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p. 191


The following Glossary comprises all the words of the Canienga text. The meanings of these words are given as they were received from the interpreters. For most of them these definitions are confirmed by the dictionaries of Bruyas and Cuoq. Some of the words, which are either archaic forms or peculiar to the Council ceremonies, are not found in those dictionaries; and in a few instances the precise purport of these words must be considered doubtful. In some cases, also, the force of a grammatical inflection or of an affix may not have been correctly ascertained; but it is believed that the vocabulary will be found, in general, sufficiently accurate to be of service to the student who may desire to acquire some knowledge of the Canienga speech.

When the words of John Buck's copy differ in orthography from those of the Johnson MS., the former are added in brackets. Words cited from the dictionary of Bruyas are distinguished by the letter B; those from the lexicon of M. Cuoq by C.


Aerengh [orenh], far. Heren, ahiren, B., far; heren, aheren, C., far away.

Aesahhahiyenenhon [ahesahhahiyenennyonhon], if thou hadst fallen (or perished) by the way. Aha, oha, ohaha, road, path; gaienneñon, B., to fall.

Aesayatyenenghdon [ahesayatyenendon], thou mightest have been destroyed. Gaienneñon, B., to fall; gaiennenton,

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to cause to fall. Aesaiatienenton is in the perf. subj. passive.

Aghsonh, scarcely, hardly, while.

Ai (excl.), hail! oh!

Aihaigh (excl.), hail! ah! oh! More commonly pronounced haihai.

Akare, until.

Akayongh [akayon], ancient. Akaion, C., old, ancient, antique.

Akonikonghkahdeh, they are suffering. Onikonhra, mind, and oga'te, B., raw., i.e., having a sore mind.

Akotthaghyonnighshon, one who belongs to the Wolf clan. See Sathaghyonnighshon.

Akwah, indeed, truly, very, yea.

Akwekon, all.

Are, again, sometimes.

Ayakawen, one would have said. En, B., to say(perf. subj.).

Ayakaweron, one would have thought. Eron, B., to think, to wish.

Ayakotyerenhon, one would be startled, surprised. From katyeren, to wonder, be startled.

Ayawenhenstokenghske [ayawenhensthokenske], may it be true. Eñon, iaweñnon, B.,--iawens, C., to happen; togenske, B., tokenske, C., it is true. "May it happen to be true!"

Ayuyenkwaroghthake [ayoyenkwarodake], there might have been tobacco smoke (apparent). Oienkwa, C., tobacco; gar8t, B., to smoke (ppf. subj.).


Da-edewenhheye [dahedewenheyeh], we may, all die. Genheion, genheie, B., to die (subj. mood).

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Daghsatkaghthoghseronne [dasatkahthoseronne], thou mightest keep seeing. See Tesatkaghthoghserontye. Tasatkahthoscronne (as the word would be spelt in modern orthography) appears to be the aorist subjunctive of atkahthos, to see, in the cislocative and frequentative forms.

Daondayakottondeke, that they may hear. Athonde, to hear.

Deghniwenniyu, joint ruler; lit., they two are masters. See Rawenniyo.

Deghsewenninekenne, thou mayest speak. See Entyewenninekenneh.

Dendewatenonghweradon, in our mutual greetings. See Dewadadenonweronh.

Denghsatkaghdonnyonheke [densatkatonhnyonsekeh], thou wilt be looking about thee. Atkahthos, to see.

Denighroghkwayen [dehnihrohkwayen], let us two smoke. Garok8a, B., une pipe, touche de petun. It is conjectured that the name Iroquois, i. e. "Tobacco-people," may have been derived from this word. See Appendix, Note A.

Dentidewaghneghdoten, we will replace the pine-tree. Ohnehta, pine. Oten, as a suffix (according to M. Cuoq), "serves to express the condition, the manner, the kind, the nature of a thing."

Denyakokwatonghsaeke [tenyakokwennhendonghsaeke], he will be dying. Desakk8atonch, Onon. Dict., I am dying; kanon8enton, B., sick.

Denyontadenakarondako, they shall take off his horns. Onakara, horn.

Desahahishonne, thou art coming troubled.

Desakaghserentonyonne, thou comest weeping. Gagasera, B., tear.

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Desanyatokenh, in thy throat. Oniata, C., throat, neck.

Desawennawenrate, thy voice coming over. From owenna, C., ga8enda or ga8eniza, B., voice, speech, word, and a8enron, B., to pass over. The cislocative prefix de (te) gives the sense of "hither."

Deskenonghweronne [deskenonweronne], I come again to greet and thank. Kannonh8eron, B., to salute any one; kannonh8eronton, to salute or thank by, or for, anything. See ante, page 149, for an analysis of this word.

Detkanoron [detkanorons], all but, almost. From kanoron, costly, important, difficult.

Dewadadenonweronh [dewadatenonweron], mutual greeting. Kannonh8eron, B., to salute any one.

Dewaghsadayenhah, in the shade. Asatagon, B., in secret; asatakon, C., in the dark.

Deyakodarakeh, the two clans. Ohtara, C., tribe, band. (Dual or duplicative form.)

Deyakonakarondon, wearing horns, i. e., being chiefs. Onnagara, B., horn; kannagaront, having horns; gannagaronni, B., être considérable.

Deyughnyonkwarakda [deyohnyonkwaraktah], at the wood's edge; near the thicket. Onniong8ar, B., thorn-bush, bramble; akta, C., beside, near to. The word applies to the line of bushes usually found on the border between the forest and a clearing. With the cislocative prefix de it means "on this side of the thicket."

Deyughsihharaonh [deyohsiharaonh], there is a stoppage. Gasiharon, B., to stop up, to close.

Deyunennyatenyon, hostile agencies, opposing forces. Gannenniani, B., to surprise or defeat a band; gannennaton, ib., to seek to destroy.

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Deyunhonghdoyenghdonh [deyonhonghdoyendonh], mourning wampum. This word appears to be composed of three of Bruyas' radices, viz.,--gaionni, 'wampum belt (collier de porcelaine),--gannonton, to throw wampum for the dead,--and gaienton, to strike, whence skaienton, to return the like, to strike back, and gaientatonton, to give satisfaction for any one wounded or killed; and the meaning will be "wampum given as a satisfaction or consolation for a death."

Dhatkonkoghdaghkwanyon [thatkonkohdakwanyon], in going through. Ongóon, B., to penetrate, to pass through; atongotahkon, B., the place through which one passes.

Doghkara [dohkara], only a few. Tohkara, C., only occasionally, a few, a small number of.

Doka, if, perhaps, either, or. Toka, C., or, if, I don't know.

Donghwenghratstanyonne [donwenratstanyonne], coming over. A8enron, B., to pass over.


Eghdejisewayadoreghdonh [eghdetsisewayadorehdonh], this ye considered, ye deliberated about this. Kaiato`reton, B., to examine, to think, to deliberate about anything.

Eghdeshotiyadoreghton they again considered. (See the preceding word.)

Eghnikatarakeghne [eghnikadarakene], such were the clans. Ehni--, C., for ethoni, there are, so, it is thus that; ohtara, clan, band.

Eghnikonh, thus, in this way.

Eghnonweh, thither, yonder.

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Eghtenyontatitenranyon, they will condole with one another, or, there will be mutual condolence. Gentenron, B., kitenre, C., to pity any one. Atatitenron, B., to deplore one's misery.

Eghyendewasenghte, we will let it fall. Aseñon, B., to fall; asenhton, ib., to cause to fall.

Eghyesaotonnihsen, this was his uncle. See yeshodonnyh.

Endewaghneghdotako, we will pull up a pine tree. From onehta, pine, and gatak8an, gatako, to draw out, B., sub voce At.

Enghsitskodake, thou wilt be resting, thou wilt remain. Gentskòte, B., to be in any place.

Entyewenninekenneh, the words which will be said. From Kawenna, word (q. v.) and en, B., to say.

Enjerennokden (or enyerennokden), they will finish the song; or, the hymn will be finished. Karenna, song, hymn; okte, B., the end; to finish.

Enjeyewendane [enjewendane], they will be comforted. Ga8eienthon, B., to be calm. (This word should probably be written enjeyeweyendane.)

Enjondatenikonghketsko, they will comfort, lit., will raise the mind. Onikonhra, mind, spirit, temper, and gagetsk8an, B., to raise up.

Enjondentyonko. See Enyonghdentionko.

Enjonkwakaronny, it will cause us trouble. Gagaronnion, B., to do harm to any one, to cause him some loss.

Enjonkwanekheren, we shall suffer a loss. Wakenekheren, C., not to know, not to recognize (i.e., we shall cease to see some one).

Enskat, one, once.

Entkaghwadasehhon, will be vexed, excited. Gah8atase, B., to twist, turn round.

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Enwadon, it will be allowed. Watons, fut. enwaton, C., to be possible, feasible, allowed.

Enwadonghwenjadethare, will make a hole through the ground. See Onwentsia.

Enyairon, they will say, one will say. From en, B., fut. egiron, to say.

Enyakaonkodaghkwe [enyakaonkohdakwe], they shall have passed. Ongóon, B., to penetrate, pass through; ongotanni, to cause to penetrate, etc.

Enyakodenghte, they (or one) will be miserable. Genthentéon, B., to be deserving of pity.

Enyakodokenghse [enyakodokenseh], they (or one) will discover. Gatogeñon, gatogens, B., to know.

Enyakohetsde [enyakohetste], he (or one) will go on. Kohetstha, C., to pass beyond.

Enyakonewarontye, they (or one) will be surprised. Ganne8aron, B., to surprise.

Enyeharako, they will carry it. Gaha, B., to carry off

Enyeken, they will see. Gagen, B., to see.

Enyenikonghkwendarake, they will be mourning. Onikonhra (q. v.) and gag8entaron, stretched on the ground (i.e., the mind dejected).

Enyerennokden. See Enjerennokden.

Enyerighwanendon [enyerihwanondon], they will ask (or, will wonder). From karihwa (q. v.) and gannendon, B., to wonder, or annonton, to seek. Garihwanonton, B., to ask the news.

Enyerighwawetharho, the business will be closed. Karihwa (q. v.) and otarhon, B., to grasp; kotarhos, C., to grasp, to stop by grasping.

Enyonderennoden, they will sing it thus. Karenna, q. v. and --oten, C., which "serves to express the condition, manner, kind, or nature of a thing."

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Enyonghdentyonko, he will walk to and fro. Atention, B., to go away.

Enyononghsaniratston, it will strengthen the house. Kanonsa, house, and ganniraton, B., to strengthen.

Enyontsdaren, they will weep. Katstaha, C., to weep, to shed tears.

Enyontyerenjiok, they will be startled. From katyeren, to wonder, to be surprised.

Enyurighwadatye [enyorihwadatye], it will continue: the affair will go on. From kariwa (q. v.) as a verb, in the progressive form and future tense.

Etho, thus, so.

Ethone, then.

Ethononweh, thither.


Hasekenh, because. Aseken, C., for, because.

Henskerighwatonte [enskerighwatonte], I will frustrate their purposes. From karihwa (q. v.) and aton`ton, B., to cause to lose, to mislead.

Henyondatsjistayenhaghse [henyondatstsistayenhase], they will hold a council, lit., they will make a council fire. From katsista, fire; gatsistaien, B., to hold council, to light the council fire.

Hone, also. See Ony.


Ie [iih], I.

Iese [ise], thou, ye.

Iesewengh, ye have said. En, B., to say.

Issy [hissih], yonder, there. Isi, C., there.


Jadadeken, thy brother (or brothers). Tsiatatekenha, C., ye two are brothers.

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Jadakweniyosaon (or jatagweniyosaon), thou wert the ruler, or, ye were the rulers. See Jadakweniyu.

Jadakweniyu, thou art the ruler, or, ye are the rulers. See note to Sec. 28, ante, p. 152.

Jatatawhak, father and son, lit., son of each other. Gahawak, B., to have for child (reciprocal form).

Jathondek (or jatthontek), listen! hearken thou. Imperative sing. of kathontats, C., athontaton, B., to hear.

Jatthontenyonk, keep listening! continue to hear! The frequentative form of jatthontek.

Ji [tsi], that, that which, wherein. See Jini.

Jidenghnonhon [jidennon], as, like as. Tennon, C., and also, but.

Jinayawenhon, the consequences, the results, lit. what would happen. Eñon, B.,--iawens, C., to happen.

Jinesadawen [tsinesadawen]. See Jinisadawen.

Jini [tsini], that which, such, so, so much.

Jinihotiyerenh, what they did. From Jini (q. v.) and --kierha, --wakieren, C., to act, do, say. This verb is always preceded by some particle, such as kenni (see how), tsini (that which) and the like.

Jinikawennakeh, these the words. See Jini and kawenna.

Jinisayadawen [tsinesayadawenh], that which has befallen you. Eñon, B., to happen; gaiata8eñon, to happen to some one.

Jiniyuneghrakwah [tsiniyohnerakwa], this solemn event. Gonneragoon, B., to wonder; jonnerag8at, that is wonderful. See yuneghrakwah.

Jinonweh [tsinonweh], thither, whereto.

Jiratighrotonghkwakwe [tsiradirohtonhkwakwe], where they, used to smoke. Gar8t, B., to smoke; otonkwa, C., flame. "Where they lighted their pipes."

Jisanakdade [tsisanakdate], from thy seat. See Kanakta.

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Jiyudakenrokde [tsiodakenrokde], by the fireplace, near the ashes. Akenra, ashes; okte, end, edge.

Jiyathondek, listen! hearken! Imperative dual of kathontats, I hear. See jathondek.

Jodenaghstahhere, they made additions to a house; they added a frame. Gannasta, B., poles for making a house; onasta, C., a framework; kaheren, B. to be upon.

Joskawayendon, there is again wilderness, waste ground. Gaienthon, B., to have fields.


Kadon, I say, I speak. Igatonk (sub voce En), B., I say; katon, G, to say.

Kady [kadi], therefore, then. Kati, C., then, consequently.

Kadykenh, because. See Katykenh.

Kaghnekonyon, floods. From ohneka, water, in the frequentative form. Gannegonnion, B., there is much water.

Kaghyaton, it is written. Kiatons, C., to write. M. Cuoq says: "the perfect participle takes an h: kahiaton, written, it is written," Gaiatare, B., to paint.

Kajatthondek, listen! See Jathondek.

Kakeghrondakwe, they were collected; were assembled. Gageron, B., to be together, or, to put things or persons somewhere.

Kanaghsdajikowah [kanastatsikowah], great framework, great building. From kanasta, frame, and kowa, great.

Kanakaryonniha, on a pole. Gannagare, B., pole, long stick.

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Kanakdakwenniyukeh, on the principal seat. From kanakta (q. v.), and atakwenniio, C., principal.

Kanakdiyuhake, the place (or seat) may be good. From kanakta, place, seat, and --iyu, good (subjunctive mood).

Kanakta, mat,--hence couch, bed, seat, place.

Kaneka, where, somewhere.

Kanekhere, I believe, I suppose; surely, certainly. Probably from eron, igere, B., to think, or suppose.

Kanhonghdakdeh [kanonhdakdeh], by the wall, or side of the house. Onnhonta, wall of house, of a cabin; akte, beside, athwart.

Kanikonrashon, the minds, a plural form of Onikonhra, (q. v.)

Kanikonrakeh, in mind. See Onikonhra.

Kanonghsakdatye [kanonsakdatye], outside the house. Kanonsakta, near the house; from Kanonsa, house, and akta, near, beside. The progressive affix tye gives the meaning of "passing near the house."

Kanonghsakonshon [kanonsakonshon], in the house.

Kanonsa, house.

Kanoron, important, valuable, serious, difficult, painful, afflicting.

Karenna, song, hymn, chant.

Karighwakayonh, in ancient times. From Karihwa (q. v.), and akaion, old. See Orighwakayongh.

Karighwatehkwenh [karihwahtehkonh], this word, which the interpreters rendered simply ceremony, probably means "the fire-kindling act," from Karihwa (q. v.), and atehken, or atekha (ategen, atexa, B.), to burn.

Karihwa or karighwa (garih8a, B., kariwa, oriwa, C.), thing, affair, business, action, news, word. This

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word, in its root-form of rihwa (riwa) or riho, enters largely into compounds having reference to business, law, office, news, belief, and the like.

Karonta, tree, log, trunk, post.

Kathonghnonweh. [kathounonweh], I fail, I lose my way. Atoñon, B., to lose one's self, to go astray.

Kathonghdeh, away, out of sight. Atonhton, B. (sub voce atoñon), to cause to lose, to mislead.

Katykenh [kadikenh], how then? Kati, C., then (done); ken, interrogative particle.

Kawenna (ga8enda, ga8enna, B.; owenna, C.), word, voice, language, speech.

Kayanerenh, peace, goodness, justice, law, league. Wakianere, ioianere, C., to be good, right, proper (i.e., noble); roianer, he is a chief. Kaianerensera, law, government, rule, decree, ordinance. See ante, p. 33.

Kayanerenghkowa, great peace, great law, the great league. Kayanerenh (q. v.) and kowa, great.

Kehaghshonha, kehhasaonhah, recent, lately.

Ken (for kento) here.

Kendenyethirentyonnite, here we will place them. See Kenderentyonnih.

Kenderentyonnih, this is lying here. Probably from Ga renton, B., to hang down, and ionni, to be extended or laid out.

Kendonsayedane (?) returning here, (qu., pausing here). Gasaien, B., to be slow; gasaiatanne, to make slow.

Kenenyondatyadawenghdate, one shall be murdered here. A8enthon, B., to kill; Katawenthos, C., to kill many people, to massacre.

Kenhendewaghnatatsherodarho, we will attach a pouch. Gannata, B., little bag; otarhon, to grasp.

Kenkaghnekonyon, here floods. See kaghnekonyon.

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Kenkarenyakehrondonhah, being hidden here among logs. Gagarennion, B., to remove away; Karonta, tree, log.

Kenkine [kenki], thus, in this way.

Kenkisenh [kenhkense], thus, in this way.

Kenkontifaghsoton, here things lying in ambush.

Kenne, thus.

Kennikanaghsesha, small strings of wampum. Kenni--ha, C., small, kanahses, (?) a string of wampum.

Kensane, but, however.

Kentekaghronghwanyon [kondekahronwanyon], here obstacles. Ga`ronhon, B., to place (or to be) athwart.

Kentewaghsatayenha, here in the dark. Asatagon, C., in the darkness; asatagon, B., in secret.

Kenteyurhoton, here to this opening (or cleared space in a forest). Karha, forest.

Kenthoh (kento, C.), here.

Kenwaseraketotanese, here the uplifted hatchet, From ken, here, wasera (asera, osera), hatchet, and gaget8t, B., to be shown, to appear above.

Kenwedewayen, we place it here. From ken, here, and gaien, B., to put in any place.

Kenyoteranentenyonhah, there is a crevice here. From ken, here, and ateronnonte, B., having space, or showing light between two things not well joined.

Kenyutnyonkwaratonnyon, here many thorns. From ken, here, and onniong8ar, B., thorns, brambles. The word is in the frequentative form.

Konnerhonyon [konneronyon], they keep thinking. Eron, B., to think, to will. (Frequentative form.)

Konyennetaghkwert [konyennedaghkwen], my child, my offspring. From ennet, B., to hold an infant in one's bosom. "Goñyennetak8an, says the Canienga to

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the Oneida," B. Konyennetahkwen is properly a verb of the third conjugation, in the imperfect tense, and the 1:2 transition: "I nursed thee as a child." Here it is used idiomatically as a noun.

Kowa, kowane, great.


Nadehhadihne, it was their number. See Natejonhne.

Nadekakaghneronnyonghkwe [nedekakanneronnyonkwe], it was commonly looked at. Kagannere, B., to see (frequentative form, imperfect tense).

Nai (exclam.), hail! oh! ah! (It is the exclamation ai or hai, with the particle ne prefixed.)

Nakonikonra, their mind. See Onikonhra.

Nakwah, (?) indeed. See Akwah.

Natehotiyadoreghtonh, they decided on. Kajato`reton, B., to examine, think, deliberate about anything.

Natejonhe, it was your number; this was the size of your class. Teionihes, C., large, wide; "ken ok nateionhes, not larger than that."

Nayakoghstonde [nayakostonde], by reason of, the pretext being. Gastonton, B., to make a pretext of anything.

Nayawenh, it may be. Eñon, yaweñon, B., --iawens, C., to happen. See Nenyawenne.

Nayeghnyasakenradake, (?) having a white neck. Onniasa, B., neck; gagenrat, B., white.

Ne, the, this, that, who, which (rel.). A demonstrative and relative particle, variously used, but always giving a certain emphasis to the word which it precedes.

Nedens, either, or.

Nekenne (or ne kenh ne), thus.

Nene, the, this, that, these, those, etc. (an emphatic reduplication of ne).

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Nenyakoranne, they will keep on, persist, go so far as. Gara`on, garanne, B., to find any one; keras, kerane, C., to approach any one, to come to him.

Nenyawenne, it may be; it will happen; it shall be done. Future of Nayawenh, q. v.

Nenyerighwanendon, they will inquire. See Enyerighwanendon.

Neok, nok, and, also. (Contracted from ne and ok.)

Neony [neoni], also. See Ne and Oni.

Niateweghniserakeh, every day. From niate, each, every, and wehnisera (or wennisera) day, with the locative participle ke.

Nitthatirighwayerathaghwe [nithariwayerathakwe], they used to do the work. From karihwa, business, and gaieren, B., to do. (Imperfect tense.)

Nityakwenontonh, they search, inquire, pry into. Annonton, gannenton, B., to seek, search, interrogate.

Niuterenhhatye (?) it was startling. From katyeren, to wonder, to be startled.

Niwa, extent, size, number.

Niyakoghswathah, they are mischievous, troublesome. Gas8aton, B., être méchant.

Niyawehkowa [niawenhkowa], great thanks. Niawen, C., thanks; kowa, great.

Niyawennonh, it happened. See Nayawenh.

Niyenhhenwe [niyenhhenwe], in the future. --nenwe relates to the future, C.

Niyieskahhaghs, being borne. Gaha, B., to carry away.

Niyonsakahhawe, he is carried. Gahawi, B., to bring.

Noghnaken, hereafter, afterwards, in later times. See Oghnaken.

Nonkenh, it may be. Eñon, B., to happen.

Nonkwaderesera, our grandchildren. See Saderesera.

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Nonwa, now.

Nyare, while, previously. Niare, C., beforehand.


Oghentonh, in the first place, foremost, firstly. Gahenton, B., to go first; ohenton, C., before, foremost, formerly.

Oghnaken [onaken], afterwards. Ohnaken, C., behind, backwards, afterwards.

Oghniyawenhonh, what has happened. From ohni, C., what? and iawens, to happen.

Oghnonekenh, dismayed (?) Kannonhiannion, B., to fear, to be alarmed.

Oghseronnih [onhseronni], together. Oseronni, C., together.

Oghsonteraghkowa [aghsonderahkowah], disease, pestilence.

Ohhendonh; see Oghentonh.

Ok, and, also, indeed.

Okaghserakonh [okaserakonh], in tears. Gagasera, B., tears.

Okaghsery [okaseri], tears. Okaseri, C., tear, from Okahra, eye, and keri, liquid.

Onakara, horn.

Onekwenghdarihenh, in crimson (i.e., in blood). Onig8entara, B., red; onnig8ensa, blood.

Onenh [onen]. Now; at last; finally.

Onghteh [onhteh], perhaps, probably.

Onghwa, now, at present. Onwa, C., now. (Same as Nonwa.)

Onghwajok, presently.

Onghwenjakonh [onwenjakon], into the earth. See Onwentsia.

Onidatkon, deadly.

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Onikonhra, mind, character, disposition, thought, opinion, sentiment. Gandigon`ra, B., esprit, pensée.

Onkwaghsotshera [onkwasotsera], our forefathers. The root is sot, meaning grandparent. Rak`sotha, C., my grandfather; ak`sotha, my grandmother; onkwa, our; sera, the "crement," generalizing the word.

Onkwaghsotsherashonhkenha, our deceased forefathers. See Onkwaghsotshera. Shon (son) is the plural suffix; kenha, deceased, "the late" (the French feu).

Onok, and, and then. See Ony, Ok and Neok.

Onokna, and then.

Onwa, now. See Onghwa.

Onwentsia, earth, land, field, ground.

Ony [oni], also. See Neony.

Orighokonha, few words. From karihwa (q. v.), and okonha, an affix indicating a restricted plural.

Orighwakayongh [oriwakayon], in ancient times. See Karihwa and Akayongh.

Orighwakwekonh [oriwakwekon], all business, all matters, all the rules. See Karihwa and Akwekon.

Owenna. See Kawenna.

Oya [oyah], another, another thing.

Oyata (or oyada), body, person, some one, self; Oiata, C., body, person; gaiata, B., living thing.

Oyeukondonh, men, warriors (obsolete).


Radiyats. See Ratiyats.

Rakowanenh, he is chief (lit. he is a great one). From kowanen, to be great; root, kowa, great.

Ranyaghdenghshon [ranyadenhshon], he is of the Tortoise clan. Keniahten, C., to be of the Tortoise band.

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Ratikowanenghskwe, they were great. 3d person, plural, imperfect of kowanen, to be great. See Rakowanenh.

Ratiyanarenyon [radiyanaronnyon], their many footmarks, or traces. Gaianna, B., oiana, C., track, trace (frequentative form). Gaiannaranyon, B., there are many tracks.

Ratiyats, they call it. 3d person, plural, of Gaiason, B., to name, to call.

Raweghniseronnyh [rawenniseronni], he appoints (lit. makes) the day. From weghnisera, day, and konnis, C., to make.

Rawenniyo [rawenniyoh], God (lit. he is a master). Keweniio, C., to be master. See Appendix, note B.

Raxhottahyh, my forefathers. Rak`sotha, C., my grandfather.

Roghskenrakeghdekowah, he is a war-chief Oskenra, C., war; roskenrakehte, warrior; kowa, great.

Rodighskenrakeghdethaghkwe [rodiskenrakedetahkwe], they were warriors. 3d pers. pl. imperfect of roskenrakehte, he is a warrior.

Rokhawah, his son. Gaha8ak, B., to have for child; niha8ak, my child.

Rokwahhokowah, he is the great wolf Okwaho, wolf; kowa, great.

Ronarasehsen, they are cousins. See Yeshonarase.

Ronatennossendonghkwe [rondennoshentonhkwe], they used to meet (lit., to fraternize). 3d pers. pl. imperfect of atennossen, to be brother and sister.

Ronenh, they said. En, B.. to say (used only in the preterite).

Roneronh, they thought. Eron, B., to think.

Ronkeghsotah, my forefathers. See Onkwaghsotshera and Raxhottahyh.

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Roskerewake, he is of the Bear clan. Akskerewake, C., to be of the band of the Bear.

Rotirighwison, they made the rule, they decided. See Karihwa. Garih8ison, B., to finish a matter, to conclude.


Saderesera, thy grandchildren. Atere, grandchild; sera, the crement, generalizing the word. See Onkwaghsotshera.

Sahondakon, in thy ears. Ahonta, B., ear.

Sanekenh, although, yet, nevertheless.

Sanekherenhonh, thou art losing.

Sanheghtyensera, thy women, thy womankind. Gannhetien, B., woman; sera, the generalizing affix. See Saderesera.

Sanikonra, thy mind. See Onikonhra.

Sathaghyonnishon, thou art of the Wolf clan. Tahionni, one of the Wolf clan.

Senirighwisaanonghkwe, ye two were the founders. See Sewarighwisaanonghkwe.

Seniyatagweniyohkwe, ye two were the principals. See Jadakweniyu; the affix kwe indicates the past tense.

Sewarighwisaanonghkwe [sewarihwisahanonkwe], ye established, ye were the founders. From karihwa, q. v., and gason, B., to finish, to consummate. Garihwisaani, B., to accomplish a work, to complete a business.

Sewatarighwakhaonghkwe, ye were combined in the work, ye joined heartily in the business. From karihwa, (q. v.) and gagaon, B., to find good; gatih8agáon, B., to like the affair.

Seweghne [sewenghne], ye said. En, B., to say.

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Seweghniserathagh, for a time, lit., for a day. See Weghniserade.

Seweryenghskwe, ye who were comrades. (?) Probably from Oeri, C., friend, comrade,--here a verb in the imperfect tense.

Shehaweh [shehawa], thy child, or children. See Rohhawah.

Shekonh, yet, still. Sekon, C., still, moreover.

Shihonadewiraratye, they with their children (lit., they kept on producing young ones). From yodewirare, a fowl hatching.

Skaendayendon, again a waste place. Oyente, B., woods; gaienthon, to have fields. (Reiterative form).

Skarenhesekowah, a lofty tree; lit., a great tree-top. From garenha, B., tree-top, ese (suffix) long, high, and kowa, great.

Skennen, well, easily, peacefully, pleasantly.

Skennenji, quite well, very peacefully, safely. From skennen and tsi, C. an augmentative affix.


Tehhodidarakeh, the two clans. See Tekadarakehne.

Tehotyatakarorenh, acting in two capacities (lit., a person divided). From oiata, person, and tioren, B., to split.

Tekadarakehne, there were two clans, or, of the two clans. From otara or katara, clan or totem (in the reduplicate form and past tense).

Tesatkaghthoghserontye [tesatkahthohserontye], thou sawest in coming. Katkathos, C., to see, look. The cislocative, frequentative, and progressive forms are all combined in this expressive word--"you kept seeing as you came."

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Thadenyedane (?), he will stand. Gataon, B., to raise himself upright.

Thadenseghsatkaghthonnyonheke [thadensehsatkatonnyonheke], thou mayest look about thee. Katkathos, C., to look (frequentative form, subjunctive mood).

Thadetyatroghkwanekenh, let us two smoke together, From garok8a, B., kahrokwa, C., a pipe. Bruyas gives the derivative form t8atrok8annegen, but does not explain it; it evidently means, "let us (pl.) smoke together."

Thensadondeke, thou wilt hear. Athonte, athontaton, B., kathontats, C., to hear, obey, consent.

Thienkahhawe, will carry. Gahawi, B., to bring.

Thisayatatirhehon [thisayadadirhehon], thou arrivest.

Thisennekwakenry, thou art sitting in blood. Ganneg8e, B., blood, and gagenrion, to roll, to wallow.

Thiwakwekonh [ohtihwakwekonh], all around.

Thiyaensayeken, they will see it again. Gagen, B., to see.

Thiyenjidewatyenghsaeke [thienjidewatyenseke], we shall have reached home; lit., we shall have taken a seat. Atient, atien, B., to sit down.

Tsini; see Jini.

Tsisaronkatah, thy hearing. Arongen, B., to hear, to listen; arongaton, B., to hear by anything.

Tyewenninekenne, he will speak some words. See Entyewenninekenneh.

Tyeyadakeron, bodies are lying. Oyata, body; gageron, B., to be in any place.

Tyoghnawatenghjihonh [dyonawaghdehtsihonh], a swift current. Ohnawa, C., current, swift stream of water; ganna8tetan, B., swift river; tsihon, an augmentative suffix,--"exceedingly swift."

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Waahkwadewayendonh, taking care, carefully. Ate8eyenton, B., to take care, to do well.

Waghontenhnonterontye, or Wahhondennonterontye, they were as brothers thenceforth. Atennonteron, to be brothers. The word is in the aorist indicative, 3d pers. pl., progressive form (indicated by the termination tye).

Wahhoronghyaronnon, he put away the clouds. From aronhia, sky, heaven, cloud.

Wakarighwakyone [wakarihwakayonne], it has become old. See Karighwakayonh.

Wakatyerenkowa, I was greatly surprised. From katyeren, to wonder, or be startled, and kowa, greatly.

Wakonnyh [wakonnikih], woman, womankind. (Obsolete.)

Wakwenekwenghdarokwanyon, we have washed off the bloodstains. Garag8entara, B., blood, and garag8an, to take away, or garag8egan, to efface.

Wakwennyonkoghde, I have stopped for you (as tears). Probably from ganniong, B., the nose; kannionkon, to bleed from the nose, i.e., flowing from the nose.

Watidewennakarondonyon, we have put the horns on him (i.e., made him a chief). Onnagara, B., horn; gannagaronni, B., être considérable.

Watyakwasiharako, we have removed the obstruction, we have unstopped. Gasiharong8an, B., to unstop (desboucher).

Watyonkwentendane, we have become wretched, or poor. Genthentéon, B., to be worthy of compassion.

Wedeweyennendane (see under Wete--).

Wedewennakeraghdanyon (see under Wete--).

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Weghniserade [wenniserade], to-day. Ennisera, B., day; nonwa wenniserate, C., to-day.

Wetewayennendane, we have finished. Gaweyennentáon, B., to rest, to cease from working.

Wetewennakeraghdanyon [wedewennakeratanyon], we have made the signs, we have gone through the ceremonies. Ganneraton, B., "se servir de règle."


Yadayakonakarondatye, he may be going with horns. From onakara, horn (progressive form, subjunctive mood).

Yadehninhohhanonghne, they two guarded the door, they two were the doorkeepers. Gannhoha, B., door; gannonna, to guard.

Yaghdekakoghsonde [yaghdegagonhsonde], invisible, (lit., without face); from yahte, not, and kakonhsa (okonsa) face.

Yaghnonwenh, never. Iah-nonwenton, C., never. From Iah (yah) not, and nonwa or onwa, now.

Yakwenronh, we say. En, B., to say.

Yatehhotinhohhataghkwen, they were together at the doorway (i.e., they were the doorkeepers). Gannhoha, B., door; atakon, B. (sub voce At), "ce dans quoi il y a."

Yatenkarighwentaseron, to finish the business. From karihwa (q. v.) and awentas, to finish.

Yejisewahhawitonh, ye have taken it with you. Gaha8i, B., to bring; gaha8iton, to take away.

Yejisewatkonseraghkwanyon, ye have it as a pillow. Esakonserak8a, B., thou wilt use as a pillow.

Yejisewayadkeron [yetsisewayatakeron], ye are laid together. Gageron, B., to be together, to place together.

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Yejodenaghstahhere, they added a frame. See Jodennaghstahhere.

Yendewanaghsende, we will drop (or let fall) into it. Aseñon (?), B., to fall; asenhton, to cause to fall.

Yenjontahidah, they will follow. Gataxon, gataxi, B., to run.

Yenyontatenontshine, they are to be led by the hand. Probably from gannonna, B., to keep, and atsi, comrade.

Yenyontatideron, they shall be placed. Genteron, B., to put any animate thing in any place.

Yeshodonnyh, or Yeshotonnyh, his uncle (properly, "his father's younger brother"); also, as pl., his uncles. `Atonni, C., a relative on the father's side. The prefix yes, in which the signs of the translocative and reiterative forms are combined, gives the sense of "the next younger (uncle) but one."

Yeshohawah, or Yeshohawak, his next younger child but one. See Rohhawah, and Yeshodonnyh.

Yeshonadadekenah, or Yeshondadekenah, they are brothers. Rontatekenha, C., they are brothers together. This word is made up of the prefix ye, the sign of the translocative form; s, of the reiterative form (see Yeshodonnyh); ron or rona, the plural pronoun (they); tate, the sign of the reciprocal form; ken, younger brother; and ha, an affectionate diminutive affix, generally added to words expressing relationship.

Yeshonarase, his second cousin (lit., they are cousins). Arase, cousin. See Yeshodonnyh.

Yeshonaraseshen, he was their cousin. See Yeshonarase.

Yeshotiriwayen, they have again referred the business. From karihwa, q. v.

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Yetsisewanenyadanyon, ye are in your graves. Perhaps from onenya, stone,--ye are under the stones.

Yetsisewanonwadaryon, ye have taken your intellects (lit., brains) with you. Ononwara, C., brain, head.

Yetsisewennitskagwanion, ye have placed it under you. Ennitsk8are, B., to be seated on anything.

Yondonghs, it is called; they call it. Katon, C., to say.

Yonkwakaronny, they are wasting, or injuring, us. Gagaronnion, B., to do harm to any one; to cause him some loss.

Yonkwanikonghtaghkwenne [yonkwennikondakwenne], we depended on them.

Yontkwatkennison, we are assembled. Atkennison, B., to be assembled.

Yotdakarahon [yotdarahon], things falling on one. Ga`ráon, B., to fall upon.

Yoyanere, it is good, it is well. From the root yaner, noble. See Kayanerenh.

Yuneghrakwah, solemn event. See Jiniyuneghrakwah.