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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at


These (philosophers) who are vanquished (by their passions) cannot help you in cases where a sinner perishes 3; though having given up their former occupations they will give advice in worldly matters. (1)

A wise monk who fully appreciates this, should not mix with those (heretics); without conceit and not attached to them a sage should lead a life equally removed (from love and hate). (2)

Some say that those who own possessions and engage in undertakings (may reach perfection); but a monk should take his refuge to those who neither own possessions nor engage in undertakings. (3)

A wise man should beg food which has been

p. 247

prepared (for somebody else), and he should accept what is freely given him, without greed and passions; he should abstain from overbearing behaviour 1. (4)

He should know the talk of people: some say things which are the outcome of a wrong understanding and are but opinions of others repeated. (5)

'The world is boundless and eternal, it exists from eternity and does not perish 2; (another) bold philosopher 3 says that the world is limited, but eternal. (6)

'Some say that the knowledge (of the highest authority) is unlimited; but the same bold philosopher says that it is limited in every way 4.' (7)

Some beings have motion, others not; it depends on certain conditions whether they are in the one state or in the other. (8)

(E. g. big creatures) have one form of bodily existence and then another 5. But all are subject to pain; hence they should not be killed. (9)

This is the quintessence of wisdom: not to kill anything. Know this to be the legitimate conclusion

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from the principle of the reciprocity with regard to non-killing 1. (10)

Living (according to the rules of conduct), and without greed, one should take care of the highest good 2.

In walking, in sitting and lying down, and in food and drink: with regard to these three points a monk should always control himself.

And he should leave off pride 3, wrath 4, deceit 5, and greed 6. (11, 12)

Possessing the Samitis and being protected by the five Samvaras, a pious monk should live, till he reaches perfection, as a man free from fetters among those bound in fetters (viz. the householders). (13)

Thus I say.


246:3 A various reading first commented upon by Sîlâṅka is: bâlâ panditamâninô, being ignorant men who fancy themselves learned.

247:1 Omâna = apamâna.

247:2 According to Sîlâṅka the eternity of things means, with these philosophers, that one thing always retains the same genus or gâti, e.g. that he who was a man in this life will again be a man in the next.

247:3 According to the commentators Vyâsa is intended. The doctrine referred to in the text is that of the Purânas.

247:4 The commentators interpret this verse as if not two philosophical opinions but only one was spoken of. Unlimited knowledge is according to them different from omniscience; in the second part of the sentence 'limited' refers to the sleep of Brahman during which he is unconscious.

247:5 Men are some time embryos, then young men, then old men.

248:1 Ahimsâsamayam = ahimsâsamatâm, viz. as you do not wish to be killed, so others do not wish to be killed. The last part of the sentence might also be translated: know this to be the real meaning of the Law (samaya) of ahimsâ. The same verse recurs I, 11, 10.

248:2 Âdâna, right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct.

248:3 Ukkasa = utkarsha, mâna.

248:4 Galana = gvalana, krôdha.

248:5 Nûma = mâyâ.

248:6 Magghattha = madhyastha, lôbha. Compare the similar expressions in I, 1, 2, 12, above, p. 241, notes 1-4, and I, 2, 2, 29, below, p. 257.

Next: Book 1, Lecture 2: The Destruction of Karman, Chapter 1