thereupon Karl set a table before them and Vandrad sat down
 between them.  They ate for a while and then went out.  The horse
 was saddled and Karl's son ready to follow him with another
 horse.  They rode away to the forest; and the earl's men returned
 to the boat, rowed to the earl's ship and told the success of
 their expedition.
 King Harald and his men followed the fugitives only a short way,
 and rowed back to the place where the deserted ships lay.  Then
 the battle-place was ransacked, and in King Svein's ship was
 found a heap of dead men; but the king's body was not found,
 although people believed for certain that he had fallen.  Then
 King Harald had the greatest attention paid to the dead of his
 men, and had the wounds of the living bound up.  The dead bodies
 of Svein's men were brought to the land, and he sent a message to
 the peasants to come and bury them.  Then he let the booty be
 divided, and this took up some time.  The news came now that King
 Svein had come to Seeland, and that all who had escaped from the
 battle had joined him, along with many more, and that he had a
 great force.
 Earl Fin Arnason was taken prisoner in the battle, as before
 related; and when he was led before King Harald the king was very
 merry, and said, "Fin, we meet here now, and we met last in
 Norway.  The Danish court has not stood very firmly by thee; and
 it will be a troublesome business for Northmen to drag thee, a
 blind old man, with them, and preserve thy life."
 The earl replies, "The Northmen find it very difficult now to
 conquer, and it is all the worse that thou hast the command of
 Then said King Harald, "Wilt thou accept of life and safety,
 although thou hast not deserved it?"
 The earl replies, "Not from thee, thou dog."
 The king: "Wilt thou, then, if thy relation Magnus gives thee
 Magnus, King Harald's son, was then steering the ship.
 The earl replies, "Can the whelp rule over life and quarter?"
 The king laughed, as if he found amusement in vexing him. --
 "Wilt thou accept thy life, then, from thy she-relation Thorer?"
 The earl: "Is she here?"
 "She is here," said the king.
 Then Earl Fin broke out with the ugly expressions which since
 have been preserved, as a proof that he was so mad with rage that
 he could not govern his tongue: --
 "No wonder thou hast bit so strongly, if the mare was with thee."
 Earl Fin got life and quarter and the king kept him a while about
 him.  But Fin was rather melancholy and obstinate in
 conversation; and King Harald said, "I see, Fin, that thou dost
 not live willingly in company with me and thy relations; now I
 will give thee leave to go to thy friend King Svein."
 The earl said, "I accept of the offer willingly, and the more
 gratefully the sooner I get away from hence."
 The king afterwards let Earl Fin be landed and the traders going
 to Halland received him well.  King Harald sailed from thence to
 Norway with his fleet; and went first to Oslo, where he gave all
 his people leave to go home who wished to do so.
 King Svein, it is told, sat in Denmark all that winter, and had
 his kingdom as formerly.  In winter he sent men north to Halland
 for Karl the bonde and his wife.  When Karl came the king called
 him to him and asked him if he knew him, or thought he had ever
 seen him before.
 Karl replies, "I know thee, sire, and knew thee before, the
 moment I saw thee; and God be praised if the small help I could
 give was of any use to thee."
 The king replies, "I have to reward thee for all the days I have
 to live.  And now, in the first place, I will give thee any farm
 in Seeland thou wouldst desire to have; and, in the next place,
 will make thee a great man, if thou knowest how to conduct
 Karl thanked the king for his promise, and said he had now but
 one thing to ask.
 The king asked what that was.
 Karl said that he would ask to take his wife with him.
 The king said, "I will not let thee do that; but I will provide
 thee a far better and more sensible wife.  But thy wife can keep
 the bonde-farm ye had before and she will have her living from
 The king gave Karl a great and valuable farm, and provided him a
 good marriage; and he became a considerable man.  This was
 reported far and wide and much praised; and thus it came to be
 told in Norway.
 King Harald stayed in Oslo the winter after the battle at Nis-
 river (A.D. 1063).  In autumn, when the men came from the south,
 there was much talk and many stories about the battle which they
 had fought at Nis-river, and every one who had been there thought
 he could tell something about it.  Once some of them sat in a
 cellar and drank, and were very merry and talkative.  They talked
 about the Nis-river battle, and who had earne'd the greatest
 praise and renown.  They all agreed that no man there had been at
 all equal to Earl Hakon.  He was the boldest in arms, the
 quickest, and the most lucky; what he did was of the greatest
 help, and he won the battle.  King Harald, in the meantime, was
 out in the yard, and spoke with some people.  He went then to the
 room-door, and said, "Every one here would willingly be called
 Hakon;" and then went his way.
 Earl Hakon went in winter to the Uplands, and was all winter in
 his domains.  He was much beloved by all the Uplanders.  It
 happened, towards spring, that some men were sitting drinking in
 the town, and the conversation turned, as usual, on the Nis-river
 battle; and some praised Earl Hakon, and some thought others as
 deserving of praise as he.  When they had thus disputed a while,
 one of them said, "It is possible that others fought as bravely
 as the earl at Nis-river; but none, I think, has had such luck
 with him as he."
 The others replied, that his best luck was his driving so many
 Danes to flight along with other men.
 The same man replied, "It was greater luck that he gave King
 Svein quarter."
 One of the company said to him, "Thou dost not know what thou art
 He replied, "I know it for certain, for the man told me himself
 who brought the king to the land."
 It went, according to the old proverb, that the king has many
 ears.  This was told the king, and he immediately ordered horses
 to be gathered, and rode away directly with 900 men.  He rode all
 that night and the following day.  Then some men met them who
 were riding to the town with mead and malt.  In the king's
 retinue was a man called Gamal, who rode to one of these bondes
 who was an acquaintance of his, and spoke to him privately.  "I
 will pay thee," said he, "to ride with the greatest speed, by the
 shortest private paths that thou knowest, to Earl Hakon, and tell
 him the king will kill him; for the king has got to the knowledge
 that Earl Hakon set King Svein on shore at Nis-river."  They
 agreed on the payment.  The bonde rode, and came to the earl just
 as he was sitting drinking, and had not yet gone to bed.  When
 the bonde told his errand, the earl immediately stood up with all
 his men, had all his loose property removed from the farm to the
 forest, and all the people left the house in the night.  When the
 king came he halted there all night; but Hakon rode away, and
 came east to Svithjod to King Steinkel and stayed with him all
 summer.  King Harald returned to the town, travelled northwards
 to Throndhjem district, and remained there all summer; but in
 autumn he returned eastwards to Viken.
 As soon as Earl Hakon heard the king had gone north he returned
 immediately in summer to the Uplands (A.D. 1063), and remained
 there until the king had returned from the north.  Then the earl
 went east into Vermaland, where he remained during the winter,
 and where the king, Steinkel, gave him fiefs.  For a short time
 in winter he went west to Raumarike with a great troop of men
 from Gautland and Vermaland, and received the scat and duties
 from the Upland people which belonged to him, and then returned
 to Glutland, and remained there till spring.  King Harald had his
 seat in Oslo all winter (A.D. 1064), and sent his men to the
 Uplands to demand the scat, together with the king's land dues,
 and the mulcts of court; but the Uplanders said they would pay
 all the scat and dues which they had to pay, to Earl Hakon as
 long as he was in life, and had forfeited his life or his fief;
 and the king got no dues that winter.
 This winter messengers and ambassadors went between Norway and
 Denmark, whose errand was that both Northmen and Danes should
 make peace, and a league with each other. and to ask the kings to
 agree to it.  These messages gave favourable hopes of a peace;
 and the matter proceeded so far that a meeting for peace was
 appointed at the Gaut river between King Harald and King Svein.
 When spring approached, both kings assembled many ships and
 people for this meeting.  So says a skald in a poem on this
 expedition of the kings, which begins thus: --
      "The king, who from the northern sound
      His land with war-ships girds around,
      The raven-feeder, filled the coast
      With his proud ships, a gallant host!
      The gold-tipped stems dash through the foam
      That shakes the seamen's planked home;
      The high wave breaks up to the mast,
      As west of Halland on they passed,
      "Harald whose word is fixed and sure,
      Whose ships his land from foes secure,
      And Svein, whose isles maintain is fleet,
      Hasten as friends again to meet;
      And every creek with vessels teems, --
      All Denmark men and shipping seems;
      And all rejoice that strife will cease,
      And men meet now but to make peace."
 Here it is told that the two kings held the meeting that was
 agreed upon between them, and both came to the frontiers of their
 kingdoms.  So says the skald: --
      "To meet (since peace the Dane now craves)
      On to the south upon the waves
      Sailed forth our gallant northern king,
      Peace to the Danes with him to bring.
      Svein northward to his frontier hies
      To get the peace his people prize,
      And meet King Harald, whom he finds
      On land hard used by stormy winds."
 When the kings found each other, people began at once to talk of
 their being reconciled.  But as soon as peace was proposed, many
 began to complain of the damage they had sustained by harrying,
 robbing and killing men; and for a long time it did not look very
 like peace.  It is here related: --
      "Before this meeting of the kings
      Each bende his own losses brings,
      And loudly claims some recompense
      From his king's foes, at their expense.
      It is not easy to make peace,
      Where noise and talking never cease:
      The bondes' warmth may quickly spread,
      And kings be by the people led.
      "When kings are moved, no peace is sure;
      For that peace only is secure
      Which they who make it fairly make, --
      To each side give, from each side take.
      The kings will often rule but ill
      Who listen to the people's will:
      The people often have no view
      But their own interests to pursue."
 At last the best men, and those who were the wisest, came between
 the kings, and settled the peace thus: -- that Harald should have
 Norway, and Svein Denmark, according to the boundaries of old
 established between Denmark and Norway; neither of them should
 pay to the other for any damage sustained; the war should cease
 as it now stood, each retaining what he had got; and this peace
 should endure as long as they were kings.  This peace was
 confirmed by oath.  Then the kings parted, having given each
 other hostages, as is here related: --
      "And I have heard that to set fast
      The peace God brought about at last,
      Svein and stern Harald pledges sent,
      Who witnessed to their sworn intent;
      And much I wish that they and all
      In no such perjury may fall
      That this peace ever should be broken,
      And oaths should fail before God spoken."
 King Harald with his people sailed northwards to Norway, and King
 Svein southwards to Denmark.
 King Harald was in Viken in the summer (A.D. 1064), and he sent
 his men to the Uplands after the scat and duty which belonged to
 him; but the bondes paid no attention to the demand, but said
 they would hold all for Earl Hakon until he came for it.  Earl
 Hakon was then up in Gautland with a large armed force.  When
 summer was past King Harald went south to Konungahella.  Then he
 took all the light-sailing vessels he could get hold of and
 steered up the river.  He had the vessels drawn past all the
 waterfalls and brought them thus into the Wener lake.  Then he
 rowed eastward across the lake to where he heard Earl Hakon was;
 but when the earl got news of the king's expedition he retreated
 down the country, and would not let the king plunder the land.
 Earl Hakon had a large armed force which the Gautland people had
 raised for him.  King Harald lay with his ships up in a river,
 and made a foray on land, but left some of his men behind to
 protect the ships.  The king himself rode up with a part of the
 men, but the greater part were on foot.  They had to cross a
 forest, where they found a mire or lake, and close to it a wood;
 and when they reached the wood they saw the earl's men, but the
 mire was between them.  They drew up their people now on both
 sides.  Then King Harald ordered his men to sit down on the
 hillside.  "We will first see if they will attack us.  Earl Hakon
 does not usually wait to talk."  It was frosty weather, with some
 snow-drift, and Harald's men sat down under their shields; but it
 was cold for the Gautlanders, who had but little clothing with
 them.  The earl told them to wait until King Harald came nearer,
 so that all would stand equally high on the ground.  Earl Hakon
 had the same banner which had belonged to King Magnus Olafson. 
 The lagman of the Gautland people, Thorvid, sat upon a horse, and
 the bridle was fastened to a stake that stood in the mire.  He
 broke out with these words: "God knows we have many brave and
 handsome fellows here, and we shall let King Steinkel hear that
 we stood by the good earl bravely.  I am sure of one thing: we
 shall behave gallantly against these Northmen, if they attack us;
 but if our young people give way, and should not stand to it, let
 us not run farther than to that stream; but if they should give
 way farther, which I am sure they will not do, let it not be
 farther than to that hill."  At that instant the Northmen sprang
 up, raised the war-cry, and struck on their shields; and the
 Gautland army began also to shout.  The lagman's horse got shy
 with the war-cry, and backed so hard that the stake flew up and
 struck the lagman on the head.  He said, "Ill luck to thee,
 Northman, for that arrow!" and away fled the lagman.  King Harald
 had told his people, "If we do make a clash with the weapons, we
 shall not however, go down from the hill until they come nearer
 to us;" and they did so.  When the war-cry was raised the earl
 let his banner advance; but when they came under the hill the
 king's army rushed down upon them, and killed some of the earl's
 people, and the rest fled.  The Northmen did not pursue the
 fugitives long, for it was the fall of day; but they took Earl
 Hakon's banner and all the arms and clothes they could get hold
 of.  King Harald had both the banners carried before him as they
 marched away.  They spoke among themselves that the earl had
 probably fallen.  As they were riding through the forest they
 could only ride singly, one following the other.  Suddenly a man
 came full gallop across the path, struck his spear through him
 who was carrying the earl's banner, seized the banner-staff, and
 rode into the forest on the other side with the banner.  When
 this was told the king he said, "Bring me my armour, for the earl
 is alive."  Then the king rode to his ships in the night; and
 many said that the earl had now taken his revenge.  But Thiodolf
 sang thus: --
      "Steinkel's troops, who were so bold,
      Who the Earl Hakon would uphold,
      Were driven by our horsemen's power
      To Hel, death goddess, in an hour;
      And the great earl, so men say
      Who won't admit he ran away,
      Because his men fled from the ground,
      Retired, and cannot now be found."
 The rest of the night Harald passed in his ships; but in the
 morning, when it was daylight, it was found that so thick ice had
 gathered about the vessels that one could walk around them.  The
 king ordered his men to cut the ice from the ships all the way
 out to the clear water; on which they all went to break the ice.
 King Harald's son, Magnus, steered the vessel that lay lowest
 down the river and nearest the water.  When the people had
 cleared the ice away almost entirely, a man ran out to the ice,
 and began hewing away at it like a madman.  Then said one of the
 men, "It is going now as usual, that none can do so much as Hal
 who killed Kodran, when once he lays himself to the work.  See
 how he is hewing away at the ice."  There was a man in the crew
 of Magnus, the king's son, who was called Thormod Eindridason; 
 and when he heard the name of Kodran's murderer he ran up to Hal,
 and gave him a death-wound.  Kodran was a son of Gudmund
 Eyjolfson; and Valgerd, who was a sister of Gudmund, was the
 mother of Jorun, and the grandmother by the mother's side of this
 Thormod.  Thormod was a year old when Kodran was killed, and had
 never seen Hal Utrygson until now.  When the ice was broken all
 the way out to the water, Magnus drew his ship out, set sail
 directly, and sailed westward across the lake; but the king's
 ship, which lay farthest up the river, came out the last.  Hal
 had been in the king's retinue, and was very dear to him; so that
 the king was enraged at his death.  The king came the last into
 the harbour, and Magnus had let the murderer escape into the
 forest, and offered to pay the mulct for him; and the king had
 very nearly attacked Magnus and his crew, but their friends came
 up and reconciled them.
 That winter (A.D. 1065) King Harald went up to Raumarike, and had
 many people with him; and he accused the bondes there of having
 kept from him his scat and duties, and of having aided his
 enemies to raise disturbance against him.  He seized on the
 bondes and maimed some, killed others, and robbed many of all
 their property.  They who could do it fled from him.  He burned
 everything in the districts and laid them altogether waste.  So
 says Thiodolf: --
      "He who the island-people drove,
      When they against his power strove,
      Now bridle's Raumarike's men,
      Marching his forces through their glen.
      To punish them the fire he lights
      That shines afar off in dark nights
      From house and yard, and, as he says,
      Will warn the man who disobeys."
 Thereafter the king went up to Hedemark, burnt the dwellings, and
 made no less waste and havoc there than in Raumarike.  From
 thence he went to Hadeland and Ringerike, burning and ravaging
 all the land.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "The bonde's household goods are seen
      Before his door upon the green,
      Smoking and singed: and sparks red hot
      Glow in the thatched roof of his cot.
      In Hedemark the bondes pray
      The king his crushing hand to stay;
      In Ringerike and Hadeland,
      None 'gainst his fiery wrath can stand."
 Then the bondes left all to the king's mercy.  After the death of
 King Magnus fifteen years had passed when the battle at Nis-river
 took place, and afterwards two years elapsed before Harald and
 Svein made peace.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "The Hordland king under the land
      At anchor lay close to the strand,
      At last, prepared with shield and spear
      The peace was settled the third year."
 After this peace the disturbances with the people of the Upland
 districts lasted a year and a half.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "No easy task it is to say
      How the king brought beneath his sway
      The Upland bondes, and would give
      Nought but their ploughs from which to live.
      The king in eighteen months brought down
      Their bonde power, and raised his own,
      And the great honour he has gained
      Will still in memory be retained."
 Edward, Ethelred's son, was king of England after his brother
 Hardacanute.  He was called Edward the Good; and so he was.  King
 Edward's mother was Queen Emma, daughter of Richard, earl of
 Rouen.  Her brother was Earl Robert, whose son was William the
 Bastard, who at that time was earl at Rouen in Normandy.  King
 Edward's queen was Gyda, a daughter of Earl Godwin, the son of
 Ulfnad.  Gyda's brothers were, Earl Toste, the eldest; Earl
 Morukare the next; Earl Walter the third; Earl Svein the fourth;
 and the fifth was Harald, who was the youngest, and he was
 brought up at King Edward's court, and was his foster-son.  The
 king loved him very much, and kept him as his own son; for he had
 no children.
 One summer it happened that Harald, the son of Godwin, made an
 expedition to Bretland with his ships, but when they got to sea
 they met a contrary wind, and were driven off into the ocean.
 They landed west in Normandy, after suffering from a dangerous
 storm.  They brought up at Rouen, where they met Earl William,
 who received Harald and his company gladly.  Harald remained
 there late in harvest, and was hospitably entertained; for the
 stormy weather continued, and there was no getting to sea, and
 this continued until winter set in; so the earl and Harald agreed
 that he should remain there all winter.  Harald sat on the high-
 seat on one side of the earl; and on the other side sat the
 earl's wife, one of the most beautiful women that could be seen.
 They often talked together for amusement at the drinking-table;
 and the earl went generally to bed, but Harald and the earl's
 wife sat long in the evenings talking together, and so it went on
 for a great part of the winter.  In one of their conversations
 she said to Harald, "The earl has asked me what it is we have to
 talk about so much, for he is angry at it."  Harald replies, "We
 shall then at once let him know all our conversation."  The
 following day, Harald asked the earl to a conference, and they
 went together into the conference-chamber; where also the queen
 was, and some of the councillors.  Then Harald began thus: -- "I
 have to inform you, earl, that there lies more in my visit here
 than I have let you know.  I would ask your daughter in marriage,
 and have often spoke over this matter with her mother, and she
 has promised to support my suit with you."  As soon as Harald had
 made known this proposal of his, it was well received by all who
 were present.  They explained the case to the earl; and at last
 it came so far that the earl was contracted to Harald, but as she
 was very young, it was resolved that the wedding should be
 deferred for some years.
 When spring came Harald rigged his ships and set off; and he and
 the earl parted with great friendship.  Harald sailed over to
 England to King Edward, but did not return to Valland to fulfill
 the marriage agreement.  Edward was king over England for twenty-
 three years and died on a bed of sickness in London on the 5th of
 January, and was buried in Paul's church.  Englishmen call him a
 The sons of Earl Godwin were the most powerful men in England.
 Toste was made chief of the English king's army, and was his
 land-defence man when the king began to grow old; and he was also
 placed above all the other earls.  His brother Harald was always
 with the court itself, and nearest to the king in all service,
 and had the charge of the king's treasure-chamber.  It is said
 that when the king was approaching his last hour, Harald and a
 few others were with him.  Harald first leans down over the king,
 and then said, "I take you all to witness that the king has now
 given me the kingdom, and all the realm of England:" and then the
 king was taken dead out of the bed.  The same day there was a
 meeting of the chiefs, at which there was some talk of choosing a
 king; and then Harald brought forward his witnesses that King
 Edward had given him the kingdom on his dying day.  The meeting
 ended by choosing Harald as king, and he was consecrated and
 crowned the 13th day of Yule, in Paul's church.  Then all the
 chiefs and all the people submitted to him.  Now when his
 brother, Earl Toste, heard of this he took it very ill, as he
 thought himself quite as well entitled to be king.  "I want,"
 said he, "that the principal men of the country choose him whom
 they think best fitted for it."  And sharp words passed between
 the brothers.  King Harald says he will not give up his kingly
 dignity, for he is seated on the throne which kings sat upon, and
 is anointed and consecrated a king.  On his side also was the
 strength of the people, for he had the king's whole treasure.
 Now when King Harald perceived that his brother Toste wanted to
 have him deprived of the kingdom he did not trust him; for Toste
 was a clever man, and a great warrior, and was in friendship with
 the principal men of the country.  He therefore took the command
 of the army from Toste, and also all the power he had beyond that
 of the other earls of the country.  Earl Toste, again, would not
 submit to be his own brother's serving man; therefore he went
 with his people over the sea to Flanders, and stayed there
 awhile, then went to Friesland, and from thence to Denmark to his
 relation King Svein.  Earl Ulf, King Svein's father, and Gyda,
 Earl Toste's mother, were brother's and sister's children.  The
 earl now asked King Svein for support and help of men; and King
 Svein invited him to stay with him, with the promise that he
 should get so large an earldom in Denmark that he would be an
 important chief.
 The earl replies, "My inclination is to go back to my estate in
 England; but if I cannot get help from you for that purpose, I
 will agree to help you with all the power I can command in
 England, if you will go there with the Danish army, and win the
 country, as Canute, your mother's brother, did."
 The king replied, "So much smaller a man am I than Canute the
 Great, that I can with difficulty defend my own Danish dominions
 against the Northmen.  King Canute, on the other hand, got the
 Danish kingdom in heritage, took England by slash and blow, and
 sometimes was near losing his life in the contest; and Norway he
 took without slash or blow.  Now it suits me much better to be
 guided by my own slender ability than to imitate my relation,
 King Canute's, lucky hits."
 Then Earl Toste said, "The result of my errand here is less
 fortunate than I expected of thee who art so gallant a man,
 seeing that thy relative is in so great need. It may be that I
 will seek friendly help where it could less be expected; and that
 I may find a chief who is less afraid, king, than thou art of a
 great enterprise."
 Then the king and the earl parted, not just the best friends.
 Earl Toste turned away then and went to Norway, where he
 presented himself to King Harald, who was at that time in Viken.
 When they met the earl explained his errand to the king.  He told
 him all his proceedings since he left England, and asked his aid
 to recover his dominions in England.
 The king replied that the Northmen had no great desire for a
 campaign in England, and to have English chiefs over them there. 
 "People say," added he, "that the English are not to be trusted." 
 The earl replied, "Is it true what I have heard people tell in
 England, that thy relative, King Magnus, sent men to King Edward
 with the message that King Magnus had right to England as well as
 to Denmark, and had got that heritage after Hardacanute, in
 consequence of a regular agreement?"
 The king replied, "How came it that he did not get it, if he had
 a right to it?"
 "Why," replied the earl, "hast thou not Denmark, as King Magnus,
 thy predecessor, had it?"
 The king replies, "The Danes have nothing to brag of over us
 Northmen; for many a place have we laid in ashes to thy
 Then said the earl, "If thou wilt not tell me, I will tell thee.
 Magnus subdued Denmark, because all the chiefs of the country
 helped him; and thou hast not done it, because all the people of
 the country were against thee.  Therefore, also, King Magnus did
 not strive for England, because all the nation would have Edward
 for king.  Wilt thou take England now?  I will bring the matter
 so far that most of the principal men in England shall be thy
 friends, and assist thee; for nothing is wanting to place me at
 the side of my brother Harald but the king's name.  All men allow
 that there never was such a warrior in the northern lands as thou
 art; and it appears to me extraordinary that thou hast been
 fighting for fifteen years for Denmark, and wilt not take England
 that lies open to thee."
 King Harald weighed carefully the earl's words, and perceived at
 once that there was truth in much of what he said; and he himself
 had also a great desire to acquire dominions.  Then King Harald
 and the earl talked long and frequently together; and at last he
 took the resolution to proceed in summer to England, and conquer
 the country.  King Harald sent a message-token through all Norway
 and ordered out a levy of one-half of all the men in Norway able
 to carry arms.  When this became generally known, there were many
 guesses about what might be the end of this expedition.  Some
 reckoned up King Harald's great achievements, and thought he was
 also the man who could accomplish this.  Others, again, said that
 England was difficult to attack; that it was very full of people;
 and the men-at-arms, who were called Thingmen, were so brave,
 that one of them was better than two of Harald's best men.  Then
 said Ulf the marshal: --
      "I am still ready gold to gain;
      But truly it would be in vain,
      And the king's marshal in the hall
      Might leave his good post once for all,
      If two of us in any strife
      Must for one Thingman fly for life,
      My lovely Norse maid, in my youth
      We thought the opposite the truth."
 Ulf the marshal died that spring (A.D. 1066).  King Harald stood
 over his grave, and said, as he was leaving it, "There lies now
 the truest of men, and the most devoted to his king."
 Earl Toste sailed in spring west to Flanders, to meet the people
 who had left England with him, and others besides who had
 gathered to him both out of England and Flanders.
 King Harald's fleet assembled at the Solunds.  When King Harald
 was ready to leave Nidaros he went to King Olaf's shrine,
 unlocked it, clipped his hair and nails, and locked the shrine
 again, and threw the keys into the Nid.  Some say he threw them
 overboard outside of Agdanes; and since then the shrine of Saint
 Olaf, the king, has never been opened.  Thirty-five years had
 passed since he was slain; and he lived thirty-five years here on
 earth (A.D. 1080-1066).  King Harald sailed with his ships he had
 about him to the south to meet his people, and a great fleet was
 collected; so that. according to the people's reckoning, King
 Harald had nearly 200 ships beside provision-ships and small
 While they lay at the Solunds a man called Gyrd, on board the
 king's ship, had a dream.  He thought he was standing in the
 king's ship and saw a great witch-wife standing on the island,
 with a fork in one hand and a trough in the other.  He thought
 also that he saw over all the fleet, and that a fowl was sitting
 upon every ship's stern, and that these fowls were all ravens or
 ernes; and the witch-wife sang this song: --
      "From the east I'll 'tice the king,
      To the west the king I'll bring;
      Many a noble bone will be
      Ravens o'er Giuke's ship are fitting,
      Eyeing the prey they think most fitting.
      Upon the stem I'll sail with them!
      Upon the stem I'll sail with them!"
 There was also a man called Thord, in a ship which lay not far
 from the king's.  He dreamt one night that he saw King Harald's
 fleet coming to land, and he knew the land to be England.  He saw
 a great battle-array on the land; and he thought both sides began
 to fight, and had many banners flapping in the air.  And before
 the army of the people of the country was riding a huge witch-
 wife upon a wolf; and the wolf had a man's carcass in his mouth,
 and the blood was dropping from his jaws; and when he had eaten
 up one body she threw another into his mouth, and so one after
 another, and he swallowed them all.  And she sang thus: --
      "Skade's eagle eyes
      The king's ill luck espies:
      Though glancing shields
      Hide the green fields,
      The king's ill luck she spies.
      To bode the doom of this great king,
      The flesh of bleeding men I fling
      To hairy jaw and hungry maw!
      To hairy jaw and hungry maw!"
 King Harald also dreamt one night that he was in Nidaros, and met
 his brother, King Olaf, who sang to him these verses: --
      "In many a fight
      My name was bright;
      Men weep, and tell
      How Olaf fell.
      Thy death is near;
      Thy corpse, I fear,
      The crow will feed,
      The witch-wife's steed."
 Many other dreams and forebodings were then told of, and most of
 them gloomy.  Before King Harald left Throndhjem, he let his son
 Magnus be proclaimed king and set him as king over Norway while
 he was absent.  Thora, the daughter of Thorberg, also remained
 behind; but he took with him Queen Ellisif and her two daughters,
 Maria and Ingegerd.  Olaf, King Harald's son, also accompanied
 his father abroad.
 When King Harald was clear for sea, and the wind became
 favourable, he sailed out into the ocean; and he himself landed
 in Shetland, but a part of his fleet in the Orkney Islands.  King
 Harald stopped but a short time in Shetland before sailing to
 Orkney, from whence he took with him a great armed force, and the
 earls Paul and Erlend, the sons of Earl Thorfin; but he left
 behind him here the Queen Ellisif, and her daughters Maria and
 Ingegerd.  Then he sailed, leaving Scotland and England westward
 of him, and landed at a place called Klifland.  There he went on
 shore and plundered, and brought the country in subjection to him
 without opposition.  Then he brought up at Skardaburg, and fought
 with the people of the place.  He went up a hill which is there,
 and made a great pile upon it, which he set on fire; and when the
 pile was in clear flame, his men took large forks and pitched the
 burning wood down into the town, so that one house caught fire
 after the other, and the town surrendered.  The Northmen killed
 many people there and took all the booty they could lay hold of.
 There was nothing left for the Englishmen now, if they would
 preserve their lives, but to submit to King Harald; and thus he
 subdued the country wherever he came.  Then the king proceeded
 south along the land, and brought up at Hellornes, where there
 came a force that had been assembled to oppose him, with which he
 had a battle, and gained the victory.
 Thereafter the king sailed to the Humber, and up along the river,
 and then he landed.  Up in Jorvik were two earls, Earl Morukare,
 and his brother, Earl Valthiof, and they had an immense army. 
 While the army of the earls was coming down from the upper part
 of the country, King Harald lay in the Usa.  King Harald now went
 on the land, and drew up his men.  The one arm of this line stood
 at the outer edge of the river, the other turned up towards the
 land along a ditch; and there was also a morass, deep, broad, and
 full of water.  The earls let their army proceed slowly down
 along the river, with all their troops in line.  The king's
 banner was next the river, where the line was thickest.  It was
 thinnest at the ditch, where also the weakest of the men were.
 When the earls advanced downwards along the ditch, the arm of the
 Northmen's line which was at the ditch gave way; and the
 Englishmen followed, thinking the Northmen would fly.  The banner
 of Earl Morukare advanced then bravely.
 When King Harald saw that the English array had come to the ditch
 against him, he ordered the charge to be sounded, and urged on
 his men.  He ordered the banner which was called the Land-ravager
 to be carried before him, and made so severe an assault that all
 had to give way before it; and there was a great loss among the
 men of the earls, and they soon broke into flight, some running
 up the river, some down, and the most leaping into the ditch,
 which was so filled with dead that the Norsemen could go dry-foot
 over the fen.  There Earl Morukare fell.  So says Stein Herdison:
      "The gallant Harald drove along,
      Flying but fighting, the whole throng.
      At last, confused, they could not fight,
      And the whole body took to flight.
      Up from the river's silent stream
      At once rose desperate splash and scream;
      But they who stood like men this fray
      Round Morukare's body lay."
 This song was composed by Stein Herdison about Olaf, son of King
 Harald; and he speaks of Olaf being in this battle with King
 Harald, his father.  These things are also spoken of in the song
 called "Harald's Stave": --
      "Earl Valthiof's men
      Lay in the fen,
      By sword down hewed,
      So thickly strewed,
      That Norsemen say
      They paved a way
      Across the fen
      For the brave Norsemen."
 Earl Valthiof, and the people who escaped, fled up to the castle
 of York; and there the greatest loss of men had been.  This
 battle took place upon the Wednesday next Mathias' day (A.D.
 Earl Toste had come from Flanders to King Harald as soon as he
 arrived in England, and the earl was present at all these
 battles.  It happened, as he had foretold the king at their first
 meeting, that in England many people would flock to them, as
 being friends and relations of Earl Toste, and thus the king's
 forces were much strengthened.  After the battle now told of, all
 people in the nearest districts submitted to Harald, but some
 fled.  Then the king advanced to take the castle, and laid his
 army at Stanforda-bryggiur (Stamford Bridge); and as King Harald
 had gained so great a victory against so great chiefs and so
 great an army, the people were dismayed, and doubted if they
 could make any opposition.  The men of the castle therefore
 determined, in a council, to send a message to King Harald, and
 deliver up the castle into his power.  All this was soon settled;
 so that on Sunday the king proceeded with the whole army to the
 castle, and appointed a Thing of the people without the castle,
 at which the people of the castle were to be present.  At this
 Thing all the people accepted the condition of submitting to
 Harald, and gave him, as hostages, the children of the most
 considerable persons; for Earl Toste was well acquainted with all
 the people of that town.  In the evening the king returned down
 to his ships, after this victory achieved with his own force, and
 was very merry.  A Thing was appointed within the castle early on
 Monday morning, and then King Harald was to name officers to rule
 over the town, to give out laws, and bestow fiefs.  The same
 evening, after sunset, King Harald Godwinson came from the south
 to the castle with a numerous army, and rode into the city with
 the good-will and consent of the people of the castle.  All the
 gates and walls were beset so that the Northmen could receive no
 intelligence, and the army remained all night in the town.
 On Monday, when King Harald Sigurdson had taken breakfast, he
 ordered the trumpets to sound for going on shore.  The army
 accordingly got ready, and he divided the men into the parties
 who should go, and who should stay behind.  In every division he
 allowed two men to land, and one to remain behind.  Earl Toste
 and his retinue prepared to land with King Harald; and, for
 watching the ships, remained behind the king's son Olaf; the
 earls of Orkney, Paul and Erlend; and also Eystein Orre, a son of
 Thorberg Arnason, who was the most able and best beloved by the
 king of all the lendermen, and to whom the king had promised his
 daughter Maria.  The weather was uncommonly fine, and it was hot
 sunshine.  The men therefore laid aside their armour, and went on
 the land only with their shields, helmets and spears, and girt
 with swords; and many had also arrows and bows, and all were very
 merry.  Now as they came near the castle a great army seemed
 coming against them, and they saw a cloud of dust as from horses'
 feet, and under it shining shields and bright armour.  The king
 halted his people, and called to him Earl Toste, and asked him
 what army this could be.  The earl replied that he thought it
 most likely to be a hostle army, but possibly it might be some of
 his relations who were seeking for mercy and friendship, in order
 to obtain certain peace and safety from the king.  Then the king
 said, "We must all halt, to discover what kind of a force this
 is."  They did so; and the nearer this force came the greater it
 appeared, and their shining arms were to the sight like glancing
 Then said King Harald, "Let us now fall upon some good sensible
 counsel; for it is not to be concealed that this is an hostile
 army and the king himself without doubt is here."
 Then said the earl, "The first counsel is to turn about as fast
 as we can to our ships to get our men and our weapons, and then
 we will make a defence according to our ability; or otherwise let
 our ships defend us, for there these horsemen have no power over
 Then King Harald said, "I have another counsel.  Put three of our
 best horses under three of our briskest lads and let them ride
 with all speed to tell our people to come  quickly to our relief.
 The Englishmen shall have a hard fray of it before we give
 ourselves up for lost."
 The earl said the king must order in this, as in all things, as
 he thought best; adding, at the same time, it was by no means his
 wish to fly.  Then King Harald ordered his banner Land-ravager to
 be set up; and Frirek was the name of him who bore the banner.
 Then King Harald arranged his army, and made the line of battle
 long, but not deep.  He bent both wings of it back, so that they
 met together; and formed a wide ring equally thick all round,
 shield to shield, both in the front and rear ranks.  The king
 himself and his retinue were within the circle; and there was the
 banner, and a body of chosen men.  Earl Toste, with his retinue,
 was at another place, and had a different banner.  The army was
 arranged in this way, because the king knew that horsemen were
 accustomed to ride forwards with great vigour, but to turn back
 immediately.  Now the king ordered that his own and the earl's
 attendants should ride forwards where it was most required.  "And
 our bowmen," said he, "shall be near to us; and they who stand in
 the first rank shall set the spear-shaft on the ground, and the
 spear-point against the horseman's breast, if he rides at them;
 and those who stand in the second rank shall set the spear-point
 against the horse's breast."
 King Harald Godwinson had come with an immense army, both of
 cavalry and infantry.  Now King Harald Sigurdson rode around his
 array, to see how every part was drawn up.  He was upon a black
 horse, and the horse stumbled under him, so that the king fell
 off.  He got up in haste and said, "A fall is lucky for a
 The English king Harald said to the Northmen who were with him,
 "Do ye know the stout man who fell from his horse, with the blue
 kirtle and the beautiful helmet?"
 "That is the king himself." said they.
 The English king said, "A great man, and of stately appearance is
 he; but I think his luck has left him."
 Twenty horsemen rode forward from the Thing-men's troops against
 the Northmen's array; and all of them, and likewise their horses,
 were clothed in armour.
 One of the horsemen said, "Is Earl Toste in this army?"
 The earl answered, "It is not to be denied that ye will find him
 The horseman says, "Thy brother, King Harald, sends thee
 salutation, with the message that thou shalt have the whole of
 Northumberland; and rather than thou shouldst not submit to him,
 he will give thee the third part of his kingdom to rule over
 along with himself."
 The earl replies, "This is something different from the enmity
 and scorn he offered last winter; and if this had been offered
 then it would have saved many a man's life who now is dead, and
 it would have been better for the kingdom of England.  But if I
 accept of this offer, what will he give King Harald Sigurdson
 for his trouble?"
 The horseman replied, "He has also spoken of this; and will give
 him seven feet of English ground, or as much more as he may be
 taller than other men."
 "Then," said the earl, "go now and tell King Harald to get ready
 for battle; for never shall the Northmen say with truth that Earl
 Toste left King Harald Sigurdson to join his enemy's troops, when
 he came to fight west here in England.  We shall rather all take
 the resolution to die with honour, or to gain England by a
 Then the horseman rode back.
 King Harald Sigurdson said to the earl, "Who was the man who
 spoke so well?"
 The earl replied, "That was King Harald Godwinson."
 Then, said King Harald Sigurdson, "That was by far too long
 concealed from me; for they had come so near to our army, that
 this Harald should never have carried back the tidings of our
 men's slaughter."
 Then said the earl, "It was certainly imprudent for such chiefs,
 and it may be as you say; but I saw he was going to offer me
 peace and a great dominion, and that, on the other hand, I would
 be his murderer if I betrayed him; and I would rather he should
 be my murderer than I his, if one of two be to die."
 King Harald Sigurdson observed to his men, "That was but a little
 man, yet he sat firmly in his stirrups."
 It is said that Harald made these verses at this time: --
      "Advance!  advance!
      No helmets glance,
      But blue swords play
      In our array.
      Advance!  advance!
      No mail-coats glance,
      But hearts are here
      That ne'er knew fear."
 His coat of mail was called Emma; and it was so long that it
 reached almost to the middle of his leg, and so strong that no
 weapon ever pierced it.  Then said King Harald Sigurdson, "These
 verses are but ill composed; I must try to make better;" and he
 composed the following: --
      "In battle storm we seek no lee,
      With skulking head, and bending knee,
      Behind the hollow shield.
      With eye and hand we fend the head;
      Courage and skill stand in the stead
      Of panzer, helm, and shield,
      In hild's bloody field."
 Thereupon Thiodolf sang: --
      "And should our king in battle fall, --
      A fate that God may give to all, --
      His sons will vengeance take;
      And never shone the sun upon
      Two nobler eaglet; in his run,
      And them we'll never forsake."
 Now the battle began.  The Englishmen made a hot assault upon the
 Northmen, who sustained it bravely.  It was no easy matter for
 the English to ride against the Northmen on account of their
 spears; therefore they rode in a circle around them.  And the
 fight at first was but loose and light, as long as the Northmen
 kept their order of battle; for although the English rode hard
 against the Northmen, they gave way again immediately, as they
 could do nothing against them.  Now when the Northmen thought
 they perceived that the enemy were making but weak assaults, they
 set after them, and would drive them into flight; but when they
 had broken their shield-rampart the Englishmen rode up from all
 sides, and threw arrows and spears on them.  Now when King Harald
 Sigurdson saw this, he went into the fray where the greatest
 crash of weapons was, and there was a sharp conflict, in which
 many people fell on both sides.  King Harald then was in a rage,
 and ran out in front of the array, and hewed down with both
 hands; so that neither helmet nor armour could withstand him, and
 all who were nearest gave way before him.  It was then very near
 with the English that they had taken to flight.  So says Arnor,
 the earls' skald: --
      "Where battle-storm was ringing,
      Where arrow-cloud was singing,
           Harald stood there,
           Of armour bare,
      His deadly sword still swinging.
      The foeman feel its bite;
      His Norsemen rush to fight,
           Danger to share,
           With Harald there,
      Where steel on steel was ringing."
 King Harald Sigurdson was hit by an arrow in the windpipe, and
 that was his death-wound.  He fell, and all who had advanced with
 him, except those who retired with the banner.  There was
 afterwards the warmest conflict, and Earl Toste had taken charge
 of the king's banner.  They began on both sides to form their
 array again, and for a long time there was a pause in fighting.
 Then Thiodolf sang these verses: --
      "The army stands in hushed dismay;
      Stilled is the clamour of the fray.
      Harald is dead, and with him goes
      The spirit to withstand our foes.
      A bloody scat the folk must pay
      For their king's folly on this day.
      He fell; and now, without disguise,
      We say this business was not wise."
 But before the battle began again Harald Godwinson offered his
 brother, Earl Toste, peace, and also quarter to the Northmen who
 were still alive; but the Northmen called out, all of them
 together, that they would rather fall, one across the other, than
 accept of quarter from the Englishmen.  Then each side set up a
 war-shout, and the battle began again.  So says Arnor, the earls'
 skald: --
      "The king, whose name would ill-doers scare,
      The gold-tipped arrow would not spare.
      Unhelmed, unpanzered, without shield,
      He fell among us in the field.
      The gallant men who saw him fall
      Would take no quarter; one and all
      Resolved to die with their loved king,
      Around his corpse in a corpse-ring."
 Eystein Orre came up at this moment from the ships with the men
 who followed him, and all were clad in armour.  Then Eystein got
 King Harald's banner Land-ravager; and now was, for the third
 time, one of the sharpest of conflicts, in which many Englishmen
 fell, and they were near to taking flight.  This conflict is
 called Orre's storm.  Eystein and his men had hastened so fast
 from the ships that they were quite exhausted, and scarcely fit
 to fight before they came into the battle; but afterwards they
 became so furious, that they did not guard themselves with their
 shields as long as they could stand upright.  At last they threw
 off their coats of ringmail, and then the Englishmen could easily
 lay their blows at them; and many fell from weariness, and died
 without a wound.  Thus almost all the chief men fell among the
 Norway people.  This happened towards evening; and then it went,
 as one might expect, that all had not the same fate, for many
 fled, and were lucky enough to escape in various ways; and
 darkness fell before the slaughter was altogether ended.
 Styrkar, King Harald Sigurdson's marshal, a gallant man, escaped
 upon a horse, on which he rode away in the evening.  It was
 blowing a cold wind, and Styrkar had not much other clothing upon
 him but his shirt, and had a helmet on his head, and a drawn
 sword in his hand.  As soon as his weariness was over, he began
 to feel cold.  A waggoner met him in a lined skin-coat.  Styrkar
 asks him, "Wilt thou sell thy coat, friend?"
 "Not to thee," says the peasant: "thou art a Northman; that I
 can hear by thy tongue."
 Styrkar replies, "If I were a Northman, what wouldst thou do?"
 "I would kill thee," replied the peasant; "but as ill luck would
 have it, I have no weapon just now by me that would do it."
 Then Styrkar says, "As you can't kill me, friend, I shall try if
 I can't kill you."  And with that he swung his sword, and struck
 him on the neck, so that his head came off.  He then took the
 skin-coat, sprang on his horse, and rode down to the strand.  
 Olaf Haraldson had not gone on land with the others, and when he
 heard of his father's fall he made ready to sail away with the
 men who remained.
 When the Earl of Rouen, William the Bastard, heard of his
 relation, King Edward's, death, and also that Harald Godwinson
 was chosen, crowned, and consecrated king of England, it appeared
 to him that he had a better right to the kingdom of England than
 Harald, by reason of the relationship between him and King
 Edward.  He thought, also, that he had grounds for avenging the
 affront that Harald had put upon him with respect to his
 daughter.  From all these grounds William gathered together a
 great army in Normandy, and had many men, and sufficient
 transport-shipping.  The day that he rode out of the castle to
 his ships, and had mounted his horse, his wife came to him, and
 wanted to speak with him; but when he saw her he struck at her
 with his heel, and set his spurs so deep into her breast that she
 fell down dead; and the earl rode on to his ships, and went with
 his ships over to England.  His brother, Archbishop Otto, was
 with him; and when the earl came to England he began to plunder,
 and take possession of the land as he came along.  Earl William
 was stouter and stronger than other men; a great horseman and
 warrior, but somewhat stern; and a very sensible man, but not
 considered a man to be relied on.
 King Harald Godwinson gave King Harald Sigurdson's son Olaf leave
 to go away, with the men who had followed him and had not fallen
 in battle; but he himself turned round with his army to go south,
 for he had heard that William the Bastard was overwhelming the
 south of England with a vast army, and was subduing the country
 for himself.  With King Harald went his brothers Svein and Gyrd,
 and Earl Valthiof.  King Harald and Earl William met each other
 south in England at Helsingja-port (Hastings).  There was a great
 battle in which King Harald and his brother Earl Gyrd and a great
 part of his men fell.  This was the nineteenth day after the fall
 of King Harald Sigurdson.  Harald's brother, Earl Valthiof,
 escaped by flight, and towards evening fell in with a division of
 William's people, consisting of 100 men; and when they saw Earl
 Valthiof's troop they fled to a wood.  Earl Valthiof set fire to
 the wood, and they were all burnt.  So says Thorkel Skallason in
 Valthiof's ballad: --
      "Earl Valthiof the brave
      His foes a warming gave:
      Within the blazing grove
      A hundred men he drove.
      The wolf will soon return,
      And the witch's horse will burn
      Her sharp claws in the ash,
      To taste the Frenchman's flesh."
 William was proclaimed king of England.  He sent a message to
 Earl Valthiof that they should be reconciled, and gave him
 assurance of safety to come to the place of meeting.  The earl
 set out with a few men; but when he came to a heath north of
 Kastala-bryggia, there met him two officers of King William, with
 many followers, who took him prisoner, put him in fetters, and
 afterwards he was beheaded; and the English call him a saint.
 Thorkel tells of this: --
      "William came o'er the sea,
      With bloody sword came he:
      Cold heart and bloody hand
      Now rule the English land.
      Earl Valthiof he slew, --
      Valthiof the brave and true.
      Cold heart and bloody hand
      Now rule the English land."
 William was after this king of England for twenty-one years, and
 his descendants have been so ever since.
 Olaf, the son of King Harald Sigurdson, sailed with his fleet
 from England from Hrafnseyr, and came in autumn to the Orkney
 Isles, where the event had happened that Maria, a daughter of
 Harald Sigurdson, died a sudden death the very day and hour her
 father, King Harald, fell.  Olaf remained there all winter; but
 the summer after he proceeded east to Norway, where he was
 proclaimed king along with his brother Magnus.  Queen Ellisif
 came from the West, along with her stepson Olaf and her daughter
 Ingegerd.  There came also with Olaf over the West sea Skule, a
 son of Earl Toste, and who since has been called the king's
 foster-son, and his brother Ketil Krok.  Both were gallant men,
 of high family in England, and both were very intelligent; and
 the brothers were much beloved by King Olaf.  Ketil Krok went
 north to Halogaland, where King Olaf procured him a good
 marriage, and from him are descended many great people.  Skule,
 the king's foster-son, was a very clever man, and the handsomest
 man that could be seen.  He was the commander of King Olaf's
 court-men, spoke at the Things (1) and took part in all the
 country affairs with the king.  The king offered to give Skule
 whatever district in Norway he liked, with all the income and
 duties that belonged to the king in it.  Skule thanked him very
 much for the offer, but said he would rather have something else
 from him.  "For if there came a shift of kings," said he, "the
 gift might come to nothing.  I would rather take some properties
 lying near to the merchant towns, where you, sire, usually take
 up your abode, and then I would enjoy your Yule-feasts."  The
 king agreed to this, and conferred on him lands eastward at
 Konungahella, Oslo, Tunsberg, Sarpsborg, Bergen, and north at
 Nidaros.  These were nearly the best properties at each place,
 and have since descended to the family branches which came from
 Skule.  King Olaf gave Skule his female relative, Gudrun, the
 daughter of Nefstein, in marriage.  Her mother was Ingerid, a
 daughter of Sigurd Syr and Asta, King Olaf the Saint's mother.
 Ingerid was a sister of King Olaf the Saint and of King Harald.
 Skule and Gudrun's son was Asolf of Reine, who married Thora, a
 daughter of Skopte Ogmundson; Asolf's and Thora's son was Guthorm
 of Reine, father of Bard, and grandfather of King Inge and of
 Duke Skule.
 (1)  Another instance of the old Norse or Icelandic tongue having
      been generally known in a part of England.
 One year after King Harald's fall his body was transported from
 England north to Nidaros, and was buried in Mary church, which he
 had built.  It was a common observation that King Harald
 distinguished himself above all other men by wisdom and resources
 of mind; whether he had to take a resolution suddenly for himself
 and others, or after long deliberation.  He was, also, above all
 other men, bold, brave, and lucky, until his dying day, as above
 related; and bravery is half victory.  So says Thiodolf: -- 
      "Harald, who till his dying day
      Came off the best in many a fray,
      Had one good rule in battle-plain,
      In Seeland and elsewhere, to gain --
      That, be his foes' strength more or less,
      Courage is always half success."
 King Herald was a handsome man, of noble appearance; his hair and
 beard yellow.  He had a short beard, and long mustaches.  The one
 eyebrow was somewhat higher than the other.  He had large hands
 (1) and feet; but these were well made.  His height was five
 ells.  He was stern and severe to his enemies, and avenged
 cruelly all opposition or misdeed.  So says Thiodolf: --
      "Severe alike to friends or foes,
      Who dared his royal will oppose;
      Severe in discipline to hold
      His men-at-arms wild and bold;
      Severe the bondes to repress;
      Severe to punish all excess;
      Severe was Harald -- but we call
      That just which was alike to all."
 King Harald was most greedy of power, and of all distinction and
 honour.  He was bountiful to the friends who suited him.  So says
 Thiodolf: --
      "I got from him, in sea-fight strong,
      A mark of gold for my ship-song.
      Merit in any way
      He generously would pay."
 King Harald was fifty years old when he fell.  We have no
 particular account of his youth before he was fifteen years old,
 when he was with his brother, King Olaf, at the battle of
 Stiklestad.  He lived thirty-five years after that, and in all
 that time was never free from care and war.  King Harald never
 fled from battle, but often tried cunning ways to escape when he
 had to do with great superiority of forces.  All the men who
 followed King Harald in battle or skirmish said that when he
 stood in great danger, or anything came suddenly upon him, he
 always took that course which all afterwards saw gave the best
 hope of a fortunate issue.
 (1)  It is a singular physical circumstance, that in almost all
      the swords of those ages to be found in the collection of
      weapons in the Antiquarian Museum at Copenhagen, the handles
      indicate a size of hand very much smaller than the hands of
      modern people of any class or rank.  No modern dandy, with
      the most delicate hands, would find room for his hand to
      grasp or wield with case some of the swords of these
      Northmen. -- L.
 When Haldor, a son of Brynjolf Ulfalde the Old, who was a
 sensible man and a great chief, heard people talk of how unlike
 the brothers Saint Olaf and King Harald were in disposition, he
 used to say, "I was in great friendship with both the brothers,
 and I knew intimately the dispositions of both, and never did I
 know two men more like in disposition.  Both were of the highest
 understanding, and bold in arms, and greedy of power and
 property; of great courage, but not acquainted with the way of
 winning the favour of the people; zealous in governing, and
 severe in their revenge.  King Olaf forced the people into
 Christianity and good customs, and punished cruelly those who
 disobeyed.  This just and rightful severity the chiefs of the
 country could not bear, but raised an army against him, and
 killed him in his own kingdom; and therefore he is held to be a
 saint.  King Harald, again, marauded to obtain glory and power,
 forced all the people he could under his power, and died in
 another king's dominions.  Both brothers, in daily life, were of
 a worthy and considerate manner of living; they were of great
 experience, and very laborious, and were known and celebrated far
 and wide for these qualities."
 King Magnus Haraldson ruled over Norway the first winter after
 King Harald's death (A.D. 1067), and afterwards two years (A.D.
 1068-1069) along with his brother, King Olaf.  Thus there were
 two kings of Norway at that time; and Magnus had the northern and
 Olaf the eastern part of the country.  King Magnus had a son
 called Hakon, who was fostered by Thorer of Steig in
 Gudbrandsdal, who was a brother of King Magnus by the mother's
 side; and Hakon was a most agreeable man.
 After King Harald Sigurdson's death the Danish king Svein let it
 be known that the peace between the Northmen and the Danes was at
 an end, and insisted that the league between Harald and Svein was
 not for longer time than their lives.  There was a levy in both
 kingdoms.  Harald's sons called out the whole people in Norway
 for procuring men and ships, and Svein set out from the south
 with the Danish army.  Messengers then went between with
 proposals for a peace; and the Northmen said they would either
 have the same league as was concluded between King Harald and
 Svein, or otherwise give battle instantly on the spot.  Verses
 were made on this occasion, viz.: --
      "Ready for war or peace,
      King Olaf will not cease
      From foeman's hand
      To guard his land."
 So says also Stein Herdison in his song of Olaf: --
      "From Throndhjem town, where in repose
      The holy king defies his foes,
      Another Olaf will defend
      His kingdom from the greedy Svein.
      King Olaf had both power and right,
      And the Saint's favour in the fight.
      The Saint will ne'er his kin forsake,
      And let Svein Ulfson Norway take."
 In this manner friendship was concluded between the kings and
 peace between the countries.  King Magnus fell ill and died of
 the ringworm disease, after being ill for some time.  He died and
 was buried at Nidaros.  He was an amiable king and bewailed by
 the people.