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Folk Tales From the Russian, by Verra Xenophontovna Kalamatiano de Blumenthal, [1903], at

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(The numbers refer to pages in the text.)

13. A tsarstvo is the domain of a tsar (czar), which is the title of an absolute monarch in Russia. The word tsar, derived from the Roman name and title, Cæsar, may be translated emperor, king, or prince. A number of words are formed from it by adding different syllables: Tsarevitch, the tsar's son, prince; Tsarevna, the tsar's daughter, princess; Tsaritza, the tsar's wife, queen or empress.

14. Boyar was the word formerly used to mean a Russian nobleman; so a boyar-house is a lord's house; boyarishnia, a lord's daughter. The terem was that part of the boyar-house in which the women's rooms were situated.

16. In Russia there is a fatherly relation existing between the ruler and his subjects which is shown in such phrases as "the tsar father," "their father sovereign," etc. The Russian language has many diminutives, or terms of endearment. For instance, the Tzar is often affectionately called "the little father" by his subjects.

17. "Once said, quickly done." This is the Russian idiom. Observe how much more lively it is than our own "No sooner said than done."

29. The holy icons are pictures or mosaics of Christ, or the Virgin Mary, or of some saint or martyr of the Russian church. In every Russian house there is one or more, hung in a prominent place. Every one who enters the house at once bows and utters a prayer before the icons before he does anything else. This is an old Russian custom which is still kept up by peasants.

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29. Strong green wine. This is the phrase still used by Russian story-tellers to describe the drink which it was an honor to receive from the royal hand. Its strength was magical in that it was not acquired by keeping, but was always the same.

35. For a cloudy day is the Russian idiom very similar to our own.

37. It is a peasant's trade is a Russian saying which means, "It doesn't amount to much."

46. Moujik, a peasant: his duties are those of a farm laborer, yet this phrase would not be a fair translation. This word, which is rendered "tiller of the soil," has no exact equivalent in English.

48. Korolevitch, from korol: king. The endings evitch and evna show descent, korolevitch meaning son of a king; korolevna meaning daughter of a king.

53. Dutch trumpet, i. e., an imported trumpet. Anything foreign is "Dutch" to the Russian peasant.

60. Honey drink, a drink made by fermenting honey and water. It is quite common in Russia, and is about the same as our mead.

65. Russian and other Slavonic tales often have queer endings, similar to the one here given by the story-teller at the end of the story, which is no part of the tale. To the Russian they give a poetic touch, a little sense of confusion and mystery which is certainly delightful.

66. Holy Russia. To the Russian his country is sacred; everything outside is profane by comparison. The phrase suggests the Holy Roman Empire of history, or the Celestial Kingdom of the Chinese.

81. In the peasant's house there is often a large stove of brick or tile on which the family sleep in cold weather.

83. A day in and an equal day out, the Russian idiom. Observe how very like our own.

113. Kabak, a drinking saloon.

115. The ruble is the principal coin of Russia, as

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the dollar is in the United States. It is equal to 100 copecks, and at this time (1903) is worth only about 50 cents.

116. Honey to drink, i. e., fermented honey, or mead. (See note to p. 60.)

118. Baba, a peasant woman, or grandmother; granny. Yaga, witch. Baba Yaga, therefore, is the familiar "Grandmother Witch."

120. Izba, a hut. Izboushka, a tiny hut.

143. Schouba, a large fur-lined cloak.

145. Sarafan, the Russian national costume for women.

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