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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE45), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1895], at



O long-lived (Gambûsvâmin)! I (Sudharman) have heard the following Discourse 4 from the Venerable (Mahâvîra):

Here 5, forsooth, the Venerable Ascetic Mahâvîra of the Kâsyapa Gôtra has declared twenty-two troubles which a monk must learn and know, bear and conquer, in order not to be vanquished by them when he lives the life of a wandering mendicant.

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[paragraph continues] These, then, are the twenty-two troubles declared by the Venerable Ascetic Mahâvîra, which a monk must learn and know, bear and conquer, in order not to be vanquished by them when he lives the life of a wandering mendicant:

1. digañkhâ (gugupsâ)-parîsahâ, hunger;

2. pivâsâ (pipâsâ)-p., thirst;

3. sîya (sîta)-p., cold;

4. usina (ushna)-p., heat;

5. damsamasaya (damsamasaka)-p., gad-flies, and gnats 1;

6. akêla-p., nakedness 2;

7. arati-p., to be discontented with the objects of control.

8. itthî (strî)-p., women;

9. kariyâ (karyâ)-p., erratic life;

10. nisîhiyâ (naishêdhikî)-p., place for study;

11. se.ggâ (sayyâ)-p., lodging;

12. akkôsa (âkrôsa)-p., abuse;

13. vaha (vadha)-p., corporal punishment;

14. gâyanâ (yâkanâ)-p., to ask for something;

15. alâbha-p., to be refused;

16. rôga-p., illness;

17. tana-phâsa (trinasparsa), pricking of grass;

18. galla-p., dirt;

19. sakkârapurakkâra (satkârapurahkâra)-p., kind and respectful treatment;

20. pannâ (pragñâ)-p., understanding;

21. annâna (agñâna)-p., ignorance;

22. sammatta (samyaktva)-p., righteousness.

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 1The enumeration of the troubles has been delivered by the Kâsyapa 2, I shall explain them to you in due order. Listen to me. (1)

1. Though his body be weakened by hunger, a monk who is strong (in self-control) and does penance, should not cut or cause another to cut (anything to be eaten), nor cook it or cause another to cook it. (2)

Though emaciated like the joint of a crow's (leg) and covered with a network of veins, he should know the permitted measure of food and drink, and wander about with a cheerful mind. (3)

2. Though overcome by thirst, he should drink no cold water, restrained by shame and aversion (from forbidden things); he should try to get distilled 3 water. (4)

Wandering about on deserted ways, in pain, thirsty, with dry throat, and distressed, he should bear this trouble (of thirst). (5)

3. If a restrained, austere ascetic occasionally suffers from cold on his wanderings, he should not walk beyond the (prescribed) time, remembering the teaching of the Gina. (6)

'I have no shelter and nothing to cover my skin, therefore I shall make a fire to warm myself;' such a thought should not be entertained by a monk. (7)

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4. If he suffers from the heat of hot things, or from the heat of his body, or from the heat of summer, he should not lament the loss of comfort. (8)

A wise man, suffering from heat, should not long for a bath, or pour water over his body, or fan himself. (9)

5. Suffering from insects a great sage remains undisturbed. As an elephant at the head of the battle kills the enemy, so does a hero (in self-control conquer the internal foe). (10)

He should not scare away (insects), nor keep them off, nor be in the least provoked to passion by them. Tolerate living beings, do not kill them, though they eat your flesh and blood. (11)

6. 'My clothes being torn, I shall (soon) go naked,' or 'I shall get a new suit;' such thoughts should not be entertained by a monk. (12)

At one time he will have no clothes, at another he will have some; knowing this to be a salutary rule, a wise (monk) should not complain about it. (13)

7. A houseless and poor monk who wanders from village to village may become tired of ascetic life: he should bear this trouble. (14)

A sage should turn away from this discontent; he should wander about free from sins, guarded in himself, a tabernacle (as it were) of the Law, doing no actions, and perfectly passionless. (15)

8. In this world men have a natural liking for women; he who knows (and renounces) them, will easily perform his duties as a Sramana. (16)

A wise man who knows that women are a slough, as it were, will get no harm from them, but will wander about searching for the Self. (17)

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9. Alone, living on allowed food 1, he should wander about, bearing all troubles, in a village or a town or a market-place or a capital. (18)

Different (from other men) a monk should wander about, he should acquire no property; but not being attached to householders, he should live without a fixed residence. (19)

10. In a burial-place, or a deserted house, or below a tree he should sit down, alone, without moving, and he should not drive away any one. (20)

Sitting there he should brave all dangers; when seized with fear, he should not rise and go to some other place. (21)

11. A monk who does penance and is strong (in self-control), will not be affected beyond measure by good or bad lodgings, but an evil-minded monk will. (22)

Having obtained a good or bad lodging in an empty house 2, he should stay there thinking: 'What does it matter for one night?' (23)

12. If a layman abuses a monk, he should not grow angry against him; because he would be like a child 3, a monk should not grow angry. (24)

If a monk hears bad words, cruel and rankling ones, he should silently overlook them, and not take them to heart. (25)

13. A monk should not be angry if beaten, nor should he therefore entertain sinful thoughts; knowing patience to be the highest good, a monk should meditate on the Law. (26)

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If somebody strikes a restrained, resigned Sramana somewhere, he should think: 'I have not lost my life.' (27)

14. It will always cause difficulties to a houseless monk to get everything by begging, and nothing without begging. (28)

The hand (of the giver) is not always kindly stretched out to a monk when he is on his begging tour; but he should not think that it would be better to live as a householder. (29)

15. He should beg food from the householder when his dinner is ready; a wise man should not care whether he gets alms or not. (30)

'I get nothing to-day, perhaps I shall get something to-morrow;' a monk who thinks thus, will not be grieved by his want of success. (31)

16. If any misfortune 1 happens and he suffers pain, he should cheerfully steady his mind, and bear the ills that attack him. (32)

He should not long for medical treatment, but he should continue to search for the welfare of his soul; thus he will be a true Sramana by neither acting himself nor causing others to act. (33)

17. When a naked, rough, restrained ascetic lies on the grass, his body will be hurt. (34)

In the sun his pain will grow insupportable; still a monk, though hurt by the grass, will not use clothes 2. (35)

18. When by the heat of summer his body sweats and is covered with dirt and dust, a wise monk should not lament his loss of comfort. (36)

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He should bear (all this), waiting for the destruction of his Karman 1, (and practising) the noble, excellent Law; he should carry the filth on his body till he expires. (37)

19. It may be that a gentleman salutes a monk, or rises from his seat on his approach, or invites him (to accept alms in his house): a monk should evince no predilection for men of this sort, who show him such marks of respect. (38)

Not resentful, having few wants, begging from strangers, and not being dainty, a wise man should not long for pleasant things, nor be sorry afterwards (for not having got them). (39)

20. 'Forsooth, in bygone times I have done actions productive of ignorance, for I do not remember them when asked by anybody anywhere 2.' (40)

'Afterwards, however, actions productive of ignorance take effect.' Therefore comfort yourself, knowing the consequences of actions. (4!)

21. 'It was of no use to turn away from the lust of the senses and to live restrainedly, for I do not properly recognise good and bad things.' (42)

'Though in practising austerities and religious observances I live according to strict rules, still the hindrances to knowledge will not go off.' (43)

22. A monk should not think: 'There is, indeed, no life to come, nor an exalted state to be acquired by penances; in short, I have been deceived.' (44)

A monk should not think: 'Those lied who said that there were, are, and will be Ginas.' (45)

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All these troubles have been declared by the Kâsyapa. A monk should not be vanquished by them, when attacked by any anywhere.

Thus I say.


8:3 Parîsaha, that which may cause trouble to an ascetic, and which must be cheerfully borne.

8:4 The commentator (Dêvêndra) says that when Mahâvîra spoke, he was understood by all creatures, whatever was their language. He quotes the following verse: dêvâ dêvîm narâ nârîm sabarâs kâpi sâbarîm | tiryañko pi ka tairaskîm mênirê bhagavadgiram || The gods, men, Sabaras, and animals took the language of the Lord for their own. Cf. Acts ii. 11.

8:5 I.e. in our creed or religion. This is generally the meaning of the word iha, here, opening a sentence.

9:1 This is to include all biting or stinging insects, as lice, &c.

9:2 This is binding on the Ginakalpikas only, not on common monks.

10:1 The preceding part of this lecture is in prose, the rest is in slôka. The numbers placed before the verses refer to the above enumeration of the troubles. It will be seen that two stanzas are allotted to each of them.

10:2 I.e. Mahâvîra, who belonged to the Gôtra of Kâsyapa.

10:3 Vigada = vikrita. It means water which by boiling or some other process has become so changed that it may be regarded as lifeless.

12:1dha; see also note on XVII, 2.

12:2 I.e. in which there are no women.

12:3 Or like an ignorant man, bâla.

13:1 Viz. if he falls sick.

13:2 Tantuga, what is manufactured from threads.

14:1 Nirgarâ.

14:2 The commentators refer the word 'anywhere' to the place or object of the former actions.

Next: Third Lecture. The Four Requisites