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The Religion of the Luiseño Indians of Southern California, by Constance Goddard DuBois, [1908], at


At the present day no trace of tribal consciousness exists; but a division can still be traced into what may be called clans; though the little information gained is so vague in character that no definite conclusion can be based upon it.

The interpreter thus tries to explain the division into these parties or clans. José's uncle has one name, and José's father has another; but the latter and others belong to the uncle's "party." They do not have to be related, but anyone can join the party who wants to. It is like church membership, he says,

p. 161

or like Masons and Oddfellows. Some chiefs did not have many ceremonial objects, and did not perform any ceremonies: but to José's uncle descended the hereditary performance of Mani, the toloache ceremony. In earliest times the family name was Naxyum. Now they are called Calac. When they scattered from Temecula, the Naxyum family brought their tamyush, toloache bowls, with them, and the other families did not bring any, or not many; and they brought the fire songs to put out the fire in the toloache ceremony: and they brought an eagle with them; rind as they came along they put him in one of the cañons, and he is still there. They used to catch the young ones in this place for the ceremony. The Naxyum were a big family of brothers. They were all related. After they had found there was to be death, at the death of Ouiot, the Naxyum took the tamyush, while others did not take anything. They would sing the songs of Munival to tell how they traveled from Temecula to Rincon, where they now live as the Calacs.

The people from Temecula called themselves Exvayum. 295 Temecula was ruined after Ouiot died, so they scattered in groups. The Diegueños went off with a separate language when they left Temecula.

The groups were originally related, but they kept changing names, so that they have not the same names now, but have the same ancestors.

The songs show who are related. Only those of the same group can sing the same songs. José's father's traveling songs are different from Lucario's. The songs descended from father to son and the old people were eager to teach the songs to those in the same family, but not to outsiders. But if an old man is the last of his line, like Lucario, it is then permissible for him to leave his songs to another in a different "party."

When Albañas was a boy, his father was killed, and his mother died soon after. He was brought up by a circle of old people, each of Whom in turn instructed him in the family songs.

Some of the chiefs had very few ceremonies, did not know much. Only the most important ones could lead the ceremonies.


161:295 Exvayam (x German ch), people of Exva, a place near Temecula.—S.

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