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Eighteen Treatises from the Mishna, by D. A. Sola and M. J. Raphall, [1843], at


§ 1. The daily offering was slaughtered half an hour after the eighth hour, and sacrificed half an hour after the ninth hour; but on the day before Passover, whether that happened to be on the week or a Sabbath-day, it was slaughtered half an hour after the seventh hour, and sacrificed half an hour after the eighth hour. When the day before Passover happened on Friday, it was slaughtered half an hour after the sixth hour, sacrificed half an hour after the seventh hour, and the Passover sacrifice after it.

§ 2. When the Passover sacrifice had not been sacrificed as such, 1 or that its blood has not been received as such, or as such been brought to the altar and sprinkled, or that one sacrificial act had been done to it as a Passover sacrifice, and another not as such, or when the reverse of this has taken place,—it will not be valid. How is it to be understood doing one act as a paschal sacrifice, and another not as such.? It is when at first some sacrificial act was done to it

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as a paschal sacrifice, and another act, subsequently, as a peace-offering; and the reverse is, when at first some sacrificial act had been done to it as a peace-offering, and subsequently, as a paschal-offering.

§ 3. If it had been slaughtered for those who [according to law] may not eat thereof, or for any that do not belong to the persons numbered to eat it, or for the uncircumcised, or for the unclean,—it will not be valid; but if it had been slaughtered for those that may eat thereof, and for those that may not, or for those that are numbered to eat it, and also for those that are not, or for circumcised and also for uncircumcised, or for the unclean and clean,—it will be valid. If it was slaughtered before the hour of noon it is not valid, because it is written (Lev. xxiii. 5), "Between the evenings." If it had been slaughtered before the continual burnt-offering [of the evening] was brought, it is valid; provided some one had been stirring the blood until that of the continual burnt-offering had been sprinkled, but if that had already been done, the paschal sacrifice is valid.

§ 4. If when the Passover sacrifice is offered [any one of those that are appointed to eat it] should yet have leaven in his possession, he will have transgressed a negative precept; 2 R. Jehudah says, "This is equally applicable to the continual burnt-offering [of that evening];" R. Simeon says, "When the paschal sacrifice was slaughtered as such, on the 14th, with leaven, this guilt would be incurred, but not if the paschal sacrifice had not been offered as such." For the other sacrifices, however, whether they were brought under their proper denominations or not, no guilt is incurred. When thus offered during the festival [of Passover] no guilt is incurred, if the paschal sacrifice had been offered as such: but it is incurred if it had been offered under any other name. With respect to other sacrifices [under the same circumstances offered during the Passover], guilt is incurred, whether they were offered under their proper denomination or not, excepting in case of the sin-offering that was not slaughtered as such.

§ 5. The Passover sacrifice was slaughtered for three successive bands or divisions of people, because it is said (Exod. xii. 6), "The whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall slaughter it," [i.e. three sets according to the expressions] assembly, congregation, and

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[paragraph continues] Israel. The first division entered, until the court of the Temple was filled, the doors of the court were then closed, and Tekiah Teruah and Tekiah were sounded. The priests then placed themselves in double rows, holding each a bowl of silver or gold in his hand, namely, one row held silver bowls, and another gold ones, but not mixed. These bowls had no stands underneath, that the priests might not put them down, and the blood become coagulated.

§ 6. The Israelite slaughtered, and the priest received the blood and gave it to another [priest], who passed it further to others, each receiving a full bowl, and [at the same time] returning an empty one; the priest nearest to the altar, poured it out in one jet at the base of the altar.

§ 7. The first band then went out, and the second entered; when that went out, the third entered; even as the first, so did the second and third divisions. The Hallel was also read: if they had finished it, they re-commenced it, and might even say it for the third time, although it never happened that there was occasion to say it thrice; R. Jehudah says, "It never happened that the third division read as far as  3 ‏אהבתי כי ישמע ײ‎, because they were but few in number."

§ 8. The same things that were done on week days, were also done on the Sabbath, excepting that the priests used thereon to wash the court, against the compact of the sages. 4 R. Jehudah says, "a cup was filled with the mixed blood, which was poured out in one jet on the altar;" but the sages would not admit that such was the case.

§ 9. In what manner was the paschal sacrifice suspended, and its skin removed? Iron hooks were affixed to the walls and pillars, on which the sacrifice was suspended, and its skin taken off; those who could not find a place to do it in this manner, used thin smooth pieces of wood, provided there for the purpose, on which the paschal sacrifice was suspended between the shoulders of two persons, and its skin taken off. R. Eleazar says, when the 14th happened on the

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[paragraph continues] Sabbath day, 5 one person used to place his [left] hand on the right shoulder of the other, and thus they suspended the sacrifice [on their arms], and took off its skin with their right hands.

§ 10. When it had been opened, and the pieces removed, which were to be sacrificed on the altar, 6 they were placed on a large dish, and offered with incense on the altar; when the first band had gone out [on the Sabbath] they remained on the temple mountain; the second in the open place between the ramparts 7 [‏חיל‎]; the third division remained in its place; when it became dark, they [all] went out to roast their paschal sacrifices.


107:1 It is necessary to observe, for the proper understanding of this Mishna, that it is laid down in Treatise ‏זבחים‎ [of Sacrifices], that if any of four sacrificial acts had not been done with the express intention of doing it for that particular sacrifice, it would become inefficacious. These acts are: to receive the blood in the proper vessel; to bring it to the altar; to sprinkle it; and to slaughter the sacrifice with the intention of applying it to the particular sacrifice intended.

108:2 Namely, that expressed Exod. xxiii. 18.

109:3 7 Psalm cxvi.

109:4 This has been explained in the Talmud and commentators of the Mishna as being effected by them in the following indirect manner:—there was a canal filled with water flowing through the court of the temple; this the priests caused to overflow by stopping up the vent or outlet thereof, and afterwards they opened and unstopped it again, when in its overflow it had washed the blood, &c. off the marble floor, and carried it thus off out of the temple. This they did against the consent of the sages, because no other work but that strictly necessary for the sacrifices was allowed to be done in the temple on the Sabbath.

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