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Jaina Sutras, Part II (SBE22), tr. by Hermann Jacobi, [1884], at


For a monk who has not yet reached discrimination 1, it is bad going and difficult proceeding when he wanders (alone) from village to village. Some men (when going wrong) will become angry when exhorted with speech. And a man with wary pride is embarrassed with great delusion 2. (1) There are many obstacles which are very difficult to overcome for the ignorant and the blinded. Let that not be your case! That is the doctrine of the clever one (Mahavîra). Adopting the (âkârya's) views, imitating his indifference (for the outer world), making him the guide and adviser (in all one's matters), sharing his abode, living carefully, acting according to his mind, examining one's way 3, not coming too near (the âkârya), minding living beings, one should go (on one's business). (2)

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(A monk should according to the âkârya's order) go and return, contract or stretch (his limbs), thoroughly clean (what ought to be cleaned). Sometimes, though a monk be endowed with virtue and walks in righteousness, living beings, coming in contact with his body, will be killed. (If this happens through mere carelessness) then he will get his punishment in this life; but if it was done contrary to the rules 1, he should repent of it and do penance for it 2. Thus he who knows the sacred lore 3, recommends penance combined with carefulness. (3)

(When a monk) with fully developed intuition and knowledge, calm, guarded, endowed (with knowledge), always restrained, perceives (a woman tempting him), he should consider within himself: what will this person do? The greatest temptation in this world are women. This has been declared by the sage. (4)

When strongly vexed by the influence of the senses, he should eat bad food, mortify himself, stand upright, wander from village to village, take no food at all, withdraw his mind from women. First troubles, then pleasures; first pleasures, then troubles 4: thus they are the cause of quarrels. Considering this and well understanding it, one should teach oneself not to cultivate (sensuality). Thus I say. He should not speak of women, nor look at them, nor converse with them, nor claim them as his own, nor do their work. Careful in his speech and

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guarding his mind, he should always avoid sin. He should maintain this sagedom. Thus I say. (5)


47:1 Avyakta, either with regard to sruta, sacred knowledge, or to his age.

47:2 The result will be that he thinks himself above the admonition of the spiritual head (âkârya) of the chapter (gakkha), and leaves the chapter, living as a gakkhanirgata.

47:3 The monk must closely inspect everything with which he comes in contact in order to avoid killing animals; this holds good with regard to walking, sitting, sleeping, eating, drinking, &c.

48:1 Âuttîkammam = âkuttikarman.

48:2 Vivega = viveka, explained as prâyaskittam.

48:3 Vedavid.

48:4 In order to attain pleasure, one has to work for the means; after the enjoyment of the pleasures one has to undergo punishment in hell, &c.

Next: Book I, Lecture 5, Lesson 5