Sacred Texts Index  Northern European Index  Heimskringla Index  Previous  Next 

 It is said that the earth's circle which the human race inhabits
 is torn across into many bights, so that great seas run into the
 land from the out-ocean. Thus it is known that a great sea goes
 in at Narvesund (1), and up to the land of Jerusalem.  From the
 same sea a long sea-bight stretches towards the north-east, and
 is called the Black Sea, and divides the three parts of the
 earth; of which the eastern part is called Asia, and the western
 is called by some Europa, by some Enea.  Northward of the Black
 Sea lies Swithiod the Great, or the Cold.  The Great Swithiod is
 reckoned by some as not less than the Great Serkland (2); others
 compare it to the Great Blueland (3).  The northern part of
 Swithiod lies uninhabited on account of frost and cold, as
 likewise the southern parts of Blueland are waste from the
 burning of the sun.  In Swithiod are many great domains, and many
 races of men, and many kinds of languages.  There are giants, and
 there are dwarfs, and there are also blue men, and there are any
 kinds of stranger creatures.  There are huge wild beasts, and
 dreadful dragons.  On the south side of the mountains which lie
 outside of all inhabited lands runs a river through Swithiod,
 which is properly called by the name of Tanais, but was formerly
 called Tanaquisl, or Vanaquisl, and which falls into the Black
 Sea.  The country of the people on the Vanaquisl was called
 Vanaland, or Vanaheim; and the river separates the three parts of
 the world, of which the eastermost part is called Asia, and the
 westermost Europe.
 (1)  The Straits of Gibraltar.
 (2)  Northern Africa.
 (3)  Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa.
 The country east of the Tanaquisl in Asia was called Asaland, or
 Asaheim, and the chief city in that land was called Asgaard.  In
 that city was a chief called Odin, and it was a great place for
 sacrifice.  It was the custom there that twelve temple priests
 should both direct the sacrifices, and also judge the people.
 They were called Diar, or Drotner, and all the people served and
 obeyed them.  Odin was a great and very far-travelled warrior,
 who conquered many kingdoms, and so successful was he that in
 every battle the victory was on his side.  It was the belief of
 his people that victory belonged to him in every battle.  It was
 his custom when he sent his men into battle, or on any
 expedition, that he first laid his hand upon their heads, and
 called down a blessing upon them; and then they believed their
 undertaking would be successful.  His people also were
 accustomed, whenever they fell into danger by land or sea, to
 call upon his name; and they thought that always they got comfort
 and aid by it, for where he was they thought help was near. 
 Often he went away so far that he passed many seasons on his
 Odin had two brothers, the one called Ve, the other Vilje, and
 they governed the kingdom when he was absent.  It happened once
 when Odin had gone to a great distance, and had been so long away
 that the people Of Asia doubted if he would ever return home,
 that his two brothers took it upon themselves to divide his
 estate; but both of them took his wife Frigg to themselves.  Odin
 soon after returned home, and took his wife back.
 Odin went out with a great army against the Vanaland people; but
 they were well prepared, and defended their land; so that victory
 was changeable, and they ravaged the lands of each other, and did
 great damage.  They tired of this at last, and on both sides
 appointed a meeting for establishing peace, made a truce, and
 exchanged hostages.  The Vanaland people sent their best men,
 Njord the Rich, and his son Frey.  The people of Asaland sent a
 man called Hone, whom they thought well suited to be a chief, as
 he was a stout and very handsome man; and with him they sent a
 man of great understanding called Mime.  On the other side, the
 Vanaland people sent the wisest man in their community, who was
 called Kvase.  Now, when Hone came to Vanaheim he was immediately
 made a chief, and Mime came to him with good counsel on all
 occasions.  But when Hone stood in the Things or other meetings,
 if Mime was not near him, and any difficult matter was laid
 before him, he always answered in one way -- "Now let others give
 their advice"; so that the Vanaland people got a suspicion that
 the Asaland people had deceived them in the exchange of men. They
 took Mime, therefore, and beheaded him, and sent his head to the
 Asaland people.  Odin took the head, smeared it with herbs so
 that it should not rot, and sang incantations over it.  Thereby
 he gave it the power that it spoke to him, and discovered to him
 many secrets.  Odin placed Njord and Frey as priests of the
 sacrifices, and they became Diar of the Asaland people.  Njord's
 daughter Freya was priestess of the sacrifices, and first taught
 the Asaland people the magic art, as it was in use and fashion
 among the Vanaland people.  While Njord was with the Vanaland
 people he had taken his own sister in marriage, for that was
 allowed by their law; and their children were Frey and Freya. 
 But among the Asaland people it was forbidden to intermarry with
 such near relations.
 There goes a great mountain barrier from north-east to south-
 west, which divides the Greater Swithiod from other kingdoms.
 South of this mountain ridge it is not far to Turkland, where
 Odin had great possessions.  In those times the Roman chiefs went
 wide around in the world, subduing to themselves all people; and
 on this account many chiefs fled from their domains.  But Odin
 having foreknowledge, and magic-sight, knew that his posterity
 would come to settle and dwell in the northern half of the world.
 He therefore set his brothers Ve and Vilje over Asgaard; and he
 himself, with all the gods and a great many other people,
 wandered out, first westward to Gardarike, and then south to
 Saxland.  He had many sons; and after having subdued an extensive
 kingdom in Saxland, he set his sons to rule the country.  He
 himself went northwards to the sea, and took up his abode in an
 island which is called Odins in Fyen.  Then he sent Gefion across
 the sound to the north to discover new countries; and she came to
 King Gylve, who gave her a ploughgate of land.  Then she went to
 Jotunheim, and bore four sons to a giant, and transformed them
 into a yoke of oxen.  She yoked them to a plough, and broke out
 the land into the ocean right opposite to Odins.  This land was
 called Sealand, and there she afterwards settled and dwelt.
 Skjold, a son of Odin, married her, and they dwelt at Leidre.
 Where the ploughed land was is a lake or sea called Laage.  In
 the Swedish land the fjords of Laage correspond to the nesses in
 Sealand.  Brage the Old sings thus of it: --
      "Gefion from Gylve drove away,
      To add new land to Denmark's sway --
      Blythe Gefion ploughing in the smoke
      That steamed up from her oxen-yoke:
      Four heads, eight forehead stars had they,
      Bright gleaming, as she ploughed away;
      Dragging new lands from the deep main
      To join them to the sweet isle's plain.
 Now when Odin heard that things were in a prosperous condition in
 the land to the east beside Gylve; he went thither, and Gylve
 made a peace with him, for Gylve thought he had no strength to
 oppose the people of Asaland.  Odin and Gylve had many tricks and
 enchantments against each other; but the Asaland people had
 always the superiority.  Odin took up his residence at the
 Maelare lake, at the place now called Old Sigtun.  There he
 erected a large temple, where there were sacrifices according to
 the customs of the Asaland people.  He appropriated to himself
 the whole of that district, and called it Sigtun.  To the temple
 priests he gave also domains.  Njord dwelt in Noatun, Frey in
 Upsal, Heimdal in the Himinbergs, Thor in Thrudvang, Balder in
 Breidablik; to all of them he gave good estates.
 When Odin of Asaland came to the north, and the Diar with him,
 they introduced and taught to others the arts which the people
 long afterwards have practised.  Odin was the cleverest of all,
 and from him all the others learned their arts and
 accomplishments; and he knew them first, and knew many more than
 other people.  But now, to tell why he is held in such high
 respect, we must mention various causes that contributed to it.
 When sitting among his friends his countenance was so beautiful
 and dignified, that the spirits of all were exhilarated by it,
 but when he was in war he appeared dreadful to his foes.  This
 arose from his being able to change his skin and form in any way
 he liked.  Another cause was, that he conversed so cleverly and
 smoothly, that all who heard believed him.  He spoke everything
 in rhyme, such as now composed, which we call scald-craft.  He
 and his temple priests were called song-smiths, for from them
 came that art of song into the northern countries.  Odin could
 make his enemies in battle blind, or deaf, or terror-struck, and
 their weapons so blunt that they could no more but than a willow
 wand; on the other hand, his men rushed forwards without armour,
 were as mad as dogs or wolves, bit their shields, and were strong
 as bears or wild bulls, and killed people at a blow, but neither
 fire nor iron told upon themselves.  These were called Berserker.
 Odin could transform his shape: his body would lie as if dead, or
 asleep; but then he would be in shape of a fish, or worm, or
 bird, or beast, and be off in a twinkling to distant lands upon
 his own or other people's business.  With words alone he could
 quench fire, still the ocean in tempest, and turn the wind to any
 quarter he pleased.  Odin had a ship which was called
 Skidbladnir, in which he sailed over wide seas, and which he
 could roll up like a cloth.  Odin carried with him Mime's head,
 which told him all the news of other countries.  Sometimes even
 he called the dead out of the earth, or set himself beside the
 burial-mounds; whence he was called the ghost-sovereign, and lord
 of the mounds.  He had two ravens, to whom he had taught the
 speech of man; and they flew far and wide through the land, and
 brought him the news.  In all such things he was pre-eminently
 wise.  He taught all these arts in Runes, and songs which are
 called incantations, and therefore the Asaland people are called
 incantation-smiths.  Odin understood also the art in which the
 greatest power is lodged, and which he himself practised; namely,
 what is called magic.  By means of this he could know beforehand
 the predestined fate of men, or their not yet completed lot; and
 also bring on the death, ill-luck, or bad health of people, and
 take the strength or wit from one person and give it to another.
 But after such witchcraft followed such weakness and anxiety,
 that it was not thought respectable for men to practise it; and
 therefore the priestesses were brought up in this art.  Odin knew
 finely where all missing cattle were concealed under the earth,
 and understood the songs by which the earth, the hills, the
 stones, and mounds were opened to him; and he bound those who
 dwell in them by the power of his word, and went in and took what
 he pleased.  From these arts he became very celebrated.  His
 enemies dreaded him; his friends put their trust in him, and
 relied on his power and on himself.  He taught the most of his
 arts to his priests of the sacrifices, and they came nearest to
 himself in all wisdom and witch-knowledge.  Many others, however,
 occupied themselves much with it; and from that time witchcraft
 spread far and wide, and continued long.  People sacrificed to
 Odin and the twelve chiefs from Asaland, and called them their
 gods, and believed in them long after.  From Odin's name came the
 name Audun, which people gave to his sons; and from Thor's name
 comes Thore, also Thorarinn; and also it is sometimes compounded
 with other names, as Steenthor, or Havthor, or even altered in
 other ways.
 Odin established the same law in his land that had been in force
 in Asaland.  Thus he established by law that all dead men should
 be burned, and their belongings laid with them upon the pile, and
 the ashes be cast into the sea or buried in the earth.  Thus,
 said he, every one will come to Valhalla with the riches he had
 with him upon the pile; and he would also enjoy whatever he
 himself had buried in the earth.  For men of consequence a mound
 should be raised to their memory, and for all other warriors who
 had been distinguished for manhood a standing stone; which custom
 remained long after Odin's time.  On winter day there should be
 blood-sacrifice for a good year, and in the middle of winter for
 a good crop; and the third sacrifice should be on summer day, for
 victory in battle.  Over all Swithiod the people paid Odin a
 scatt or tax -- so much on each head; but he had to defend the
 country from enemy or disturbance, and pay the expense of the
 sacrifice feasts for a good year.
 Njord took a wife called Skade; but she would not live with him
 and married afterwards Odin, and had many sons by him, of whom
 one was called Saeming; and about him Eyvind Skaldaspiller sings
 thus: --
      "To Asa's son Queen Skade bore
      Saeming, who dyed his shield in gore, --
      The giant-queen of rock and snow,
      Who loves to dwell on earth below,
      The iron pine-tree's daughter, she
      Sprung from the rocks that rib the sea,
      To Odin bore full many a son,
      Heroes of many a battle won."
 To Saeming Earl Hakon the Great reckoned back his pedigree.  This
 Swithiod they called Mannheim, but the Great Swithiod they called
 Godheim; and of Godheim great wonders and novelties were related.
 Odin died in his bed in Swithiod; and when he was near his death
 he made himself be marked with the point of a spear, and said he
 was going to Godheim, and would give a welcome there to all his
 friends, and all brave warriors should be dedicated to him; and
 the Swedes believed that he was gone to the ancient Asgaard, and
 would live there eternally.  Then began the belief in Odin, and
 the calling upon him.  The Swedes believed that he often showed
 to them before any great battle.  To some he gave victory; others
 he invited to himself; and they reckoned both of these to be
 fortunate.  Odin was burnt, and at his pile there was great
 splendour.  It was their faith that the higher the smoke arose in
 the air, the higher he would be raised whose pile it was; and the
 richer he would be, the more property that was consumed with him. 
 11. OF NJORD.
 Njord of Noatun was then the sole sovereign of the Swedes; and he
 continued the sacrifices, and was called the drot or sovereign by
 the Swedes, and he received scatt and gifts from them.  In his
 days were peace and plenty, and such good years, in all respects,
 that the Swedes believed Njord ruled over the growth of seasons
 and the prosperity of the people.  In his time all the diar or
 gods died, and blood-sacrifices were made for them.  Njord died
 on a bed of sickness, and before he died made himself be marked
 for Odin with the spear-point.  The Swedes burned him, and all
 wept over his grave-mound.
 Frey took the kingdom after Njord, and was called drot by the
 Swedes, and they paid taxes to him.  He was, like his father,
 fortunate in friends and in good seasons.  Frey built a great
 temple at Upsal, made it his chief seat, and gave it all his
 taxes, his land, and goods.  Then began the Upsal domains, which
 have remained ever since.  Then began in his days the Frode-
 peace; and then there were good seasons, in all the land, which
 the Swedes ascribed to Frey, so that he was more worshipped than
 the other gods, as the people became much richer in his days by
 reason of the peace and good seasons.  His wife was called Gerd,
 daughter of Gymis, and their son was called Fjolne.  Frey was
 called by another name, Yngve; and this name Yngve was considered
 long after in his race as a name of honour, so that his
 descendants have since been called Ynglinger.  Frey fell into a
 sickness; and as his illness took the upper hand, his men took
 the plan of letting few approach him.  In the meantime they
 raised a great mound, in which they placed a door with three
 holes in it.  Now when Frey died they bore him secretly into the
 mound, but told the Swedes he was alive; and they kept watch over
 him for three years.  They brought all the taxes into the mound,
 and through the one hole they put in the gold, through the other
 the silver, and through the third the copper money that was paid.
 Peace and good seasons continued.
 Freya alone remained of the gods, and she became on this account
 so celebrated that all women of distinction were called by her
 name, whence they now have the title Frue; so that every woman is
 called frue, or mistress over her property, and the wife is
 called the house-frue.  Freya continued the blood-sacrifices.
 Freya had also many other names.  Her husband was called Oder,
 and her daughters Hnoss and Gerseme.  They were so very
 beautiful, that afterwards the most precious jewels were called
 by their names.
 When it became known to the Swedes that Frey was dead, and yet
 peace and good seasons continued, they believed that it must be
 so as long as Frey remained in Sweden; and therefore they would
 not burn his remains, but called him the god of this world, and
 afterwards offered continually blood-sacrifices to him,
 principally for peace and good seasons.
 Fjolne, Yngve Frey's son, ruled thereafter over the Swedes and
 the Upsal domains.  He was powerful, and lucky in seasons and in
 holding the peace.  Fredfrode ruled then in Leidre, and between
 them there was great friendship and visiting.  Once when Fjolne
 went to Frode in Sealand, a great feast was prepared for him, and
 invitations to it were sent all over the country.  Frode had a
 large house, in which there was a great vessel many ells high,
 and put together of great pieces of timber; and this vessel stood
 in a lower room.  Above it was a loft, in the floor of which was
 an opening through which liquor was poured into this vessel.  The
 vessel was full of mead, which was excessively strong.  In the
 evening Fjolne, with his attendants, was taken into the adjoining
 loft to sleep.  In the night he went out to the gallery to seek a
 certain place, and he was very sleepy and exceedingly drunk.  As
 he came back to his room he went along the gallery to the door of
 another left, went into it, and his foot slipping, he fell into
 the vessel of mead and was drowned.  So says Thjodolf of Kvine:
      "In Frode's hall the fearful word,
      The death-foreboding sound was heard:
      The cry of fey denouncing doom,
      Was heard at night in Frode's home.
      And when brave Frode came, he found
      Swithiod's dark chief, Fjolne, drowned.
      In Frode's mansion drowned was he,
      Drowned in a waveless, windless sea."
 Swegde took the kingdom after his father, and he made a solemn
 vow to seek Godheim and Odin.  He went with twelve men through
 the world, and came to Turkland, and the Great Svithiod, where he
 found many of his connections.  He was five years on this
 journey; and when he returned home to Sweden he remained there
 for some time.  He had got a wife in Vanheim, who was called
 Vana, and their son was Vanlande.  Swegde went out afterwards to
 seek again for Godheim, and came to a mansion on the east side of
 Swithiod called Stein, where there was a stone as big as a large
 house.  In the evening after sunset, as Swegde was going from the
 drinking-table to his sleeping-room, he cast his eye upon the
 stone, and saw that a dwarf was sitting under it.  Swegde and his
 man were very drunk, and they ran towards the stone.  The dwarf
 stood in the door, and called to Swegde, and told him to come in,
 and he should see Odin.  Swegde ran into the stone, which
 instantly closed behind him, and Swegde never came back. 
 Thiodolf of Kvine tells of this: --
      "By Diurnir's elfin race,
      Who haunt the cliffs and shun day's face,
      The valiant Swegde was deceived,
      The elf's false words the king believed.
      The dauntless hero rushing on,
      Passed through the yawning mouth of stone:
      It yawned -- it shut -- the hero fell,
      In Saekmime's hall, where giants dwell."
 Vanlande, Swegde's son, succeeded his father, and ruled over the
 Upsal domain.  He was a great warrior, and went far around in
 different lands.  Once he took up his winter abode in Finland
 with Snae the Old, and got his daughter Driva in marriage; but in
 spring he set out leaving Driva behind, and although he had
 promised to return within three years he did not come back for
 ten.  Then Driva sent a message to the witch Huld; and sent
 Visbur, her son by Vanlande, to Sweden.  Driva bribed the witch-
 wife Huld, either that she should bewitch Vanlande to return to
 Finland, or kill him.  When this witch-work was going on Vanlande
 was at Upsal, and a great desire came over him to go to Finland;
 but his friends and counsellors advised him against it, and said
 the witchcraft of the Finn people showed itself in this desire of
 his to go there.  He then became very drowsy, and laid himself
 down to sleep; but when he had slept but a little while he cried
 out, saying that the Mara was treading upon him.  His men
 hastened to him to help him; but when they took hold of his head
 she trod on his legs, and when they laid hold of his legs she
 pressed upon his head; and it was his death.  The Swedes took his
 body and burnt it at a river called Skytaa, where a standing
 stone was raised over him.  Thus says Thjodolf: --
      "And Vanlande, in a fatal hour,
      Was dragg'd by Grimhild's daughter's power,
      The witch-wife's, to the dwelling-place
      Where men meet Odin face to face.
      Trampled to death, to Skytaa's shore
      The corpse his faithful followers bore;
      And there they burnt, with heavy hearts,
      The good chief killed by witchcraft's arts.
 Visbur succeeded his father Vanlande.  He married the daughter of
 Aude the Rich, and gave her as her bride-gift three large farms,
 and a gold ornament.  They had two sons, Gisle and Ond; but
 Visbur left her and took another wife, whereupon she went home to
 her father with her two sons.  Visbur had a son who was called
 Domald, and his stepmother used witchcraft to give him ill-luck.
 Now, when Visbur's sons were the one twelve and the other
 thirteen years of age, they went to their father's place, and
 desired to have their mother's dower; but he would not deliver it
 to them.  Then they said that the gold ornament should be the
 death of the best man in all his race, and they returned home. 
 Then they began again with enchantments and witchcraft, to try if
 they could destroy their father.  The sorceress Huld said that by
 witchcraft she could bring it about by this means, that a
 murderer of his own kin should never be wanting in the Yngling
 race; and they agreed to have it so.  Thereafter they collected
 men, came unexpectedly in the night on Visbur, and burned him in
 his house.  So sings Thjodolf: --
      "Have the fire-dogs' fierce tongues yelling
      Lapt Visbur's blood on his own hearth?
      Have the flames consumed the dwelling
      Of the here's soul on earth?
      Madly ye acted, who set free
      The forest foe, red fire, night thief,
      Fell brother of the raging sea,
      Against your father and your chief."
 Domald took the heritage after his father Visbur, and ruled over
 the land.  As in his time there was great famine and distress,
 the Swedes made great offerings of sacrifice at Upsal.  The first
 autumn they sacrificed oxen, but the succeeding season was not
 improved thereby.  The following autumn they sacrificed men, but
 the succeeding year was rather worse.  The third autumn, when the
 offer of sacrifices should begin, a great multitude of Swedes
 came to Upsal; and now the chiefs held consultations with each
 other, and all agreed that the times of scarcity were on account
 of their king Domald, and they resolved to offer him for good
 seasons, and to assault and kill him, and sprinkle the stalle of
 the gods with his blood.  And they did so.  Thjodolf tells of
 this: --
      "It has happened oft ere now,
      That foeman's weapon has laid low
      The crowned head, where battle plain,
      Was miry red with the blood-rain.
      But Domald dies by bloody arms,
      Raised not by foes in war's alarms --
      Raised by his Swedish liegemen's hand,
      To bring good seasons to the land."
 Domald's son, called Domar, next ruled over the land.  He reigned
 long, and in his days were good seasons and peace.  Nothing is
 told of him but that he died in his bed in Upsal, and was
 transported to the Fyrisvold, where his body was burned on the
 river bank, and where his standing stone still remains.  So says
 Thjodolf: --
      "I have asked wise men to tell
      Where Domar rests, and they knew well.
      Domar, on Fyrie's wide-spread ground,
      Was burned, and laid on Yngve's mound."
 Dygve was the name of his son, who succeeded him in ruling the
 land; and about him nothing is said but that he died in his bed.
 Thjodolf tells of it thus: --
      "Dygve the Brave, the mighty king,
      It is no hidden secret thing,
      Has gone to meet a royal mate,
      Riding upon the horse of Fate.
      For Loke's daughter in her house
      Of Yngve's race would have a spouse;
      Therefore the fell-one snatched away
      Brave Dygve from the light of day."
 Dygve's mother was Drott, a daughter of King Danp, the son of
 Rig, who was first called "king" in the Danish tongue.  His
 descendants always afterwards considered the title of king the
 title of highest dignity.  Dygve was the first of his family to
 be called king, for his predecessors had been called "Drottnar",
 and their wives "Drottningar", and their court "Drott".  Each of
 their race was called Yngve, or Yngune, and the whole race
 together Ynglinger.  The Queen Drott was a sister of King Dan
 Mikillati, from whom Denmark a took its name.
 King Dygve's son, called Dag, succeeded to him, and was so wise a
 man that he understood the language of birds.  He had a sparrow
 which told him much news, and flew to different countries.  Once
 the sparrow flew to Reidgotaland, to a farm called Varva, where
 he flew into the peasant's corn-field and took his grain.  The
 peasant came up, took a stone, and killed the sparrow.  King Dag
 was ill-pleased that the sparrow did not come home; and as he, in
 a sacrifice of expiation, inquired after the sparrow, he got the
 answer that it was killed at Varva.  Thereupon he ordered a great
 army, and went to Gotland; and when he came to Varva he landed
 with his men and plundered, and the people fled away before him.
 King Dag returned in the evening to his ships, after having
 killed many people and taken many prisoners.  As they were going
 across a river at a place called Skjotan's [the Weapon's] Ford, a
 labouring thrall came running to the river-side, and threw a hay-
 fork into their troop.  It struck the king on the head, so that
 he fell instantly from his horse and died.  In those times the
 chief who ravaged a country was called Gram, and the men-at-arms
 under him Gramer.  Thjodolf sings of it thus: --
      "What news is this that the king's men,
      Flying eastward through the glen,
      Report?  That Dag the Brave, whose name
      Is sounded far and wide by Fame --
      That Dag, who knew so well to wield
      The battle-axe in bloody field,
      Where brave men meet, no more will head
      The brave -- that mighty Dag is dead!
      "Varva was wasted with the sword,
      And vengeance taken for the bird --
      The little bird that used to bring
      News to the ear of the great king.
      Varva was ravaged, and the strife
      Was ended, when the monarch's life
      Was ended too -- the great Dag fell
      By the hay-fork of a base thrall!"
 Agne was the name of Dag's son, who was king after him -- a
 powerful and celebrated man, expert, and exercised in all feats.
 It happened one summer that King Agne went with his army to
 Finland, and landed and marauded.  The Finland people gathered a
 large army, and proceeded to the strife under a chief called
 Froste.  There was a great battle, in which King Agne gained the
 victory, and Froste fell there with a great many of his people.
 King Agne proceeded with armed hand through Finland, subdued it,
 and made enormous booty.  He took Froste's daughter Skjalv, and
 her brother Loge, and carried them along with him.  When he
 sailed from the east he came to land at Stoksund, and put up his
 tent on the flat side of the river, where then there was a wood.
 King Agne had at the time the gold ornament which had belonged to
 Visbur.  He now married Skjalv, and she begged him to make burial
 feast in honour of her father.  He invited a great many guests,
 and made a great feast.  He had become very celebrated by his
 expedition, and there was a great drinking match.  Now when King
 Agne had got drank, Skjalv bade him take care of his gold
 ornament which he had about his neck; therefore he took hold of
 the ornament, and bound it fast about his neck before he went to
 sleep.  The land-tent stood at the wood side, and a high tree
 over the tent protected it against the heat of the sun.  Now when
 King Agne was asleep, Skjalv took a noose, and fastened it under
 the ornament.  Thereupon her men threw down the tent-poles, cast
 the loop of the noose up in the branches of the tree, and hauled
 upon it, so that the king was hanged close under the branches and
 died; and Skjalv with her men ran down to their ships, and rowed
 away.  King Agne was buried upon the spot, which was afterwards
 called Agnefet; and it lies on the east side of the Tauren, and
 west of Stoksund.  Thjodolf speaks of it thus: --
      "How do ye like the high-souled maid,
      Who, with the grim Fate-goddess' aid,
      Avenged her sire? -- made Swithiod's king
      Through air in golden halter swing?
      How do ye like her, Agne's men?
      Think ye that any chief again
      Will court the fate your chief befell,
      To ride on wooden horse to hell?"
 The sons of Agne were called Alric and Eric, and were kings
 together after him.  They were powerful men, great warriors, and
 expert at all feats of arms.  It was their custom to ride and
 break in horses both to walk and to gallop, which nobody
 understood so well as they; and they vied with each other who
 could ride best, and keep the best horses.  It happened one day
 that both the brothers rode out together alone, and at a distance
 from their followers, with their best horses, and rode on to a
 field; but never came back.  The people at last went out to look
 after them, and they were both found dead with their heads
 crushed.  As they had no weapons, except it might be their
 horses' bridles, people believed that they had killed each other
 with these.  So says Thjodolf: --
      "Alric fell, by Eric slain,
      Eric's life-blood dyed the plain,
      Brother fell by brother's hand;
      And they tell it in the land,
      That they worked the wicked deed
      With the sharp bits that guide the steed.
      Shall it be said of Frey's brave sons,
      The kingly race, the noble ones,
      That they have fought in deadly battle
      With the head-gear of their cattle?"
 Alric's sons, Yngve and Ali, then succeeded to the kingly power
 in Sweden.  Yngve was a great warrior, always victorious;
 handsome, expert in all exercises, strong and very sharp in
 battle, generous and full of mirth; so that he was both renowned
 and beloved.  Alf was a silent, harsh, unfriendly man, and sat at
 home in the land, and never went out on war expeditions.  His
 mother was called Dageid, a daughter of King Dag the Great, from
 whom the Dagling family is descended.  King Alf had a wife named
 Bera, who was the most agreeable of women, very brisk and gay.
 One autumn Yngve, Alric's son, had arrived at Upsal from a viking
 cruise by which he was become very celebrated.  He often sat long
 in the evening at the drinking-table; but Alf went willingly to
 bed very early.  Queen Bera sat often till late in the evening,
 and she and Yngve conversed together for their amusement; but Alf
 soon told her that she should not sit up so late in the evening,
 but should go first to bed, so as not to waken him.  She replied,
 that happy would be the woman who had Yngve instead of Alf for
 her husband; and as she often repeated the same, he became very
 angry.  One evening Alf went into the hall, where Yngve and Bera
 sat on the high seat speaking to each other.  Yngve had a short
 sword upon his knees, and the guests were so drunk that they did
 not observe the king coming in.  King Alf went straight to the
 high seat, drew a sword from under his cloak, and pierced his
 brother Yngve through and through.  Yngve leaped up, drew his
 short sword, and gave Alf his death-wound; so that both fell dead
 on the floor.  Alf and Yngve were buried under mounds in
 Fyrisvold.  Thus tells Thjodolf of it: --
      "I tell you of a horrid thing,
      A deed of dreadful note I sing --
      How by false Bera, wicked queen,
      The murderous brother-hands were seen
      Each raised against a brother's life;
      How wretched Alf with bloody knife
      Gored Yngve's heart, and Yngve's blade
      Alf on the bloody threshold laid.
      Can men resist Fate's iron laws?
      They slew each other without cause."
 Hugleik was the name of King Alf's son, who succeeded the two
 brothers in the kingdom of the Swedes, the sons of Yngve being
 still children.  King Hugleik was no warrior, but sat quietly at
 home in his country.  He was very rich, but had still more the
 reputation of being very greedy.  He had at his court all sorts
 of players, who played on harps, fiddles, and viols; and had with
 him magicians, and all sorts of witches.  Hake and Hagbard were
 two brothers, very celebrated as sea-kings, who had a great force
 of men-at-arms.  Sometimes they cruised in company, sometimes
 each for himself, and many warriors followed them both.  King
 Hake came with his troops to Sweden against King Hugleik, who, on
 his side, collected a great army to oppose him.  Two brothers
 came to his assistance, Svipdag and Geigad, both very celebrated
 men, and powerful combatants.  King Hake had about him twelve
 champions, and among them Starkad the Old; and King Hake himself
 was a murderous combatant.  They met on Fyrisvold, and there was
 a great battle, in which King Hugleik's army was soon defeated.
 Then the combatants, Svipdag and Geigad, pressed forward
 manfully; but Hake's champions went six against one, and they
 were both taken prisoners.  Then King Hake penetrated within the
 shield-circle around King Hugleik, and killed him and two of his
 sons within it.  After this the Swedes fled; and King Hake
 subdued the country, and became king of Sweden.  He then sat
 quietly at home for three years, but during that time his
 combatants went abroad on viking expeditions, and gathered
 property for themselves.
 Jorund and Eric, the sons of Yngve Alricsson, lay all this time
 in their warships, and were great warriors.  One summer they
 marauded in Denmark, where they met a King Gudlog from
 Halogaland, and had a battle with him, which ended in their
 clearing Gudlog's ship and taking him prisoner.  They carried him
 to the land at Stromones, and hanged him there, and afterwards
 his men raised a mound over him.  So says Eyvind Skaldaspiller: 
      "By the fierce East-kings' cruel pride,
      Gudlog must on the wild horse ride --
      The wildest horse you e'er did see:
      'Tis Sigur's steed -- the gallows tree.
      At Stromones the tree did grow,
      Where Gudlog's corpse waves on the bough.
      A high stone stands on Stromo's heath,
      To tell the gallant hero's death."
 The brothers Eric and Jorund became more celebrated by this deed,
 and appeared to be much greater men than before.  When they heard
 that King Hake in Sweden had sent from him his champions, they
 steered towards Sweden, and gathered together a strong force.  As
 soon as the Swedes heard that the Yngling brothers were come to
 them, they flocked to them in multitudes.  The brothers proceeded
 up the Maelare lake, and advanced towards Upsal against King
 Hake, who came out against them on the Fyrisvoid with far fewer
 people.  There was a great battle, in which King Hake went
 forward so bravely that he killed all who were nearest to him,
 and at last killed King Eric, and cut down the banner of the two
 brothers.  King Jorund with all his men fled to their ships. 
 King Hake had been so grievously wounded that he saw his days
 could not be long; so he ordered a warship which he had to be
 loaded with his dead men and their weapons, and to be taken out
 to the sea; the tiller to be shipped, and the sails hoisted. 
 Then he set fire to some tar-wood, and ordered a pile to be made
 over it in the ship.  Hake was almost if not quite dead, when he
 was laid upon this pile of his.  The wind was blowing off the
 land -- the ship flew, burning in clear flame, out between the
 islets, and into the ocean.  Great was the fame of this deed in
 after times.
 Jorund, King Yngve's son, remained king at Upsal.  He ruled the
 country; but was often in summer out on war expeditions.  One
 summer he went with his forces to Denmark; and having plundered
 all around in Jutland, he went into Lymfjord in autumn, and
 marauded there also.  While he was thus lying in Oddesund with
 his people, King Gylog of Halogaland, a son of King Gudlog, of
 whom mention is made before, came up with a great force, and gave
 battle to Jorund.  When the country people saw this they swarmed
 from all parts towards the battle, in great ships and small; and
 Jorund was overpowered by the multitude, and his ships cleared of
 their men.  He sprang overboard, but was made prisoner and
 carried to the land. Gylog ordered a gallows to be erected, led
 Jorund to it, and had him hanged there.  So ended his life.
 Thjodolf talks of this event thus: --
      "Jorund has travelled far and wide,
      But the same horse he must bestride
      On which he made brave Gudlog ride.
      He too must for a necklace wear
      Hagbert's fell noose in middle air.
      The army leader thus must ride
      On Horva's horse, at Lymfjord's side."
 On or Ane was the name of Jorund's son, who became king of the
 Swedes after his father.  He was a wise man, who made great
 sacrifices to the gods; but being no warrior, he lived quietly at
 home.  In the time when the kings we have been speaking of were
 in Upsal, Denmark had been ruled over by Dan Mikellati, who lived
 to a very great age; then by his son, Frode Mikellati, or the
 Peace-loving, who was succeeded by his sons Halfdan and Fridleif,
 who were great warriors.  Halfdan was older than his brother, and
 above him in all things.  He went with his army against King On
 to Sweden, and was always victorious.  At last King On fled to
 Wester Gotland when he had been king in Upsal about twenty-five
 years, and was in Gotland twenty-five years, while Halfdan
 remained king in Upsal.  King Halfdan died in his bed at Upsal,
 and was buried there in a mound; and King On returned to Upsal
 when he was sixty years of age.  He made a great sacrifice, and
 in it offered up his son to Odin.  On got an answer from Odin,
 that he should live sixty years longer; and he was afterwards
 king in Upsal for twenty-five years.  Now came Ole the Bold, a
 son of King Fridleif, with his army to Sweden, against King On,
 and they had several battles with each other; but Ole was always
 the victor.  Then On fled a second time to Gotland; and for
 twenty-five years Ole reigned in Upsal, until he was killed by
 Starkad the Old.  After Ole's fall, On returned to Upsal, and
 ruled the kingdom for twenty-five years.  Then he made a great
 sacrifice again for long life, in which he sacrificed his second
 son, and received the answer from Odin, that he should live as
 long as he gave him one of his sons every tenth year, and also
 that he should name one of the districts of his country after the
 number of sons he should offer to Odin.  When he had sacrificed
 the seventh of his sons he continued to live; but so that he
 could not walk, but was carried on a chair.  Then he sacrificed
 his eighth son, and lived thereafter ten years, lying in his bed.
 Now he sacrificed his ninth son, and lived ten years more; but so
 that he drank out of a horn like a weaned infant.  He had now
 only one son remaining, whom he also wanted to sacrifice, and to
 give Odin Upsal and the domains thereunto belonging, under the
 name of the Ten Lands, but the Swedes would not allow it; so
 there was no sacrifice, and King On died, and was buried in a
 mound at Upsal.  Since that time it is called On's sickness when
 a man dies, without pain, of extreme old age. Thjodolf tell of
 this: --
      "In Upsal's town the cruel king
      Slaughtered his sons at Odin's shrine --
      Slaughtered his sons with cruel knife,
      To get from Odin length of life.
      He lived until he had to turn
      His toothless mouth to the deer's horn;
      And he who shed his children's blood
      Sucked through the ox's horn his food.
      At length fell Death has tracked him down,
      Slowly, but sure, in Upsal's town."
 Egil was the name of On the Old's son, who succeeded as king in
 Sweden after his father's death.  He was no warrior, but sat
 quietly at home.  Tunne was the name of a slave who had been the
 counsellor and treasurer of On the Old; and when On died Tunne
 took much treasure and buried it in the earth.  Now when Egil
 became king he put Tunne among the other slaves, which he took
 very ill and ran away with others of the slaves.  They dug up the
 treasures which Tunne had concealed, and he gave them to his men,
 and was made their chief.  Afterwards many malefactors flocked to
 him; and they lay out in the woods, but sometimes fell upon the
 domains, pillaging and killing the people.  When King Egil heard
 this he went out with his forces to pursue them; but one night
 when he had taken up his night quarters, Tunne came there with
 his men, fell on the king's men unexpectedly, and killed many of
 them.  As soon as King Egil perceived the tumult, he prepared for
 defence, and set up his banner; but many people deserted him,
 because Tunne and his men attacked them so boldly, and King Egil
 saw that nothing was left but to fly.  Tunne pursued the
 fugitives into the forest, and then returned to the inhabited
 land, ravaging and plundering without resistance.  All the goods
 that fell into Tunne's hands he gave to his people, and thus
 became popular and strong in men.  King Egil assembledĂșan army
 again, and hastened to give battle to Tunne.  But Tunne was again
 victorious, and King Egil fled with the loss of many people. 
 Egil and Tunne had eight battles with each other, and Tunne
 always gained the victory.  Then King Egil fled out of the
 country, and went to Sealand in Denmark, to Frode the Bold, and
 promised him a scatt from the Swedes to obtain help.  Frode gave
 him an army, and also his champions, with which force King Egil
 repaired to Sweden.  When Tunne heard this he came out to meet
 him; and there was a great battle, in which Tunne fell, and King
 Egil recovered his kingdom, and the Danes returned home.  King
 Egil sent King Frode great and good presents every year, but he
 paid no scatt to the Danes; but notwithstanding, the friendship
 between Egil and Frode continued without interruption.  After
 Tunne's fall, Egil ruled the kingdom for three years.  It
 happened in Sweden that an old bull, which was destined for
 sacrifice, was fed so high that he became dangerous to people;
 and when they were going to lay hold of him he escaped into the
 woods, became furious, and was long in the forest committing
 great damage to the country.  King Egil was a great hunter, and
 often rode into the forest to chase wild animals.  Once he rode
 out with his men to hunt in the forest.  The king had traced an
 animal a long while, and followed it in the forest, separated
 from all his men.  He observed at last that it was the bull, and
 rode up to it to kill it.  The bull turned round suddenly, and
 the king struck him with his spear; but it tore itself out of the
 wound.  The bull now struck his horn in the side of the horse, so
 that he instantly fell flat on the earth with the king.  The king
 sprang up, and was drawing his sword, when the bull struck his
 horns right into the king's breast.  The king's men then came up
 and killed the bull.  The king lived but a short time, and was
 buried in a mound at Upsal.  Thjodolf sings of it thus: --
      "The fair-haired son of Odin's race,
      Who fled before fierce Tunne's face,
      Has perished by the demon-beast
      Who roams the forests of the East.
      The hero's breast met the full brunt
      Of the wild bull's shaggy front;
      The hero's heart's asunder torn
      By the fell Jotun's spear-like horn."
 Ottar was the name of King Egil's son who succeeded to the
 domains and kingdom after him.  He did not continue friendly with
 King Frode, and therefore King Frode sent messengers to King
 Ottar to demand the scatt which Egil had promised him.  Ottar
 replied, that the Swedes had never paid scatt to the Danes,
 neither would he; and the messengers had to depart with this
 answer.  Frode was a great warrior, and he came one summer with
 his army to Sweden, and landed and ravaged the country.  He
 killed many people, took some prisoners, burned all around in the
 inhabited parts, made a great booty, and made great devastation.
 The next summer King Frode made an expedition to the eastward;
 and when King Ottar heard that Frode was not at home in his own
 country, he went on board his own ships, sailed over to Denmark,
 and ravaged there without opposition.  As he heard that a great
 many people were collected at Sealand, he proceeds westward to
 the Sound, and sails north about to Jutland; lands at Lymfjord;
 plunders the Vend district; burns, and lays waste, and makes
 desolate the country he goes over with his army.  Vatt and Faste
 were the names of the earls whom Frode had appointed to defend
 the country in Denmark while he was abroad.  When the earls heard
 that the Swedish king was laying Denmark waste, they collected an
 army, hastened on board their ships, and sailed by the south side
 to Lymfjord.  They came unexpectedly upon Ottar, and the battle
 began immediately.  The Swedes gave them a good reception, and
 many people fell on both sides; but as soon as men fell in the
 Danish army other men hastened from the country to fill their
 places, and also all the vessels in the neighbourhood joined
 them.  The battle ended with the fall of Ottar and the greater
 part of his people.  The Danes took his body, carried it to the
 land, laid it upon a mound of earth, and let the wild beasts and
 ravens tear it to pieces.  Thereafter they made a figure of a
 crow out of wood, sent it to Sweden, and sent word with it that
 their king, Ottar, was no better than it; and from this he was
 called Ottar Vendelcrow.  Thjodolf tells so of it: --
      "By Danish arms the hero bold,
      Ottar the Brave, lies stiff and cold.
      To Vendel's plain the corpse was borne;
      By eagles' claws the corpse is torn,
      Spattered by ravens' bloody feet,
      The wild bird's prey, the wild wolf's meat.
      The Swedes have vowed revenge to take
      On Frode's earls, for Ottar's sake;
      Like dogs to kill them in their land,
      In their own homes, by Swedish hand."
 Adils was the name of King Ottar's son and successor.  He was a
 long time king, became very rich, and went also for several
 summers on viking expeditions.  On one of these he came to
 Saxland with his troops.  There a king was reigning called
 Geirthjof, and his wife was called Alof the Great; but nothing is
 told of their children.  The king was not at home, and Adils and
 his men ran up to the king's house and plundered it, while others
 drove a herd of cattle down to the strand.  The herd was attended
 by slave-people, churls, and girls, and they took all of them
 together.  Among them was a remarkably beautiful girl called
 Yrsa.  Adils returned home with this plunder. Yrsa was not one of
 the slave girls, and it was soon observed that she was
 intelligent, spoke well, and in all respects was well behaved. 
 All people thought well of her, and particularly the king; and at
 last it came to this that the king celebrated his wedding with
 her, and Yrsa became queen of Sweden, and was considered an
 excellent woman.
 King Halfdan's son Helge ruled at that time over Leidre.  He came
 to Sweden with so great an army, that King Adils saw no other way
 than to fly at once.  King Helge landed with his army, plundered,
 and made a great booty.  He took Queen Yrsa prisoner, carried her
 with him to Leidre, took her to wife, and had a son by her called
 Rolf Krake.  When Rolf was three years old, Queen Alof came to
 Denmark, and told Queen Yrsa that her husband, King Helge, was
 her own father, and that she, Alof, was her mother.  Thereupon
 Yrsa went back to Sweden to King Adils, and was queen there as
 long as she lived.  King Helge fell in a war expedition; and Rolf
 Krake, who was then eight years old, was taken to be king in
 Leidre.  King Adils had many disputes with a king called Ole of
 the Uplands; and these kings had a battle on the ice of the
 Venner lake, in which King Ole fell, and King Adils won the
 battle.  There is a long account of this battle in the
 "Skjoldunga Saga", and also about Rolf Krake's coming to Adils,
 and sowing gold upon the Fyrisvold.  King Adils was a great lover
 of good horses, and had the best horses of these times.  One of
 his horses was called Slongve, and another Raven.  This horse he
 had taken from Ole on his death, and bred from him a horse, also
 called Raven, which the king sent in a present to King Godgest in
 Halogaland.  When Godgest mounted the horse he was not able to
 manage him, and fell off and was killed.  This accident happened
 at Omd in Halogaland.  King Adils was at a Disa sacrifice; and as
 he rode around the Disa hall his horse' Raven stumbled and fell,
 and the king was thrown forward upon his head, and his skull was
 split, and his brains dashed out against a stone.  Adils died at
 Upsal, and was buried there in a mound.  The Swedes called him a
 great king.  Thjodolf speaks thus of him: --
      "Witch-demons, I have heard men say,
      Have taken Adils' life away.
      The son of kings of Frey's great race,
      First in the fray, the fight, the chase,
      Fell from his steed -- his clotted brains
      Lie mixed with mire on Upsal's plains.
      Such death (grim Fate has willed it so)
      Has struck down Ole's deadly foe."
 Eystein, King Adils' son, ruled next over Sweden, and in his
 lifetime Rolf Krake of Leidre fell.  In those days many kings,
 both Danes and Northmen, ravaged the Swedish dominions; for there
 were many sea-kings who ruled over many people, but had no lands,
 and he might well be called a sea-king who never slept beneath
 sooty roof-timbers.
 There was a sea-king called Solve, a son of Hogne of Njardo, who
 at that time plundered in the Baltic, but had his dominion in
 Jutland.  He came with his forces to Sweden, just as King Eystein
 was at a feast in a district called Lofond.  Solve came
 unexpectedly in the night on Eystein, surrounded the house in
 which the king was, and burned him and all his court.  Then Solve
 went to Sigtun, and desired that the Swedes should receive him,
 and give him the title of king; but they collected an army, and
 tried to defend the country against him, on which there was a
 great battle, that lasted, according to report, eleven days.
 There King Solve was victorious, and was afterwards king of the
 Swedish dominions for a long time, until at last the Swedes
 betrayed him, and he was killed.  Thjodolf tells of it thus: --
      "For a long time none could tell
      How Eystein died -- but now I know
      That at Lofond the hero fell;
      The branch of Odin was laid low,
      Was burnt by Solve's Jutland men.
      The raging tree-devourer fire
      Rushed on the monarch in its ire;
      First fell the castle timbers, then
      The roof-beams -- Eystein's funeral pyre."
 Yngvar, who was King Eystein's son, then became king of Sweden.
 He was a great warrior, and often lay out with his warships; for
 the Swedish dominions were much ravaged then by Danes and
 East-country men.  King Yngvar made a peace with the Danes; but
 betook himself to ravaging the East country in return.  One
 summer he went with his forces to Estland, and plundered at a
 place called Stein.  The men of Estland came down from the
 interior with a great army, and there was a battle; but the army
 of the country was so brave that the Swedes could not withstand
 them, and King Yngvar fell, and his people fled.  He was buried
 close to the seashore under a mound in Estland; and after this
 defeat the Swedes returned home.  Thjodolf sings of it thus: --
      "Certain it is the Estland foe
      The fair-haired Swedish king laid low.
      On Estland's strand, o'er Swedish graves,
      The East Sea sings her song of waves;
      King Yngvar's dirge is ocean's roar
      Resounding on the rock-ribbed shore."
 Onund was the name of Yngvar's son who succeeded him.  In his
 days there was peace in Sweden, and he became rich in valuable
 goods.  King Onund went with his army to Estland to avenge his
 father, and landed and ravaged the country round far and wide,
 and returned with a great booty in autumn to Sweden.  In his time
 there were fruitful seasons in Sweden, so that he was one of the
 most popular of kings.  Sweden is a great forest land, and there
 are such great uninhabited forests in it that it is a journey of
 many days to cross them.  Onund bestowed great diligence and
 expense on opening the woods and cultivating the cleared land. 
 He made roads through the desert forests; and thus cleared land
 is found all through the forest country, and great districts are
 settled.  In this way extensive tracts of land were brought into
 cultivation, for there were country people enough to cultivate
 the land.  Onund had roads made through all Sweden, both through
 forests and morasses, and also over mountains; and he was
 therefore called Onund Roadmaker.  He had a house built for
 himself in every district of Sweden, and went over the whole
 country in guest-quarters.
 Onund had a son called Ingjald, and at that time Yngvar was king
 of the district of Fjadryndaland.  Yngvar had two sons by his
 wife -- the one called Alf, the other Agnar -- who were about the
 same age as Ingjald.  Onund's district-kings were at that time
 spread widely over Sweden, and Svipdag the Blind ruled over
 Tiundaland, in which Upsal is situated, and where all the Swedish
 Things are held.  There also were held the mid-winter sacrifices,
 at which many kings attended.  One year at midwinter there was a
 great assembly of people at Upsal, and King Yngvar had also come
 there with his sons.  Alf, King Yngvar's son, and Ingjald, King
 Onund's son, were there -- both about six years old.  They amused
 themselves with child's play, in which each should be leading on
 his army.  In their play Ingjald found himself not so strong as
 Alf, and was so vexed that he almost cried.  His foster-brother
 Gautvid came up, led him to his foster-father Svipdag the Blind,
 and told him how ill it appeared that he was weaker and less
 manly than Alf, King Yngvar's son.  Svipdag replied that it was a
 great shame.  The day after Svipdag took the heart of a wolf,
 roasted it on the tongs, and gave it to the king's son Ingjald to
 eat, and from that time he became a most ferocious person, and of
 the worst disposition.  When Ingjald was grown up, Onund applied
 for him to King Algaut for his daughter Gauthild.  Algaut was a
 son of Gautrek the Mild, and grandson of Gaut; and from them
 Gotland (Gautland) took its name.  King Algaut thought his
 daughter would be well married if she got King Onund's son, and
 if he had his father's disposition; so the girl was sent to
 Sweden, and King Ingjald celebrated his wedding with her in due
 King Onund one autumn, travelling between his mansion-houses,
 came over a road called Himmenheath, where there are some narrow
 mountain valleys, with high mountains on both sides.  There was
 heavy rain at the time, and before there had been snow on the
 mountains.  A landslip of clay and stones came down upon King
 Onund and his people, and there he met his death, and many with
 him.  So says Thjodolf, namely: --
      "We all have heard how Jonkur's sons,
      Whom weapons could not touch, with stones
      Were stoned to death in open day,
      King Onund died in the same way.
      Or else perhaps the wood-grown land,
      Which long had felt his conquering hand,
      Uprose at length in deadly strife,
      And pressed out Onund's hated life."
 Then Ingjald, King Onund's son, came to the kingdom.  The Upsal
 kings were the highest in Sweden among the many district-kings
 who had been since the time that Odin was chief.  The kings who
 resided at Upsal had been the supreme chiefs over the whole
 Swedish dominions until the death of Agne, when, as before
 related, the kingdom came to be divided between brothers.  After
 that time the dominions and kingly powers were spread among the
 branches of the family as these increased; but some kings cleared
 great tracts of forest-land, and settled them, and thereby
 increased their domains.  Now when Ingjald took the dominions and
 the kingdom of his father, there were, as before said, many
 district-kings.  King Ingjald ordered a great feast to be
 prepared in Upsal, and intended at that feast to enter on his
 heritage after King Onund his father.  He had a large hall made
 ready for the occasion -- one not less, nor less sumptuous, than
 that of Upsal; and this hall was called the Seven Kings Hall, and
 in it were seven high seats for kings.  Then King Ingjald sent
 men all through Sweden, and invited to his feast kings, earls,
 and other men of consequence.  To this heirship-feast came King
 Algaut, his father-in-law; Yngvar king of Fjadryndaland, with his
 two sons, Alf and Agnar; King Sporsnjall of Nerike; King Sighvat
 of Aattundaland: but Granmar king of Sodermanland did not come.
 Six kings were placed in the seats in the new hall; but one of
 the high seats which Ingjald had prepared was empty.  All the
 persons who had come got places in the new hall; but to his own
 court, and the rest of his people, he had appointed places at
 Upsal.  It was the custom at that time that he who gave an
 heirship-feast after kings or earls, and entered upon the
 heritage, should sit upon the footstool in front of the high
 seat, until the full bowl, which was called the Brage-beaker, was
 brought in.  Then he should stand up, take the Brage-beaker, make
 solemn vows to be afterwards fulfilled, and thereupon empty the
 beaker.  Then he should ascend the high seat which his father had
 occupied; and thus he came to the full heritage after his father.
 Now it was done so on this occasion.  When the full Brage-beaker
 came in, King Ingjald stood up, grasped a large bull's horn, and
 made a solemn vow to enlarge his dominions by one half, towards
 all the four corners of the world, or die; and thereupon pointed
 with the horn to the four quarters.  Now when the guests had
 become drunk towards evening King Ingjald told Svipdag's sons,
 Gautvid and Hylvid, to arm themselves and their men, as had
 before been settled; and accordingly they went out, and came up
 to the new hall, and set fire to it.  The hall was soon in a
 blaze, and the six kings, with all their people, were burned in
 it.  Those who tried to come out were killed.  Then King Ingjald
 laid all the dominions these kings had possessed under himself,
 and took scatt from them.
 When King Granmar heard the news of this treachery, he thought
 the same lot awaited him if he did not take care.  The same
 summer King Hjorvard, who was called Ylfing, came with his fleet
 to Sweden, and went into a fjord called Myrkva-fjord.  When King
 Granmar heard this he sent a messenger to him to invite him and
 all his men to a feast.  He accepted it willingly; for he had
 never committed waste in King Granmar's dominions.  When he came
 to the feast he was gladly welcomed.  In the evening, when the
 full bowls went round, as was the custom of kings when they were
 at home, or in the feasts they ordered to be made, they sat and
 drank together, a man and woman with each other in pairs, and the
 rest of the company sat and drank all together.  But it was the
 law among the vikings that all who were at the entertainment
 should drink together in one company all round.  King Hjorvard's
 high seat was placed right opposite to King Granmar's high seat,
 and on the same bench sat all his men.  King Granmar told his
 daughter Hildigunn, who was a remarkably beautiful girl, to make
 ready to carry ale to the vikings.  Thereupon she took a silver
 goblet, filled it, bowed before King Hjorvard, and said, "Success
 to all Ylfinger: this cup to the memory of Rolf Krake" -- drank
 out the half, and handed the cup to King Hjorvard.  He took the
 cup, and took her hand, and said she must sit beside him.  She
 says that is not viking fashion to drink two and two with women.
 Hjorvard replies that it were better for him to make a change,
 and leave the viking law, and drink in company with her.  Then
 Hildigunn sat down beside him, and both drank together, and spoke
 a great deal with each other during the evening.  The next day,
 when King Granmar and Hjorvard met, Hjorvard spoke of his
 courtship, and asked to have Hildigunn in marriage.  King Granmar
 laid this proposal before his wife Hilda, and before people of
 consequence, saying they would have great help and trust in
 Hjorvard; and all approved of it highly, and thought it very
 advisable.  And the end was, that Hildigunn was promised to
 Hjorvard, and the wedding followed soon after; and King Hjorvard
 stayed with King Granmar, who had no sons, to help him to defend
 his dominions.
 The same autumn King Ingjald collected a war-force, with which he
 intended to fall upon Granmar and Hjorvard; but when they heard
 it they also collected a force, and Hogne, who ruled over East
 Gotland, together with his son Hildur, came to their assistance.
 Hogne was father of Hilda, who was married to King Granmar.  King
 Ingjald landed with his army, which was by far the most numerous.
 A battle began, which was very sharp; but after it had lasted a
 short time, the chiefs who ruled over Fjadryndaland, West
 Gotland, Nerike, and Aattundaland, took to flight with all the
 men from those countries, and hastened to their ships.  This
 placed King Ingjald in great danger, and he received many wounds,
 but escaped by flight to his ships.  Svipdag the Blind, Ingjald's
 foster-father, together with his sons, Gautvid and Hylvid, fell.
 Ingjald returned to Upsal, very ill-satisfied with his
 expedition; and he thought the army levied from those countries
 he had acquired by conquest had been unfaithful to him.  There
 was great hostility afterwards between King Ingjald and King
 Granmar, and his son-in-law King Hjorvard; and after this had
 continued a long time the friends of both parties brought about a
 reconciliation.  The king appointed a meeting, and concluded a
 peace.  This peace was to endure as long as the three kings
 lived, and this was confirmed by oath and promises of fidelity.
 The spring after, King Granmar went to Upsal to make offering, as
 usual, for a steady peace.  Then the foreboding turned out for
 him so that it did not promise him long life, and he returned to
 his dominions.
 The autumn after, King Granmar and his son-in-law Hjorvard went
 to a feast at one of their farms in the island Sile.  When they
 were at the entertainment, King Ingjald came there in the night
 with his troops, surrounded the house, and burnt them in it, with
 all their men.  Then he took to himself all the country these
 kings had possessed, and placed chiefs over it.  King Hogne and
 his son Hildur often made inroads on horseback into the Swedish
 dominions, and killed King Ingjald's men, whom he had placed over
 the kingdom which had belonged to their relation Granmar.  This
 strife between King Ingjald and King Hogne continued for a long
 time; but King Hogne defended his kingdom against King Ingjald to
 his dying day.  King Ingjald had two children by his wife -- the
 eldest called Aasa, the other Olaf.  Gauthild, the wife of
 Ingjald, sent the boy to his foster-father Bove, in West Gotland,
 where he was brought up along with Saxe, Bove's son, who had the
 surname of Flette.  It was a common saying that King Ingjald had
 killed twelve kings, and deceived them all under pretence of
 peace; therefore he was called Ingjald the Evil-adviser.  He was
 king over the greater part of Sweden.  He married his daughter
 Aasa to Gudrod king of Scania; and she was like her father in
 disposition.  Aasa brought it about that Gudrod killed his
 brother Halfdan, father of Ivar Vidfavne; and also she brought
 about the death of her husband Gudrod, and then fled to her
 father; and she thus got the name also of Aasa the Evil-adviser. 
 Ivar Vidfavne came to Scania after the fall of his uncle Gudrod,
 and collected an army in all haste, and moved with it into
 Sweden.  Aasa had gone to her father before.  King Ingjald was at
 a feast in Raening, when he heard that King Ivar's army was in
 the neighbourhood.  Ingjald thought he had not strength to go
 into battle against Ivar, and he saw well that if he betook
 himself to flight his enemies would swarm around him from all
 corners.  He and Aasa took a resolution which has become
 celebrated.  They drank until all their people were dead drunk,
 and then put fire to the hall; and it was consumed, with all who
 were in it, including themselves, King Ingjald, and Aasa.  Thus
 says Thjodolf: --
      "With fiery feet devouring flame
      Has hunted down a royal game
      At Raening, where King Ingjald gave
      To all his men one glowing grave.
      On his own hearth the fire he raised,
      A deed his foemen even praised;
      By his own hand he perished so,
      And life for freedom did forego."
 45. OF IVAR.
 Ivar Vidfavne subdued the whole of Sweden.  He brought in
 subjection to himself all the Danish dominions, a great deal of
 Saxland, all the East Country, and a fifth part of England.  From
 his race the kings of Sweden and Denmark who have had the supreme
 authority in those countries, are descended.  After Ingjald the
 Evil-adviser the Upsal dominion fell from the Yngling race
 notwithstanding the length of time they could reckon up the
 series of their forefathers.
 When Olaf, King Ingjald's son, heard of his father's end, he went
 with the men who chose to follow him to Nerike; for all the
 Swedish community rose with one accord to drive out Ingjald's
 family and all his friends.  Now, when the Swedes got
 intelligence of him he could not remain there, but went on
 westwards, through the forest, to a river which comes from the
 north and falls into the Venner lake, and is called Klar river. 
 There they sat themselves down, turned to and cleared the woods,
 burnt, and then settled there.  Soon there were great districts;
 which altogether were called Vermeland; and a good living was to
 be made there.  Now when it was told of Olaf, in Sweden, that he
 was clearing the forests, they laughed at his proceedings, and
 called him the Tree-feller.  Olaf got a wife called Solva, or
 Solveig, a daughter of Halfdan Guldtand, westward in Soleyar.
 Halfdan was a son of Solve Solvarson, who was a son of Solve the
 Old, who first settled on these islands.  Olaf Tree-feller's
 mother was called Gauthild, and her mother was Alov, daughter of
 Olaf the Sharp-sighted, king in Nerike.  Olaf and Solva had two
 sons: Ingjald and Halfdan.  Halfdan was brought up in Soleyar, in
 the house of his mother's brother Solve, and was called Halfdan
 There were a great many people who fled the country from Sweden,
 on account of King Ivar; and when they heard that King Olaf had
 got good lands in Vermeland, so great a number came there to him
 that the land could not support them.  Then there came dear times
 and famine, which they ascribed to their king; as the Swedes used
 always to reckon good or bad crops for or against their kings.
 The Swedes took it amiss that Olaf was sparing in his sacrifices,
 and believed the dear times must proceed from this cause.  The
 Swedes therefore gathered together troops, made an expedition
 against King Olaf, surrounded his house and burnt him in it,
 giving him to Odin as a sacrifice for good crops.  This happened
 at the Venner lake.  Thus tells Thjodolf of it: --
      "The temple wolf, by the lake shores,
      The corpse of Olaf now devours.
      The clearer of the forests died
      At Odin's shrine by the lake side.
      The glowing flames stripped to the skin
      The royal robes from the Swedes' king.
      Thus Olaf, famed in days of yore,
      Vanished from earth at Venner's shore."
 Those of the Swedes who had more understanding found that the
 dear times proceeded from there being a greater number of people
 on the land than it could support, and that the king could not be
 blamed for this.  They took the resolution, therefore, to cross
 the Eida forest with all their men, and came quite unexpectedly
 into Soleyar, where they put to death King Solve, and took
 Halfdan Hvitbein prisoner, and made him their chief, and gave him
 the title of king.  Thereupon he subdued Soleyar, and proceeding
 with his army into Raumarike, plundered there, and laid that
 district also in subjection by force of arms.
 Halfdan Hvitbein became a great king.  He was married to Aasa, a
 daughter of Eystein the Severe, who was king of the Upland
 people, and ruled over Hedemark.  Halfdan and Aasa had two sons,
 Eystein and Gudrod.  Halfdan subdued a great part of Hedemark,
 Toten, Hadeland, and much of Westfold.  He lived to be an old
 man, and died in his bed at Toten, from whence his body was
 transported to Westfold, and was buried under a mound at a place
 called Skaereid, at Skiringsale.  So says Thjodolf: --
      "Halfdan, esteemed by friends and foes,
      Receives at last life's deep repose:
      The aged man at last, though late,
      Yielded in Toten to stern fate.
      At Skiringsale hangs o'er his grave
      A rock, that seems to mourn the brave Halfdan,
      to chiefs and people dear,
      Received from all a silent tear."
 Ingjald, Halfdan's brother, was king of Vermeland; but after his
 death King Halfdan took possession of Vermeland, raised scatt
 from it, and placed earls over it as long as he lived.
 Eystein, Halfdan Hvitbein's son, became king after in Raumarike
 and Westfold.  He was married to Hild, a daughter of Eric
 Agnarsson, who was king in Westfold.  Agnar, Eric's father, was a
 son of Sigtryg, king in the Vend district.  King Eric had no son,
 and died while King Halfdan Hvitbein was still in life.  The
 father and son, Halfdan and Eystein, then took possession of the
 whole of Westfold, which Eystein ruled over as long as he lived.
 At that time there lived at Varna a king called Skjold, who was a
 great warlock.  King Eystein went with some ships of war to
 Varna, plundered there, and carried away all he could find of
 clothes or other valuables, and of peasants' stock, and killed
 cattle on the strand for provision, and then went off.  King
 Skjold came to the strand with his army, just as Eystein was at
 such a distance over the fjord that King Skjold could only see
 his sails.  Then he took his cloak, waved it, and blew into it.
 King Eystein was sitting at the helm as they sailed in past
 Jarls, and another ship was sailing at the side of his, when
 there came a stroke of a wave, by which the boom of the other
 ship struck the king and threw him overboard, which proved his
 death.  His men fished up his body, and it was carried into
 Borre, where a mound was thrown up over it, out towards the sea
 at Raden, near Vodle.  So says Thjodolf: --
      "King Eystein sat upon the poop
      Of his good ship: with sudden swoop
      The swinging boom dashed him to hell,
      And fathoms deep the hero fell
      Beneath the brine.  The fury whirl
      Of Loke, Tempest's brother's girl,
      Grim Hel, clutched his soul away;
      And now where Vodle's ocean bay
      Receives the ice-cold stream, the grave
      Of Eystein stands -- the good, the brave!"
 Halfdan was the name of King Eystein's son who succeeded him.  He
 was called Halfdan the Mild, but the Bad Entertainer; that is to
 say, he was reported to be generous, and to give his men as much
 gold as other kings gave of silver, but he starved them in their
 diet.  He was a great warrior, who had been long on viking
 cruises, and had collected great property.  He was married to
 Liv, a daughter of King Dag of Westmare.  Holtar, in Westfold,
 was his chief house; and he died there on the bed of sickness,
 and was buried at Borre under a mound.  So says Thjodolf: --
      "By Hel's summons, a great king
      Was called away to Odin's Thing:
      King Halfdan, he who dwelt of late
      At Holtar, must obey grim Fate.
      At Borre, in the royal mound,
      They laid the hero in the ground."
 Gudrod, Halfdan's son, succeeded.  He was called Gudrod the
 Magnificent, and also Gudrod the Hunter.  He was married to
 Alfhild, a daughter of King Alfarin of Alfheim, and got with her
 half the district of Vingulmark.  Their son Olaf was afterwards
 called Geirstad-Alf.  Alfheim, at that time, was the name of the
 land between the Glommen and Gotha rivers.  Now when Alfhild
 died, King Gudrod sent his men west to Agder to the king who
 ruled there, and who was called Harald Redbeard.  They were to
 make proposals to his daughter Aasa upon the king's account; but
 Harald declined the match, and the ambassadors returned to the
 king, and told him the result of their errand.  Soon after King
 Gudrod hove down his ships into the water, and proceeded with a
 great force in them to Agder.  He immediately landed, and came
 altogether unexpectedly at night to King Harald's house.  When
 Harald was aware that an army was at hand, he went out with the
 men he had about him, and there was a great battle, although he
 wanted men so much.  King Harald and his son Gyrd fell, and King
 Gudrod took a great booty.  He carried away with him Aasa, King
 Harald's daughter, and had a wedding with her.  They had a son by
 their marriage called Halfdan; and the autumn that Halfdan was a
 year old Gudrod went upon a round of feasts.  He lay with his
 ship in Stiflesund, where they had been drinking hard, so that
 the king was very tipsy.  In the evening, about dark, the king
 left the ship; and when he had got to the end of the gangway from
 the ship to the shore, a man ran against him, thrust a spear
 through him, and killed him.  The man was instantly put to death,
 and in the morning when it was light the man was discovered to be
 Aasa's page-boy: nor did she conceal that it was done by her
 orders.  Thus tells Thjodolf of it: --
      "Gudrod is gone to his long rest,
      Despite of all his haughty pride --
      A traitor's spear has pierced his side:
      For Aasa cherished in her breast
      Revenge; and as, by wine opprest,
      The hero staggered from his ship,
      The cruel queen her thrall let slip
      To do the deed of which I sing:
      And now the far-descended king,
      At Stiflesund, in the old bed
      Of the old Gudrod race, lies dead."
 Olaf came to the kingdom after his father.  He was a great
 warrior, and an able man; and was besides remarkably handsome,
 very strong and large of growth.  He had Westfold; for King
 Alfgeir took all Vingulmark to himself, and placed his son
 Gandalf over it.  Both father and son made war on Raumarike, and
 subdued the greater part of that land and district.  Hogne was
 the name of a son of the Upland king, Eystein the Great, who
 subdued for himself the whole of Hedemark, Toten, and Hadeland.
 Then Vermeland fell off from Gudrod's sons, and turned itself,
 with its payment of scatt, to the Swedish king.  Olaf was about
 twenty years old when Gudrod died; and as his brother Halfdan now
 had the kingdom with him, they divided it between them; so that
 Olaf got the eastern and Halfdan the southern part.  King Olaf
 had his main residence at Geirstad.  There he died of a disease
 in his foot, and was laid under a mound at Geirstad.  So sings
 Thjodolf: --
      "Long while this branch of Odin's stem
      Was the stout prop of Norway's realm;
      Long while King Olaf with just pride
      Ruled over Westfold far and wide.
      At length by cruel gout oppressed,
      The good King Olaf sank to rest:
      His body now lies under ground,
      Buried at Geirstad, in the mound."
 Rognvald was the name of Olaf's son who was king of Westfold
 after his father.  He was called "Mountain-high," and Thjodolf of
 Hvina composed for him the "Ynglinga-tal", in which he says: -- 
      "Under the heaven's blue dome, a name
      I never knew more true to fame
      Than Rognvald bore; whose skilful hand
      Could tame the scorners of the land, --
      Rognvald, who knew so well to guide
      The wild sea-horses through the tide:
      The "Mountain-high" was the proud name
      By which the king was known to fame."