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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at



In the town of Kâmpilya there was a king, named Sañgaya, who possessed numerous troops and war-chariots; once he went a-hunting. (1)

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He was surrounded on all sides by a large host of horses, elephants, chariots, and footmen. (2)

He chased the deer on horseback in the Kêsara-park of Kâmpilya; and intent on his sport he killed there the frightened deer. (3)

Now in the Kêsara-park there was a houseless ascetic intent on sacred study and meditating on the Law. (4)

Annihilating sinful inclinations 1, he meditated in the Asphôta-bower 2. But the king killed the deer that fled to him. (5)

Now the king on horseback came quickly there; he saw the killed deer and saw the monk there. (6)

The king in his consternation (thought) 'I had nearly hurt the monk; ill-fated and cruel me that is mad for the sport.' (7)

Having dismissed his horse, the king bowed respectfully to the monk's feet (saying), 'Forgive me this, Reverend sir.' (8)

But the venerable monk, being plunged in silent meditation, made no reply to the king, who, therefore, was seized with fear. (9)

'I am Sañgaya; answer me, Reverend sir; a monk might by the fire of his wrath reduce millions of men to ashes.' (10)

'Be without fear, O king; but grant safety to others also; in this transient world of living beings, why are you addicted to cruelty? (11)

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'As you must, of necessity, one day part with everything, in this transient world of living beings, why do you cling to kingly power? (12)

'Transient like a stroke of lightning are life and beauty, which you love so much; you do not comprehend what will benefit you in the next life. (13)

'Wives and children, friends and relations, all are dependent on a man during his life; but they will not follow him in death. (14)

'The sons, in great sorrow, will remove the corpse of their father (to the cemetery); and so will parents do with their sons and relations; O king, do penance! (15)

'O king, other men, glad, and pleased, and well attired, will enjoy the riches (the deceased) had amassed, and will dally with the wives he had so well guarded. (16)

'And whatever actions he has done, good or wicked ones, with their Karman he will depart to his next existence.' (17)

Then the king was taught the Law by this monk, and was filled with a great desire for purity, and disregard of worldly objects. (18)

Sañgaya gave up his kingly power and adopted the faith of the Ginas in the presence of the venerable monk Gardabhâli. (19)

A Kshattriya, who had abandoned his kingdom and had turned monk, said to him: 'As you look so happy in outward appearance, you must have peace of mind. (20)

'What is your name, to which Gôtra do you belong, and why have you become an ascetic 1?

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[paragraph continues] How do you venerate the enlightened ones 1, and how did you come to be called a well-behaved (monk)? (21)

"My name is Sañgaya; I belong to the Gôtra of Gôtama; my teacher is Gardabhâli, who is conversant with the sacred lore and good conduct. (22)

"O great sage, the man of limited knowledge talks foolishly on these four heads 2, viz. the existence of the soul, its non-existence, idolatry, and the inefficiency of knowledge. (23)

"This has been declared by him who is enlightened, wise, liberated, conversant with the sacred lore and good conduct, who is truthful and of right energy. (24)

"Men who commit sins will go to hell; but those who have walked the road of righteousness, will obtain a place in heaven. (25)

"All this delusive talk (of the heretics) is untrue and without any meaning; I live and walk about according to the rules of self-control. (26)

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"I know all these heresies to be contemptible; I know that there will be a life hereafter, and I know my Self. (27)

"I was an illustrious god in the Mahâprâna heaven, and reached old age as we here would say of a man who is a hundred years old; but in heaven, hundred years consist of as many Mahâpâlîs of Pâlîs 1. (28)

"Descending from the Brahmalôka, I was born as a man. I know exactly the length of my life as well as that of other men. (29)

"A monk should abandon the manifold doctrines (of heretics), and his own fancies, and such deeds as are productive of evil everywhere. One should live up to this wisdom 2. (30)

"I keep clear of the (superstitious) questions and the spells of laymen, exerting myself day and night (in the true religion). Thinking thus, one should practise austerities. (31)

"And what you of a pure mind asked me just now, that has been revealed by the enlightened one 3; such knowledge makes part of the creed of the Ginas. (32)

"A wise man believes in the existence of the soul 4,

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he avoids the heresy of the non-existence of the soul; possessing true faith one should practise the very difficult Law according to the faith. (33)

"Having learned this pure creed, which is adorned by truth and righteousness, Bharata 1 gave up Bharatavarsha and all pleasures, and entered the order. (34)

"King Sagara 2 also gave up the ocean-girt Bharatavarsha and his unrivalled kingly power, and reached perfection through his compassion. (35)

"After having given up Bharatavarsha, the famous universal monarch of great power, called Maghavan 3, entered the order. (36)

"King Sanatkumâra 4, a universal monarch of great power, placed his son on the throne, and then practised austerities. (37)

"Sânti 5, a universal monarch of great power, the

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bringer of peace to the world, gave up Bharatavarsha and reached perfection. (38)

"King Kunthu, the bull of the Aikshvâka race, the widely famed lord, reached perfection. (39)

"King Ara, after he had given up the sea-girt Bharatavarsha, reached perfection on becoming exempt from defilement. (40)

"After having given up his large kingdom, his army and war-chariots, his exquisite pleasures, Mahâpadma 1 practised austerities. (41)

"Having brought the (whole) earth under his sceptre, king Harishên2, who humbled the pride (of other kings), reached perfection. (42)

"Gaya 3, together with thousands of kings, renouncing the world, practised self-restraint. He

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reached perfection which has been taught by the Ginas. (43)

"Dasârnabhadra 1, giving up his flourishing kingdom of Dasârna, turned monk; he renounced the world, being directed to do so by Sakra himself. (44)

"Karakandu was king of Kaliṅga; Dvimukha, of Pañkâla; Nami, of Vidêha; Naggati (or rather Nagnagit), of Gândhâra 2. (45)

"Nami humbled himself, being directed to do so by Sakra himself; the king of Vidêha left the house and became a Sramana. (46)

"These bulls of kings have adopted the faith of the Ginas; after having placed their sons on the throne, they exerted themselves as Sramanas. (47)

"Udâyan3, the bull of the kings of Sauvîra, renounced the world and turned monk; he entered the order and reached perfection. (48)

"And thus the king of Kâs4, exerting himself for the best truth, abandoned all pleasures, and hewed down, as it were, his Karman like a forest. (49)

"And thus king Vigaya 5, whose sins were not quite annihilated 6, turned monk after he, the famous man, had quitted his excellent kingdom. (50)

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"And thus the royal seer Mahâbala 1 practised severe penance with an undistracted mind, and took upon himself the glory (of self-control). (51)

"Why should a wise man, for bad reasons, live on earth like a madman, since those persons (mentioned above) who reached eminence, exerted themselves strongly? (52)

"I have spoken true words able to promote virtue; some have been saved, some are being saved, and some will be saved. (53)

"Why should a wise man, for bad reasons, bring affliction upon himself? He who has become free from all ties and sins, will reach perfection." (54)

Thus I say.


80:4 The commentators Sanskritise this name in Samyata. But however appropriate it may be to a Gaina, it certainly does not p. 81 look like a king's name. The Sanskrit form of the name was probably Sañgaya or Sriñgaya, both of which frequently occur in Sanskrit literature.

81:1 To render âsrava.

81:2 Apphôva in the original; there are several plants which are called âsphôta.

82:1 Literally, a Brahman.

83:1 Buddhê, explained âkâryân, preceptors.

83:2 These are the four great heresies: (1) that of the kriyâvâdinas, who maintain that the soul exists; (2) that of the akriyâvâdinas, who hold the reverse of the preceding doctrine; (3) that of the vainayikas, which seems to be identical with salvation by bhakti; (4) that of the agñânavâdinas, who contend that knowledge is not necessary for salvation, but t a p a s; this seems identical with the karmapatha. The commentators explain kriyâvâdinah 'those who believe the soul or âtman to be characterised by the verb to be (i.e. by a permanent and unchangeable existence), and ascribe to it such qualities as ubiquity or non-ubiquity, activity or non-activity.' This they treat as heresy, but from Mahâvagga VI, 31, 2 (vol. xvii, p. 109) it is evident that the Gainas were considered kriyâvâdins. The akriyâvâda is also identified with the kshanikavâda or doctrine, usually ascribed to Buddhists, that everything has but a momentary existence and is in the next moment replaced by a facsimile of itself. About these heresies compare the Sûtrakritâṅga I, 12; II, 2, 77.

84:1 According to the commentary a pâlî seems to be what is commonly called palyôpamâ, and mahâpâlî a sâgarôpamâ. However the longest life of a god in Brahmalôka is but ten Sâgarôpamâs, see below, XXXVI, 225. The construction of the verse is very involved, but the drift of it cannot be mistaken.

84:2 ii viggâm anusamkarê. I believe that viggâm here stands for vidvân, as in the following verse. The meaning would then be, 'knowing this one should live as a monk.'

84:3 Buddha.

84:4 The Gainas do not deny the existence of the soul, but the unalterable character of the soul. Hence they object to the kriyâvâda.

85:1 Bharata was the eldest son of Rishabha, the first Tîrthakara. He became the first Kakravartin, or universal monarch, and resided in Ayôdhyâ. At his renunciation he was ordered by Indra himself to pluck out five handfuls of his hair as is the custom of Gaina monks on entering the order.

85:2 Sagara, king of Ayôdhyâ, was, according to the legend contained in the commentary (see R. Fick, Eine jainistische Bearbeitung der Sagara-Sage, Kiel, 1889), the younger brother of Agita, the second Tîrthakara. He became the second Kakravartin, and, in the end, he was ordained by Agita. The Gaina legend seems to be but a strangely distorted version of the story of Sagara told in the first book of the Râmâyana.

85:3 Maghavan, son of king Samudravigaya of Srâvastî, and his wife Bhadrâ, became the third Kakravartin.

85:4 Sanatkumâra, son of king Asvasêna of Hastinâpura, and his wife Sahadêvî, became the fourth Kakravartin. The adventures of Sanatkumâra are told in a Prâkrit legend, which I have published in my Ausgewählte Erzählungen in Mâhârâshtrî, Leipzig, x886, p. 20 ff.

85:5 Sânti was the sixteenth Tîrthakara, Kunthu the seventeenth, and p. 86 Ara the eighteenth Tîrthakara. Kunthu sounds strange for a proper name. I think it just possible that it is a popular or Prâkrit corruption of Kakutstha, who was an Aikshvâka. As is well known, Râma is frequently called after him Kâkutstha, and so are other kings of the same line, in which he stands as the twenty-fifth according to the list in the Râmâyana I, 70.

86:1 Mahâpadma was the ninth Kakravartin. His elder brother was Vishnukumâra, who was ordained by Suvrata, a disciple of Munisuvrata, the twentieth Tîrthakara. He wrenched the sovereignty of the world from Namuki, minister of his father Padmôttara, who had ascended the throne, by making him promise as much of his territory as he could cover with three strides. This is the Brahmanical story of Vishnu and Bali, for whom the Gainas have substituted Namuki. According to them the minister Namuki was, in a disputation, defeated by the Gaina monks, and to revenge himself on them, he ordered them to quit his kingdom as soon as he got it.--Mahâpadma's residence was Hastinâpura.

86:2 Harishêna, son of king Mahâhari of Kâmpilya, became the tenth Kakravartin.

86:3 Gaya, son of king Samudravigaya of Râgagriha, became the eleventh Kakravartin.

87:1 King Dasârnabhadra was a contemporary of Mahâvîra.

87:2 These are the four Pratyêkabuddhas; see p. 35, note 2.

87:3 The story of Udâyana (or perhaps Uddâyana) will be found in my Ausgewählte Erzählungen in Mâhârâshtrî, p. 28 ff. He was contemporary with Mahâvîra.

87:4 He was Nandana, the seventh Baladêva, son of king Agnisikha of Benares.

87:5 He was the son of king Brahmarâga of Dvârakâvatî, and eldest brother of the Vâsudêva Dviprishta or Dvipushti.

87:6 To render anatthakati, of which the commentators offer several explanations, rendering it anârttâkîrti and anashtakîrti. A various reading ânatthâkitti is mentioned, and explained âgñâ-artha-âkriti.

88:1 Mahâbala was the son of king Bala of Hastinâpura. He lived at the time of Vimala, the thirteenth Tîrthakara.

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