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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE22), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1884], at


Always well guarded, he bore the pains (caused by) grass, cold, fire, flies, and gnats; manifold pains. (1)

He travelled in the pathless country of the Lâdhas, in Vaggabhûmi and Subbhabhûmi 1; he used there miserable beds and miserable seats. (2)

In Lâdha (happened) to him many dangers. Many natives attacked him. Even in the faithful part of the rough country 2 the dogs bit him, ran at him. (3)

Few people kept off the attacking, biting dogs. Striking the monk, they cried 'Khukkhû,' and made the dogs bite him. (4)

Such were the inhabitants. Many other mendicants, eating rough food in Vaggabhûmi, and carrying about a strong pole or a stalk (to keep off the dogs), lived there. (5)

Even thus armed they were bitten by the dogs, torn by the dogs. It is difficult to travel in Lâdha. (6)

p. 85

Ceasing to use the stick (i.e. cruelty) against living beings, abandoning the care of the body, the houseless (Mahâvîra), the Venerable One, endures the thorns of the villages (i.e. the abusive language of the peasants), (being) perfectly enlightened. (7)

As an elephant at the head of the battle, so was Mahâvîra there victorious. Sometimes he did not reach a village there in Lâdha. (8)

When he who is free from desires approached the village, the inhabitants met him on the outside, and attacked him, saying, 'Get away from here.' (9)

He was struck with a stick, the fist, a lance, hit with a fruit, a clod, a potsherd. Beating him again and again, many cried. (10)

When he once (sat) without moving his body, they cut his flesh 1, tore his hair under pains, or covered him with dust. (11)

Throwing him up, they let him fall, or disturbed him in his religious postures; abandoning the care of his body, the Venerable One humbled himself and bore pain, free from desire. (1 2)

As a hero at the head of the battle is surrounded on all sides 2, so was there Mahâvîra. Bearing all hardships, the Venerable One, undisturbed, proceeded (on the road to Nirvâna). (13)

This is the rule which has often been followed, &c.


84:1 Vagrabhûmi and Subhrabhûmi (or Svabhrabhûmi) are, according to the commentaries, the two divisions of Lâdha. I think that Lâdha may be identical with the classical Râdhâ or western Bengal and the Lâla of the Buddhists, the native country of Vigaya, the legendary conqueror of Ceylon. Subbhabhûmi is probably the country of the Suhmas, who are also identified with the Râdhas.

84:2 The commentator seems to understand the words lukkhadesie bhatte in the sense: There the living also was rough; for they used clothes of grass instead of cotton.

85:1 Or his mustaches.

85:2 Or is on his guard.

Next: Book I, Lecture 8, Lesson 4