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The Religion of the Luiseño Indians of Southern California, by Constance Goddard DuBois, [1908], at

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Among the Luiseños the relation of ceremonial songs to distinct series with special meanings and uses can still be clearly traced. The most important of these series were used in the Image ceremony, as has been stated above. The complete list, as far as obtained, 57 may be given as follows:

Pikmakvul series, songs of death.

Temenganesh series, songs of seasons.

Chum Towi or Kwinamish series, songs of the spirit. Kamalum series, songs of the First People.

Kish series, songs of the house.

Nokwanish series, songs in memory of the dead.

Totowish series, songs of the Chungichnish avengers.

Munival series, songs of landmarks.

Nyachish series, songs of people cursing their enemies.

Anut series, songs of the ant-ordeal, now used in other ceremonies.

Sungamish, the finishing songs.

Topasish, men's dance songs.

Then the songs of the individual for lesser ceremonial occasions, shaman's songs for rain-making, for fair weather; for harvest; for good luck, doctoring; bad luck, death to enemies; for deeds of wonder as instruction to boys, and so on. These include songs of Chatish, songs of Numkish, songs of Tuknish, all of which are Chungichnish songs.

For the benefit of the special student who may be interested, a description of those obtained on graphophone records follows:

Record 369. 58 Song of Temenganesh, Songs of Seasons. The words as spelled by José Albañas or Albañez, the singer, in Spanish orthography, are: Achonacua tuganecancua a guanaguot, 59 etc. This song means: "All these I have mentioned and Wanawut. I have mentioned all the names of the seasons and stars

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and Wanawut. I am proud of my songs. I have believed in my songs." All danced as they sang this song, which is part of the second series in the Image ceremony.

Record 370. Song of Temenganesh. By Albañas. Luiseño words: Helemocme temenganesh apangaula, etc. 60 This is a women's song. It mentions the water and mud in which are Wahawut, the frog, and Karout, 61 the earth-worm. Wahawut hid away Temenganesh, i.e., frogs disappear and are unheard at certain seasons, and at a certain month come out and begin to sing.

Record 371. Song of Temenganesh. By Albañas. Luiseño words: Yjason noqui son notelaneba, etc. Month of Novoyamul. 62 When Tukmit the Sky grows old. When Tomaiyowit, the Earth, has her menses (the green scum, fresh water algae that appear on ponds). Eagles moult. This song mentions the months 62 Tasmoimal and Taunamal. "What shall I say about my home and about my talks?" Women dance to this song.

Record 372. Song of Temenganesh. By Albañas. Luiseño words: Potoyau yauca anmal, etc. The ant has his season. 63 He has opened his house. When the days grow warm he comes out. The spider has her little house and her hill. The butterfly has her house, pohota. 64 (This word refers to the sacred enclosure of brush made in circular form, in which the religious ceremonies were held.) Wiskun, chipmunk, and also the larger squirrel, yet have the mavakul, 65 (log hollowed out and used for holding acorns. The allusion is to the log which the chipmunk carried when he was one of the First People, a log ten men could not lift, on which they laid the body of Ouiot when they burned it.) The song on the record ends here. The rest of the song is as follows: Atachama, 66 a bird, and another bird are mentioned.

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[paragraph continues] It is time for the eagle to fly off. It is time for the acorns to fall from the trees.

Record 373. Song of Temenganesh. By Albañas. Luiseño words: Memec no asunecua awawik, 67 etc., "I am something doing." This is Nemoimal season. The bear sheds his hair and says, I am fat. The whale, koyowut, now gets fat. The deer grows fat.

Record 374. Song of Temenganesh. By Albañas. Luiseño words: Tomamec uchanat potoblecala, 68 etc. "North the elk has young." In the north at this season uchanat has her young; and pashakut, 69 the elk, has young. In the east pahut, 70 the mountain sheep, and chakla, 71 a desert animal, bring forth young. In the south awawut and tamyasowut bring forth young. In the west the ocean is hunauish, 72 tossing its waves back and forth. In the center, "here," the deer sheds his hair, and the acorn grows fat. The sky "sheds," that is, changes color. The clouds of winter are swept away. Tupush is sky. Nahonit also means sky. Tukmit is the personified sky. 73 This is the season of Pahoyomal, when snakes crawl out, frogs sing, trees are juicy and ready to put out leaves, in early spring.

Record 375. Song of Temenganesh. By Albañas. First part of song: Whaimul piwamul (primeval stage of being, with some reference to the Milky Way, 74) lies back extended making a humming noise. Second part: I recognized afar off, from the door of my house, Nahut, 75 the stick used to club Coyote, 76 and Kashlapish, the ringing stones used in the girls’ ceremony. Third part: I look east. I look up. Look, Nükülish (Antares) rises.

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[paragraph continues] Yungavish (buzzard, Altair) rises. Ahuta (Milky Way) is rising at the same time. Aylucha 77 (Venus) is rising.

Record 376. Song of Temenganesh. By Albañas. Luiseño words: Asguot pela telamoc, 78 etc., "Ashwut was saying." The eagle, ashwut, talked about the stars rising. Kariya 79 Ahuta, rises Milky Way. Antares and Altair rise.—In the west the eagle mentions the things in the ocean.—The singer does not know what these words mean. The Chungichnish worship with its songs was brought to the mountain Indians from the islands of the ocean. He mentions Harasa, Catalina Island, and Kimki, San Clemente Island. 80

Record 377. Song of Temenganesh. By Albañas. Mulmusña hete pela kamai temet, etc. The sun rose at Mulmus. 81 Antares rose too.

Record 378. Song of Temenganesh. Wunal Pewipwe tiwium, 82 etc. "That San Bernardino mountain see," Sulkul, the fall cricket, 83 said. (Sulkul was the first basket-maker, according to one version of the creation myth.) "Look at Pewipwe; look at (naming all the other high mountains that were born as First People). The acorns are ripe. Look at Pawi Chawima, 84 (Cahuilla); Kupa Kawima, 85 (a hill at Warner's ranch), I’pa 86

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[paragraph continues] (Volcan); Naavo Waheto, 87 (hills south and east of Potrero); Malava, 88 (Palomar Mountain)." The song mentions the cold wind of early morning when Antares rises, at the time when all the Indians take a bath. This was the rule. Everyone must bathe daily.

Record 379. By Albañas. After the Temenganesh series comes the Kwinamish series, songs of the spirit. In the Image ceremony the songs of Pikmakvul, songs of death, each one mentioning Ouiot, are sung for six or seven hours; then Temenganesh, Kwinamish, and others. In the Girls’ ceremony the Kwinamish songs come second.

First song of Kwinamish. This is like talking to themselves, and sending their spirit to the Milky Way. This song tells of the council the people held after the death of Ouiot, to see what they could do, after they found that there was death. This mentions Yula Wanawut, 89 the spirit of the dead. If the ceremonies are done right, the spirit will be sent off all right, and will not stay in its former abode. In the council they tried to see what they could do about their spirits, and so they arranged these ceremonies. The song says: The Sky, after all these ceremonies were rightly done, felt good in his heart. It mentions the sand-painting, Eskanish Tarohayish.

Record 380. Song of Kwinamish. By Albañas. Tomamik yula poaukala, 90 north the spirit remains; kwimik yula poaukala, 90 east the spirit remains; south and west, the same. It is held, tied, to the four quarters of the sky, so that it will remain there and will not get away.

Record 381. Kwinamish song. By Albañas. Tomamik yula Wanawut poponakala poñarakala auma, 91 etc. "To the north the

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spirit (double name) with (elaborately woven) strings remains tied." No kwinamo wunac qua auma. 92 "My spirit up there remains." Antares and Altair make the wind blow and remain there in the east.

Record 382. Kwinamish song. By Albañas. No suna qua haiyawa moyna, no suna qua takwaya moyna, 93 etc. "At the time of death, when I found there was to be death, I was very much surprised. All was failing. My home, I was sad to leave it." The second part means: "I have been looking far, sending my spirit north, south, east, and west, trying to escape from death, but could find nothing, no way of escape."

Record 383. Song of Munival. By Albañas. The Munival songs are individual and inherited. They describe the exact route of the Temecula people, ancestors to the singer, and the landmarks made by each to claim title to places in their migrations, usually at very short distances. Munival no qua awut, 94 "the tracks I do not understand." Munival no qua nalachat, 95 "the tracks I make mistakes about." They are therefore explained. The song mentions different places: Nachivo pomisavo, 96 the cañon the First People could not go through; Tokta totpa, 97 a place; Kawima polalak, 98 a certain hill; Ashwut kalikwona (eagle sits on something), a place; Waasawaha pometavoy; 99 and Exvo Temeko, 100 Temecula.

Record 384. Chatish song. By Albañas. The Chatish 101

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series are secret individual songs, descended in the family or composed by the singer. This is a song the great-uncle of Albañas used to sing. No enge no mane hortata kulkula, etc., from my feet, from my hands, I drew forth, etc. 102. Some of the shamans would extract something from their legs or hands or different parts of the body during the dances to show their power: acorns or rabbits or little snakes or frogs. Albañas’s great-aunt was a shaman, and could vomit up from her mouth a small live rattlesnake.

Record 385. Song of Chatish. By Albañas. Nororia hechum sil pom mane, 103 etc. "It thundered. Something from their feet, their hands, etc." The earth shakes and rumbles when the shamans march around.

These songs were sometimes sung to make plenty, to bring abundance of rain, grass, and acorns. They are also called Songs of Numkwish 104 or Tuknish. 105 Each "hechicero" has two or three of these secret songs, which he sings at his house and not at public gatherings.

Record 386. Chatish song. By Albañas. These songs were also sung to hurt people with sickness and death, and this particular song could kill a man at a distance of many miles. Lewea lewea towowea, shoots off an invisible (spirit-like) power. The "hechicero" had within him something which could not be seen. 106 He would draw it out and throw it off towards the man he wished to injure. The "hechicero stick,"—wood without stone in the end, shaped like a small straight sword,—would be used to do this.

Sometimes several shamans met at a house to kill a man at a distance. Tukmul Chayut (double name: tukmul, flat coiled basket, Chayut, flat twined basket) 107 would be made ready, each

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man bringing his own basket. Chungichnish said that they must always have tukmul chayut when they had the ceremonies or did anything. A certain Indian's mother was killed by witchcraft by his own uncle, after which some of his mother's people, shamans, met together at night and killed the old man in the same way. He died in a few days. Another well-known instance of these beliefs was the killing by witchcraft of the woman who dispossessed the Indians from an ancient village site, having acquired the land under the terms of a Spanish grant. The Indians thus driven off had their revenge in this way, and she did not live long to enjoy her property.

Record 387. By Albañas. Song of Anut, the large ant of the ant-ordeal, used as a hunting song, since the ordeal has been long discontinued. Pom peai yaumo oskamo. 108 "They kept the game to themselves." This tells about the animals when they were killed after the death of Ouiot. Mountain lion killed the deer, though he tried to escape from death. Tukwut, mountain lion, Iswut, wolf (long since extinct), Tomihut, summer-cloud or thunder-cloud, 109 were some of the chief men in arranging the ceremonies after the death of Ouiot. They are mentioned in the song.

Record 388. Song of Chatish. By Albañas. Words: Necop manaa, Towit manaa, Yawit manaa, etc. "It is coming to me. Towit is coming. Yawit is coming." 110 Towit is the thick mist that comes before the rain. 111 This is a Chungichnish song of plenty. One man will dance while another sings it. It may also be sung as an individual song at the Image ceremony.

Record 389. Sung by Lucario Cuevish. This song was sung in the ceremony for healing a man punished by Chungichnish. It is a Chungichnish song. Anyone in the old times revealing the secrets ("as I am doing now," he says), would be stricken down with illness, and these songs would aid in effecting his cure.

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[paragraph continues] The song mentions hainit, the band around the head used to put the feathers in, and pecheya, feather headdress. 112 It tells about the shadows cast by the sun. The connection between hainit and the sun is hard to be understood; but the allusion may possibly be the same here as in the myth, 113 where it is difficult to understand who Hainit was. He was probably the one among the First People who afterwards became the head-band for the feathers.

Record 390. Chungichnish song. By Lucario Cuevish. The song mentions Muta, the horned owl, whose feathers make the sacred headdress. It mentions also the sea-weed on the seashore, one of the First People and sacred to Chungichnish. It mentions pecheya, feather headdress. The same words are repeated over and over.

The Chungichnish worship was brought to the mountains from San Juan Capistrano. Near Capistrano is a hill where there are a live rattlesnake and a raven, Chungichnish animals, that have been there from time immemorial. They are still there.

Record 391. By Lucario Cuevish. Not a song, but a recitative by the eagle; part of the Ouiot story. The eagle, seeking escape from death, went north from Temecula to San Bernardino, came around by the east to the south and west through Julian, Cuyamaca, and Palomar, going towards Temecula, and died at Temecula. 114 The eagle sang this song or recitative at Temecula. When he got sick he talked this way. He was talking about the spirit. When they were all going along they could hear something singing far away, and the eagle said that was the spirit; and he told the people that everywhere that he had been, north, south, east, and west, death was there waiting for them. It was very near. No one knew when it would come, but they would all have to die.

Record 392. By Lucario Cuevish. Song of the Eagle ceremony. The mourning for the dead, cutting the hair, and so on,

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continues for a year or so, until they have the eagle ceremony at the time the chief decides. This ends the period of mourning. The eagle is killed amid universal lamentations. He is one of the representatives of the spirit and is connected with the spirits of the dead. The song means: "Stand up and hold the eagle in

Notation of Eagle-dance song. Record 392.
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Notation of Eagle-dance song. Record 392.

your arms. Do not be ashamed. Stand up, all, and dance." They dance around the fire and sing this song holding the eagle in their arms.

Record 393. By Lucario Cuevish. Recitative by Ouiot. Used in the Image ceremony. Ouiot tells of his sufferings and names the months in which he may die. 115

Record 394. Toloache ceremony march song. By Lucario Cuevish. Tamyush noya kwoya, etc., Tamyush marches by

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twisting. 116 The power of motion attributed to tamyush, the sacred stone bowl, and this song, have been mentioned in the account of the toloache ceremony.

Record 395. By Lucario Cuevish. Song of Wukunish, the girls’ ceremony. This is the last song of the ceremony, and is sung by the women. The women's songs all end by mentioning Elsinore, where Kauko and Chehemal 117 first had menses. When the first ceremony was concluded, they felt happy and composed this song. It mentions the journeying of the First People from Katuktu to Kalaupa 118 and then to Elsinore.

Record 396. By Lucario Cuevish. Song of Munival, landmarks. This mentions the turtle-rock on the land now occupied by Albañas, but owned by Lucario's ancestors from time immemorial. There is a large flat rock there marked with cracks like the markings on a turtle's back. This used to be a turtle and was left in this shape as a track of possession. The song means that he is singing to his ancestors. He is singing about the rock. It is his. They left it here to claim the land which was theirs.

Record 397. By Lucario Cuevish. Song of the girls’ ceremony. Words: No ashwo, 119 etc. I am menstruating. One man sings this to the accompaniment of the ringing stones in the girls’ ceremony while the others dance. This song mentions the mountains that were First People, starting with San Bernardino on the north; Taakwi popat, San Jacinto; Kupa Kawima (Kupa hill), the mountain at Warner's ranch; I’pa, Volcan; Kachikchi; Cuyamaca; Pawi Chawimai, hot spring near Cahuilla; Waheto Naavo, hills east and south of Potrero in the mountains; Pahamuk Malaya, pre-historic village on Palomar mountain. 120 The song also mentions So-o Ponota, 121 the famous place where the first Notish

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ceremony for the dead was made and races were held. It mentions also Wikio Potoypa, 122 a place on Palomar ridge towards Temecula. San Bernardino, gray-head, white on top, is the elder brother; San Jacinto is the younger brother.

Record 398. By Lucario Cuevish. Song of the Flood. This mentions Katuta, 123 Mora, the little hill that was the only dry land when the water covered the high mountains. 124 This hill was one of the First People.

Notation of Image Ceremony song. Record 399.
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Notation of Image Ceremony song. Record 399.

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Record 399. Ouiot Song. Pikmakvul. Sung by Juan de Dios, now blind and partly demented from old age. Once a famous chief, and leader of the ancient religion. Ouiot sang this when he was at Temecula, where he died. (See notation of this song on opposite page.)

Record 400. By Juan de Dios. Ouiot Song. Pikmakvul. Ouiot's counsel to his people when he was dying.

Record 401. Song of Pikmakvul. By Juan de Dios. Ouiot enumerates the "months," in each of which he expects to die.

Record 402. Pikmakvul. By Salvador Cuevas. Ouiot song, sung while the images are being burned.

Record 403. By Salvador Cuevas. Song of Temenganesh, telling of the "month" Tasmoymal. The spider-web now catches butterflies and grasshoppers.

Record 404. By Salvador Cuevas. Chungichnish song, in the language of the coast, now extinct. It was taught to Salvador by Hilario, a famous singer from the coast.

Record 405. By Salvador Cuevas. Two songs of Tomaiyowit, 125 the Earth-mother. She sang these when she was making the land larger for her children.

Second song on same record. Chungichnish song, sung by a boy when he jumped into the fire.

Record 406. By Salvador Cuevas. Song of Tomaiyowit, sung in the Image ceremony. This song tells of the noise and confusion when the First People were being born. The songs of Tomaiyowit may be a separate series, though they are not so described.

Record 407. By Salvador Cuevas. Song of Munival, the landmarks of ancestors. This mentions some small hills, and the cañon which was too small for the people to go through. Some of Salvador's ancestors were there.

Record 408. By Salvador Cuevas. Song of Kwinamish, the spirit. Tomamik yula, tomamik wanawut, etc. To the north the spirit, etc. 126 This song mentions the names of those First People who were sent north, then those in the east, south, and west. It mentions Sovul (a plant) and Makawut, wild grapes, 127

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people of the East; and Pauwhut Abahut, hollowed long coffer used to keep sacred feathers in, 128 people of the south.

Record 409. By Salvador Cuevas. Song of Nahachish, 129 one of the Temecula people, who gave names to all the localities in the La Jolla mountain region. 130 This song mentions the chia seed they used to gather in early days, and another plant with small black seeds used for food. It mentions the deer feast, Pisatish. 131 The last food of the year, the last of the store of seeds and acorns, could be eaten only by the old people. Nahachish was a great glutton; and it is significant that the name means also a disease, consumption, and an insect.

Record 410. By Martasal Tabac. Ashish song. The song mentions Deer when, like Eagle, he tried to escape from death. He sent his spirit north, south, east, and west, trying to find a way of escape; but death was everywhere; and Buzzard and Blue-fly followed him and killed him.

Record 411. Anut song. By Martasal Tabac. This is a very old song which he learned from his ancestors; the ceremony being done in very ancient times. These songs of Anut were later sung in the girls’ ceremony.

Record 412. By Martasal Tabac. Song of Pikmakvul. Image ceremony. The women dance while this is sung. The song tells how they prepared the ground to burn the body of Ouiot, first digging a shallow hole and placing wood there for the funeral pile. Then they went around three times and laid the body on the pile and started the fire.

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Record 413. By Martasal Tabac. Song of Pikmakvul. Image ceremony. Ouiot is very sick and names the months in which he may die. After his death, when death came to all, these songs were composed. They were made at that time. A notation of this record is given below.

Notation of Image Ceremony song. Record 413.
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Notation of Image Ceremony song. Record 413.

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Record 414. By Martasal Tabac. Ashish song. This song mentions the man who leads the hunt. When the men go rabbit hunting they meet in a certain place where a stone stands up at the side of the road. This song is given in notation below.

Notation of Ashish song. Record 414.
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Notation of Ashish song. Record 414.

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Record 415. By Martasal Tabac. Women's Ashish song. The men's and women's songs are about the same, but the tunes are different. This song mentions the hill where the rock is painted after the conclusion of the ceremony.

Record 416. By Salvador Cuevas. Temenganesh song. This song mentions the stars. When Ouiot was dying he talked about the east where he was to rise. The song mentions Nükülish and Yungavish, Antares and Altair. The eagles now fly. This is the month Townamal.

Each man's songs are different from another's, having reached him in a strict line of descent; but the subject matter of each song series is the same with all.

Record 1079. 132 Sung by Juan de Dios. Song of Ouiot. Image ceremony.

Record 1080. By Juan de Dios. Song of Ouiot after he was burned, sung in the Image ceremony after burning the Images. Record 1096. By Juan de Dios. Ouiot song.

Record 1082. Sung by Margarita Subish. Women's song of Ouiot. Pikmakvul series. Ouiot mentions the different months in each of which he thinks that he may die.

Record 1098. By Margarita Subish. Song of Tochinish, Image ceremony. Women's song, telling about making the images; sung while they are set up in the sacred enclosure.

Record 1084. By Margarita Subish. Song of Wukunish, the girl's ceremony. Women's song sung to the accompaniment of ringing stones. Gives instruction to the girls.

Record 1085. By Albañas. Toloache song. After drinking the toloache they march to the dancing place, and begin to feel the effects of the drink: This song tells of the beginning of the intoxication.

Second song on the record. A Chungichnish song sung when they reach the dancing place.

Record 1100. Sung by Albañas. Song of Pikmakvul sung in the Image ceremony. Ouiot counts the "months." 133 The

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month Tasmoymal, when the grass begins to grow green, is mentioned.

Record 1076. Creation song of Kivish Atakvish. This song does not belong to Albañas who sings it, but to the chief of his "clan." It is very sacred. The song tells of Tukmit and Tomaiyowit, Sky and Earth.

Record 1100. By Albañas. Ouiot song. Sung to the accompaniment of the rattle. This is what Kingbird sang on the housetop in the early morning: "Ouiot is coming." The stars Nükülish and Yungavish, Antares and Altair, are mentioned.

Record 1088. By Albañas. Song of Tomaiyowit, the Earth-mother. There are ten or fifteen songs about Tomaiyowit. They dance to some and not to others. This tells of the birth of her children. They stayed in that place and then journeyed to another place.

Record 1077. By Albañas. Ouiot song. This tells about Wahawut who killed Ouiot; and mentions Orion and the Pleiades when they went up in the sky.

Record 1102. Sung by Salvador Cuevas. Song of the dead, not used for dancing; but sung in the Image ceremony; or when relatives come to console the family for the death of a member they stay all night and sing this song. It mentions Antares and Altair rising in the early morning. When Antares rises winter is at an end. Grass and fresh things come up; everything dry now grows green. Then when Altair rises the grass is higher.

Record 1091. By Salvador Cuevas. Coyote kills Wahawut. 134

Record 1092. By Salvador Cuevas. Song of the dead. This mentions Muta, the owl, Ano, coyote, and Pawewish, fox. 135 They always come around the house when some one is going to die. The song tells how they are coming nearer and swarming around.

Record 1078. By Salvador Cuevas. Chungichnish song in the extinct language of the coast. This song came from Lukup, a large rancheria south of Santa Ana on the coast. 136 Pura means Chungichnish in the old language of the coast. A man named

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[paragraph continues] Hilario came from Ushma, now Las Flores, 137 where there used to be a big village, and taught this song and other songs and dances.

Record 1095. By Salvador Cuevas. Chungichnish dance song. This is sung at the time when the feather headdress is buried in the center hole of the sand-painting in the ceremony performed when one of the initiates dies. The song tells about pecheya, the feather headdress, and muta, the owl, whose feathers are used to make it.

Record 1097. Diegueño. By Hatakek. Tutomunp. It refers to Wikami, Mohave Avikwame, the sacred mountain where all the people were created and where all religious song and dance originated. This place is alluded to at the beginning of every ceremony. The song means: There were two brothers. The father died and his spirit went north into the pine trees and forests. The sons went after him. When they got there they heard the spirit crying. This is the noise in the pine trees.

Record 1083. Diegueño. By Hatakek. Song of Wukaruk, the Image ceremony. The first song on this record means: Two brothers were going along when one was bitten by a rattlesnake, and died of the bite. The other was afraid of his spirit. It was following him and terrifying him. The second song on the record means: He came to the track of Coyote. There was the Coyote's track. This is a women's song of the Image ceremony.

Record 1075. Diegueño. By Hatakek. Song of the Image ceremony, Wukaruk. When Tuchaipa died through the work of the frog, they wanted to make the Image dance and sent to Maiheowit to get him to teach them how. Then they burned the sacred house and burned him too.

Record 1099. Diegueño. By Hatakek. Song of the Image ceremony. It tells of Ishpa, the eagle, and describes his feeling when he knows that death is near. Compare the Luiseño song of the eagle, above, number 391.

Record 1086. Diegueño. By Hatakek. Song of the Image ceremony. This tells of Coyote. He slept all night and was warming himself in the early morning. The series of these songs

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is almost endless, as they are sung all night and for several nights during the Image ceremony. Each song is different. It is impossible to collect the entire series or to trace very clearly the connection between the songs. The singer, a very old man from Manzanita, was sent for far and wide to conduct the Image ceremony on the occasions when it was celebrated. The memory displayed in retention of these series of songs is remarkable.

Record 1087. Diegueño. By Hatakek. Song of the Image ceremony, telling of the great horned deer, probably the elk.

Record 1104. Diegueño. Sung by Pion. Dance song called Orup from the desert Indians. It tells about two brothers building their house.

Record 1089. Diegueño. Sung by Pion. First song on the record: Two brothers are building a house. Coyote sings in the early morning. The third song on the record tells about the willow trees.

Record 1090. Diegueño. Sung by Pion. Songs of Orup. The first song on the record tells about the clouds from the north, Katutl; the south, Kawak; the east, Awik; the west, Nyak. The second song is a night song, and tells about the dark night.

Record 1073. Diegueño. Sung by Hulapok Hitlmiup. Song of Akil, the girls’ ceremony. The men have bows and arrows in their hands and dance as they sing this song. Both men and women dance in a circle, at different times, around the place where the girl is in a hole in the ground covered with brush.

Record 1074. Diegueño. Sung by Hulapok. Songs of the Image ceremony. First song: The man who makes the images goes into the house and cries. The second song mentions the birds. The bird cries.

Record 1103. Diegueño. Sung by Hulapok. Song of the wild-cat dance. This dance comes from the Mohaves. It is accompanied by a gourd rattle, hulma. For the Image ceremony they use a deer-foot rattle.

Record 1093. Diegueño. Sung by Hulapok. Song of the toloache ceremony. The old dancers are seated in a circle on the ground, while the chief pounds the toloache root in the sacred stone bowl to the accompaniment of this song.

Record 1094. Diegueño. Sung by Hulapok. Toloache song.

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[paragraph continues] This song is the same as the beginning of the war dance. It also repeats part of the last record, which is sung when the dancers come in on hands and knees. The singer drank the toloache in his youth. The last ceremony at Manzanita was about fifty years ago. Five old men remain in this region who are toloache initiates.

Record 1072. Diegueño. Toloache song. Also a war dance song. This song is also used at Mesa Grande. Hulapok, the singer, first heard this song at a village called Hawiya, south of Julian.

Besides the ceremonial songs, the myths have their own songs, which are incorporated in the story as part of the text which they amplify and explain, giving character to the narrative as light and shade do to a picture. The story can be told without them, but it loses much of its emphasis and impressiveness.

The Cuyahomarr story of which three versions have been given: one from Mesa Grande, called The Story of Chaup; 137a and two, one a fragment, from Manzanita, 137b is a good example of a primitive myth in which the narrative is blended with song.

The Luiseños have a version of the same story communicated to them sixty years ago by the Mesa Grande people. 137c Some of the old men among the Luiseños can sing its songs, but they hesitate to relate the story from the Diegueño, being uncertain of the meaning in parts, especially in the songs.

One such song was sung to me by Salvador Cuevas, Luiseño, but he was reluctant to begin it, fearing that Takwish, Chaup, might overhear him. As Chaup's dwelling place is in the San Bernardino or San Jacinto mountains, not so very far from La Jolla in the mountains, the fear seemed well founded.

The Diegueños identified the being whose name on earth was Cuyahomarr, the wonder-working boy, and whose name in the sky is Chaup or Shiwiw, with the large meteoric fire-ball which is his physical manifestation.

Certain Indians, it is said, have an ogre myth-being who is

p. 126

identified in their myths with the electric fireball. The two stories have therefore become blended to a certain extent; but while the full text of the Diegueño Cuyahomarr myth has been obtained, and some fragments of the ogre story have been secured, it has not been possible to trace the latter with precision. 137d

Chaup is feared among the Luiseños and Diegueños, but why or in what degree it is difficult to say. It is said that the Indians believe that if he casts the shadow of a man on the ground in his passage overhead, the man will soon die.

The Luiseños sometimes call him Towish Takwish, which means spirit meteor. The younger Indians, who know only the corrupted meaning of Towish, which in modern Luiseño is 'devil,' understand it in that sense.

Takwish, Salvador Cuevas explained, takes the spirit of people just before they die. He does not take the body. One sees the light because he is carrying the spirit.

The following are graphophone records of songs of the Diegueño Cuyahomarr myth.

1. From Mesa Grande. Sung by Antonio. The flute is making music to call the girls.

Ichtaha kwataha, Ichtaha kwataha, Toli otoli, toli otoli, Ichtaha kotoho, Ichtaha kwataha, Toli otoli kotoli, Toli otoli kotoli, etc.

The brothers sat down facing in turn towards the north, south, east, and west, and girls from the four quarters came to them attracted by the music, but none pleased them except the girls from the east.

2. By Antonio. The girls by the pond first hear the music of the flute. "It was the younger sister who first heard the music. The girls were on their way to a pond where they used to swim every morning."

3. By Antonio. The girls’ song of farewell to their home. They have come very far and they can see their home far away. "They looked back and saw their old home and sang a song of farewell."

4. By Antonio. The old woman, Sinyohauch, or Sinyohau’,

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calls the girls from the east to come and marry her sons. Wichukama, wichukama, repeated many times.

5. By Antonio. The two brothers marry the two sisters.

6. By Antonio. "We shall die for the sake of the girls. I shall never see my home again." The elder brother's song.

Cinan chakom whi-i-i.

Ocinan chakom whi-i-i, repeated many times, but the tune varies.

Mainan chakom whi-i-i.

Kamaina chakom whi-i.

7. By Antonio. Cuyahomarr sat on his grandmother's lap and she put her arms around him and they both cried. Antonio feels like crying when he sings this:

Kawa kowa hi-i, Kawa kowa hi,
Kawa kowa hi-i, Kawa kowa hi, etc.

8. Manzanita Diegueño. Sung by Hatakek. First song on the record. The younger brother's music on the flute. Second song, that of the elder brother making music on the flute. Third song, that of the younger sister who is tired and lagging behind. "'I can come no faster,' said the younger sister. 'I am thinking of my old father whom I left behind.'"

9. Manzanita Diegueño. Sung by Hatakek. First song on record. Sinyohauch sings to call the dead eagles to come to life and come to the boys’ home. Second song. The elder brother sings to call the girls.

Third song on the record. The song of the brothers when the whirlwind lifted the eagles out of their graves. "No sooner had they buried the birds than the whirlwind swept by, lifting the dead eagles from out of the ground, and carrying them through the air." 137e

10. Diegueño song sung by a Luiseño, Salvador Cuevas, who does not know exactly what the words mean; but it is the song sung by the boy in the gambling game when he began to win back all that his uncle had lost. "As soon as he fixed his eyes upon him he made his uncle win. He began winning back every point he had lost." See Manzanita version of Cuyahomarr story. 137f


105:57 See also the preceding account of the Image Ceremony.

105:58 Unless otherwise mentioned, numbers refer to the collection of phonographic records in the Museum of the University of California.

105:59 Choun, all, everyone; tungani, to give name to; -kwa, suffix, then; wanawut.—S.

106:60 Helimuk, hid; temenganesh, season; panga, in the water.—S.

106:61 Karawut, earth-worm.—S.

106:62 See the section headed Star Lore and Calendar, below, for a discussion the "months" or divisions of the year.

106:63 Potauyowi yauka anmal, his language has ant.—S.

106:64 Po-hota, his or her brush fence, from hotahish, ante, enclosure of wamkish, ceremonial place.—S.

106:65 Mavakul or mavakush.—S.

106:66 Atachimai, a very small bird.—S.

107:67 Mimik-mo ashunin-kwa awa’awik, meaning as given.—S.

107:68 Tomamik uchanut potovlykala, north where the buffalo is breeding, or, in the north the buffalo his breeding place. Uchanut, a fabulous animal, identified with the bison; tovli, breed, bear young, lay eggs.—S.

107:69 Pashakut, elk.—S.

107:70 Paut, mountain-sheep.—S.

107:71 Chalaka, horned toad.—S.

107:72 Perhaps wanauwanahish, verbal noun from wanauwani, to move.—S.

107:73 Tupash, sky, nahainit, sky, in ceremonial language; tukmit, night.—S.

107:74 See the Creation myths given below. Mr. Sparkman says: Only used in songs and myths; perhaps from whaiahat, white, and pewipwish, gray.

107:75 Nahut, walking stick.—S.

107:76 See the account of the death of Ouiot in the Creation myths below.

108:77 Eluchax (x German ch).—S.

108:78 Ashwut-pila’ telamuk, golden-eagle was-saying.—S.

108:79 Kari’ya, rose.—S.

108:80 Catalina island: Kimki harasa; San Clemente island: Shoi ponga’; San Nicolas island; Atauki ponga’. I have had much trouble in ascertaining the names of these islands. Some say Kimki harasa is Catalina, others that it is Clemente. Some say ponga’ is Catalina, others that it means island. As ponga’ is placed after Shoi and Atauki it probably means island.—S.

Kimki is unquestionably San Clemente, and Harasa Catalina. Shoi and Atauki are not referred to by others. Kinki, Kinki-par is the Gabrielino name of San Clemente (present series of publications, IV, 143, 153). Harasa has only been given in the locative form Haras-gna; it occurs in Reid's list of Gabrielino rancherias, but without a designation of its situation (quoted, ibid., 143). The usual Gabrielino name for Catalina is Pimu; Pipimar has been obtained among the Luiseño (ibid., 142, 143, 144, 153).—Ed.

108:81 Malmusnga heta-pila’ kamala temet, at Malmus rose the son sun.—S.

108:82 Wunal Pewipwi tiwiyam, that San Bernardino mountain see ye.—S. Puwipui, Piwipui, present series, IV, 133, 148.

108:83 Shulkul, a green cricket.—S.

108:84 Pawi, the warm spring in the center of village at Cahuilla; Chawimai, probably a valley at Cahuilla known as Duraznos.—S.

108:85 Kupa, Agua Caliente, kawimal, hill.—S. (Gupa, present series of publications, IV, 148, 150).

108:86 I’pa.—S.

109:87 Naav, a mountain south of Rincon, across the river from it; Wee’to, Pine mountain, across the river from Potrero; wee’tut, the great-coned pine, Pinus coulteri.—S.

109:88 Malava, old village on Palomar mountain.—S.

109:89 Yula wanawut, hair wanawut. These words may refer to plaiting the hair of a dead person and using it at dances for some time afterward.—S.

109:90 Tomanik (resp. kwimik) yula poauwkala, north (east) the hair its-remaining; poauwkala, from auwi, to be, live, means it living, its living place, etc.—S.

109:91 Tomamik yula wanawut poponakala pongarakala auwma, north hair wanawut its-tying its-fastening is; poni, tie; ngari, tie, fasten; po-, pronominal third person.—S.

110:92 No-kwinamo wuna’-kwa auwma, my-spirit (origin) there-then lives.—S.

110:93 Noshunupkwa hayinga moinga, noshunupkwa takwayak moinga, then-I-thought at-race in-moon, then-my-heart is-surprised in-moon. A race called hayish was held at the time of the new moon; hayinga is the locative case, as moinga is of moila, moon. No-shun, my heart, is used in speaking of thoughts, sometimes with a verb and sometimes without.—S.

110:94 Monival-no-kwa auwik, tracks-I-then do-not-know; auwi, to not know.—S.

110:95 Monival-no-kwa nalahik; nalahi, to err.—S.

110:96 Journ. Am. Folk-Lore XIX, 313, 1906: Nachivomisavo, a place "north of the San Bernardino Needles," where the hitherto united people were separated, thus acquiring distinct languages. Mr. Sparkman says: "A canyon near San Bernardino. Nachi, a negative verb, not to go in or under. Misi, a negative verb, not to go through, not to get past."

110:97 Totka; totpa; names of places.—S.

110:98 Kawimai polalak, name of a hill.—S.

110:99 Wiashaha pomhetavoi or pohetavoi.—S.

110:100 Exva (x German ch), a place near Temecula; Temeko, Temecula.—S.

110:101 Chatush, a series of songs of wizards.—S.

111:102 No-engai no-mangai hothota kulkala, from my feet, from my hands, was drawn, was drawn. The first two words are ablatives, from no-e’ and no-ma; hothota and kulkala are intensive forms of hoti, to pull, haul, and kuli, to pull up, pull out.—S.

111:103 Ngorora hechasil pom-engai pom-mangai, sounded (thundered) something from their feet, from their hands.—S.

111:104 Namkush, a ceremony performed with the idea of making acorns, rabbits, etc., plentiful. Namkokwat kwil, one who makes acorns grow.—S.

111:105 Tu’nish, a ceremony to make plants which are valued, such as chia, sage, grow.—S.

111:106 Lewya lewya towauya, meaning about as given, past tenses.—S.

111:107 Tukmal; chayut, open-work sifting basket of rush.—S.

112:108 Pom-peai yaumuk oshkamuk, their-killing had did-not-wish-to-give; they did not wish to give away what they had killed.—S.

112:109 Tomihat or tomawut.—S.

112:110 Nekup mona, Towutup mona, Yawutup mona, to me it comes, Towut comes, Yawut comes.—S.

112:111 Towut, or Yawut, a fine dust seen in the air when the north wind is blowing at a distance.—S.

113:112 Hainit, headband; cheyat, feather headdress, pocheya, his feather headdress.—S.

113:113 Compare the latter of the two versions of the creation myth given below.

113:114 Lucario's conception of distance is limited, perhaps on account of his blindness. This also illustrates the tendency in Luiseño myths to concentrate the idea of locality to the Temecula region, which would seem to have been the home of these Indians in very early times, at least in their own beliefs.

114:115 See the corresponding passages in the creation myths.

115:116 Cf. page 79.

115:117 Kaukau, blackswift; chekemal, kingbird or bee martin.—S.

115:118 Katukto, a hill probably between Bonsall and San Luis Rey, where the people are said to have taken refuge at the time of a flood; Kalaupa, mountain near Santa Margarita.—S. See the story of the Flood below.

115:119 Non ashka, I am menstruating the first time.—S.

115:120 Taakwi, San Jacinto mountain; po-pet, his younger brother; Kupa, Agua Caliente or Warner's Ranch, kawimal, hill; I’pa, Volcan; Kachikchi, Cuyamaca mountain; Pawi, warm spring in village at Cahuilla valley, Chawimai, probably Duraznos valley at Cahuilla; Weye’to, Pine mountain, across the river from Potrero; Naav, a mountain south of Rincon; Pahamuk and Malaya, old villages on Palomar mountain.—S. See ante, notes 82 to 88.

115:121 Shoau po-nota, Shoau its notush ceremony; Shoau is a place on Palomar mountain.—S.

116:122 Wikyo, the highest peak of Palomar; Potopa, a place on Palomar mountain.—S.

116:123 Katukto.—S. Cf. ante, note 118.

116:124 See the second of the Luiseño creation myths given below.

117:125 Tamaiyowut.—S.

117:126 Literally, to the north the hair, to the north the wanawut-rope.—S.

117:127 Shovul, Rhus aromatica or trilobata; makwit wild grape-vine.—S.

118:128 Pauhit, yellow pine, also canoe; avahut, cottonwood. It is said that the feathers of San Luis Rey were kept in a canoe that was found on the beach and considered sacred.—S.

118:129 Nahachish, a man of Temecula; the walking-stick insect; consumption; with a possessive prefix, -nhacho, plural -nahacho, old age, men, or male animals. Nachaonwut, glutton, from nachooni, to eat.—S.

118:130 See the tradition of Nahachish, below.

118:131 Pisatish, a feast where a deer was killed and divided up.—S.

121:132 The songs on the following thirty records, together with some of the Luiseño myths, were collected with the assistance and co-operation of the American Museum of Natural History, through the courtesy of which they are here published. The numbers refer to the Museum's catalogue.

121:133 For an account of these "months," which are not lunar, see the section on Star Lore and Calendar, below.

122:134 See the myth of How Coyote killed the Frog, below.

122:135 Ano’; Kewewish.—S.

122:136 Lukup, Las Bolsas. See this series of publications, IV, 144. Las Bolsas was in territory inhabited by Indians speaking the language of San Gabriel.

123:137 Ushmai, Las Flores, place of roses, from ush-la, rose.—S.

125:137a Journ. Am. Folk-Lore, XVII, 217-241, 1904.

125:137b Ibid., XIX, 145-164, 1906.

125:137c See ibid., XIX, 317, 318, 1906, for a statement by a Luiseño informant that he knew only the last part of the story of dakwish or takwish, Diegueño Chaup, but that the Diegueño knew the first part.—Ed.

126:137d See Journ. Am. Folk-Lore, XIX, 317, 1906, for Luiseño beliefs of the cannibalistic tendencies of Takwish.

127:137e Journ. Am. Folk-Lore, XVII, 217-241, 1904.

127:137f Ibid., XIX, 145-164, 1906.

Next: Introduction