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1. Both he-goats for the day of atonement are commanded to be alike in colour, and in stature, and in price, and to be selected at the same time, and although they be not equal, yet are they lawful. "If one be selected to-day and the other to-morrow?" "They are lawful." "If one of them died?" "If he die before the lot be cast, the priest shall take a pair for the second; and if after the lot be cast he die, the priest shall fetch another pair, and cast the lot over them anew." And he shall say, "if that for the Name die, this over which this lot comes will be a substitute for the Name; and if that for Azazel die, this over which this lot comes will be a substitute for Azazel." And the second shall go to pasture, until he become blemished, and he shall be sold, and his price must be put into the offertory. Since

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the sin-offering of the congregation dies not. R. Judah said, "thou shalt die;" 1 and again said R. Judah, "is his blood shed?" "The one to be sent forth shall die." "Has the one to be sent forth died?" "His blood shall be shed."

2. The high priest came to the side of the goat to be sent forth, and he placed his two hands 2 on him and made confession, and thus he spake: "I beseech Thee, O Name, Thy people, the house of Israel, have done perversely, have transgressed and sinned before Thee. I beseech Thee, O Name, pardon now their perverse doings, and their transgressions, and their sins, which they have perversely committed, and transgressed, and sinned before thee. Thy people the house of Israel, as is written in the law of Moses Thy servant, saying, 'For on that day shall he make an atonement for you to cleanse you from all your sins; before the LORD ye shall be pure.' 3 And the priests and the people who stood in the court, on hearing the Name clearly pronounced by the mouth of the High Priest, knelt and worshipped, and fell on their faces and said, 'BLESSED BE THE NAME. THE HONOUR OF HIS KINGDOM FOR EVER AND EVER.'"

3. They delivered (the goat) to his conductor. All were eligible for conducting him. But the great priests made a rule, and they did not permit Israel to lead him forth. Said R. Joseph, "it occurred that Arsela of Zippori lead him forth, and he was an Israelite."

4. And they made steps 4 for him by reason of the Babylonians, 5 who plucked off his hair and said to him, "take and go, take and go." The nobles of Jerusalem escorted him to the first booth. There were ten booths from Jerusalem to Zuk, 6—ninety stadia—seven and a half to every mile.

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5. At every booth they said to him, "there is food, there is water," and they escorted him from booth to booth, except the last. For they came not with him to Zuk, but stood afar off and saw his acts.

6. "What did he do?" "His conductor divided the tongue of brightness (iv. 2.) Half he twisted on the rock, and half he twisted between his horns. And he thrust him backwards, and the goat rolled, and descended, and he had not reached to the half of the mountain, till his members were made members. 1 He returned and sat under the last booth until darkness set in." "And when did he render garments unclean?" 2 "From his exit from the wall of Jerusalem." R. Simon said, "from the time of his thrusting at Zuk."

7. The High Priest came beside the bullock and he-goat which were to be burned. He cleft them, and brought out their entrails. He put them on a dish, and caused them to smoke upon the altar. He folded them in their skins, and caused them to be carried to the place of burning. "And when did he render garments unclean?" "From his proceeding without the wall of the court." R. Simon said, "when the fire kindled on the greatest part" (of the sacrifice).

8. They said to the High Priest, "the he-goat has arrived in the wilderness." "And whence knew they that the he-goat had arrived in the wilderness?" "They set watchmen, who waved handkerchiefs, and they knew that the he-goat had arrived in the wilderness." Said R. Judah, "and was not this a great sign to them? from Jerusalem to Bethhoron 3 there were three miles. They went a mile and returned, and rested the time of a mile, and they knew that the he-goat arrived in the desert." R. Ishmael 4 said, "and was there not another sign to them? a tongue of brightness was twisted on the door of the Sanctuary, and when the he-goat arrived

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in the wilderness the tongue blanched, as is said, "Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be white as snow." 1


130:1 R. Judah addresses in imagination the goat.

130:2 It seems, according to the Talmud, that there was no "laying on of hands" on either the morning or evening sacrifice; or on any other public sacrifice, excepting the scapegoat and the bullock, when the congregation had sinned through ignorance.

130:3 Lev. xvi. 30.

130:4 Or viaduct, or causeway.

130:5 Supposed to be Alexandrine Jews, so called from hatred to the Babylonians.

130:6 Zuk is supposed by Lieutenant Conder of the Palestine Exploration Fund to be the modern el Mûntâr, about six and a half miles east of Jerusalem in the direction of the Dead Sea, and on the way to the ruins of Mird (Mons Mardes). A well near the place is still called Bîr es Sûk.

131:1 i.e. broken to pieces.

131:2 Maimonides says that those connected with the red heifer and scapegoat were rendered unclean because these animals were "sin-bearing" animals. All that Israelites now have to offer on the day of atonement is for males a white cock (because gever in Hebrew signifies a man and a cock), and for females a hen. And they pray, "Let this be my substitute,—this my atonement. This cock goeth to death, but may I be gathered and enter into a long and happy life, and into peace."

131:3 "Place of the hollow."

131:4 Bereitha, or External Traditions.

132:1 Isaiah i. 18.

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