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Shibboleth: A Templar Monitor, by George Cooper Connor, [1894], at

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p. 138 p. 139


The Christian Era was first used by a Roman abbot, Denys le Petit, or Dionisius Exigus, about the year 527. It was generally adopted in England in the eighth century. The Council of Chelsea, July, 816, ordained that all bishops should date their acts from the year of the incarnation of our Saviour. In the Eastern Empire it was not in general use until after the capture of Constantinople by Mahomet II, in 1453.

Down to 1752 the Historical year in England commenced on January 1st, and the Ecclesiastical, Civil (Legal) year commenced on March 25th. This led to great confusion, to avoid which it was long the custom to add the date of the Historical to that of the Legal year, when speaking of any day between January 1st and March 25th, thus:

January 30, 1648 = 1648, the Civil (Legal) year. 1649 = 1649, the Historical Year

Others wrote it thus: January. 30, 1645-9. The lower, or last, figure always indicated the year according to the present calculation.


The various bodies of Freemasonry have adopted Calendars for their special use. In the following table the figures are carried out for the year 1893.

Knights Templar founded 1118. Hence Anno Ordinis 775.

Second Temple began to be built by Zerubbabel, B. C. 330.

Hence the Royal Arch, Anno Inventionis (Year of Discovery) 2423.

Royal and Select Masters refer to completion of the Temple, 1000 B. C.

Hence R. and A. Masters, Anno Depositionis (Year of Deposit) 2893.

Ancient Craft Masons use Anno Lucis (Year of Light)—Creation 5893.

Scottish Rite uses Anno Mundi (Year of World)—Creation 5653.


At 4 days old the moon sets at about 10 at night.

At 5 days old at about 11 at night.

At 6 days old at about 12 at night.

At 7 days old at or near I in morning.

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At 15 days old at full it rises about 6 in evening.

At 16 days old at a quarter past 7 in evening.

At 17 days old at half past 8 in evening.

At IS days old about Lo at night.

At 19 clays old about 11 at night.

At 20 days old about 12 at night.


Sunday (Anglo-Saxon, Sunnandæg), day of the sun.

Monday (Anglo-Saxon, Monandæg), day of the moon.

Tuesday (Anglo-Saxon, Tiwesdæg), from Tiw, the god of war.

Wednesday (Anglo-Saxon, Wodnesdæg), from Odin, the god of storms.

Thursday (Anglo-Saxon, Thunresdæg), day of Thor, the god of thunder.

Friday (Anglo-Saxon, Frigedæg), day of Freya, goddess of marriage.

Saturday (Anglo-Saxon, Saterdæg; Latin, Dies Saturnus), day of Saturn, the god of time.

The Chinese and Thibetans have a week of five days, named after iron, wood, water, feathers and earth.


January.—The Roman Janus presided over the beginning of everything; hence the first month of the year was called after him.

February (Latin, Februarius).—The month of purification; on the 15th day of this month the Feast of Expiation was held.

March.—Named from the Roman god of war, Mars.

April, (Latin, Aprilis).—Probably derived from aperire, to open; because spring generally begins and the buds open in this month.

May (Latin, Maius).—From Maia, a feminine divinity worshiped at Rome on the Ist day of this month.

June.—From Juno, a Roman divinity worshiped as the queen of heaven.

July (Julius). Julius Cæsar was born in this month.

August.—Named by the Emperor Augustus Cæsar, B. C. 30, after himself. He regarded it as a fortunate month, being that in which he had gained several victories.

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September (Septem, or seven).—September was the seventh month in the old Roman calendar.

October (Octo, or eight).—Eighth month of the old Roman year.

November (Novem, or nine).—November was the ninth month in the old Roman year.

December (Decem, or ten).—December was the tenth month of the early Roman year. About the twenty-first of this month the sun enters the Tropic of Capricorn, and forms the winter solstice.


The Solar or astronomical year was, 265 years B. C., determined to comprise 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 51 seconds. The Lunar year, comprehending 12 moons, or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, was the regulator of time among the Chaldeans, Persians and Jews. Till the time of William the Conqueror the English began their year on the 25th of December. Down to 1732 the year did not legally commence till the 25th of March. In Scotland, at that date, the year began on the 1st of January.

To adjust the Calendar, a new one was published by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582, omitting ten days, the 5th of October becoming the 15th. The New Style was not adopted in Great Britain till 1752, when eleven days were jumped, the 3d of September being reckoned the 14th. In Russia and the East the Old Style is still in force, and all Russian dates are twelve days earlier than English.

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