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THEODOR HAARBRÜCKER: Asch-Schahrastâni's Religionsparteien und Philosophenschulen übersetzt und erklärt, 2 vols. Halle, 1850-51. The Arabic text, without which Haarbrücker's German is sometimes hardly intelligible, was published by Cureton, London, 1846.

T. J. DE BOER: Geschichte der Philosophie im Islam. Stuttgart, 1901. Unsatisfactory but the best that there is. It is only a sketch and takes hardly sufficient account of theology and mysticism.

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STANLEY LANE-POOLE: Studies in a Mosque. II edition. London, 1893. Miscellaneous essays, lightly written but trustworthy.

KREHL: Beiträge zur Characteristik der Lehre vom Glauben in Islam. Leipzig, 1877.

G. VON VLOTEN: Les Hachwia et Nabita. Eleventh Congress of Orientalists, part iii, pp. 99 ff. On early religious sects.

G. VON VLOTEN: Irdja. ZDMG, xiv, pp. 181 ff. On the Murji’ites.

EDUARD SACHAU: Uber de religiosen Anschauungen der ibaditischen Muhammedaner in Oman und Ostafrica. Mitth. a. d. Sem. f. Orient. Sprachen. Berlin, 1899.

H. STEINER: Die Mu‘taziliten oder die Freidenker im Islam. Leipzig, 1865.

WILHELM SPITTA: Zur Geschichte Abu l-Hasan al-Ash‘ari's. Leipzig, 1876. The best as yet on al-Ash‘ari, but to be used with caution, especially in the translations of theological texts.

MARTIN SCHREINER: Zur Geschichte des Ash‘aritenthums. In Actes du huitième Congress International des Orientalistes, I, i, pp. 77 ff. Leiden, 1891.

M. A. F. MEHREN: Exposé de la réforme de l’Islamisme commencée au troisième siècle de l’Hégire par Abou-l-Hasan Ali el-Ash‘ari et continuée par son école. Third International Congress of Orientalists, vol. ii.

G. FLÜGEL: Al-Kindi genannt "der Philosoph der Araber." Ein Vorbild seiner Zeit und seines Volkes. Leipzig, 1857.

SIR WILLIAM MUIR: The Apology of al-Kindy, written at the court of al-Mâmûn. London, 1882.

E. SELL: The Faith of Islam. London, 1896. II edition. A valuable book, but from the point of view of an Indian missionary. Hence the tone is polemic and the technicalities are Persian rather than Arabic.

WALTER M. PATTEN: Ahmad ibn Hanbal and the Mihna. Leyden, 1897. There is a valuable review by Goldziher in ZDMG. lii, pp. 155 ff. It traces connection of Hanbalites with Ibn Taymiya and Wahhabites.

HEINRICH RITTER: Ueber unsere Kenntniss der Arabischen Philosophie. Göttingen, 1844.

FRIEDRICH DIETERICI: Alfarabi's phitosophische Abhandlungen herausgegeben. Leiden, 1890. Aus den arabischen übersetzt. Leiden, 1892.

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AL-FARABI: Der Musterstaat. Herausgegeben und Übersetzt von Frdr. Dieterici. Leiden, 1900.

G. FLÜGEL: Ueber Inhalt und Verfasser der arabisehen Encyclopädie der Ikhwan as-Safa. ZDMG, xiii, pp. 1 ff. See, too, an excellent article by August Müller in Ersch und Gruber, ii, 42, pp. 272 ff., and Stanley Lane-Poole in his Studies in a Mosque.

FRIEDRICH DIETERICI: Die Philosophie der Araber im X. Jahrhundert n. Chr. aus der Schriften der lauteren Brüder herausgegeben. Berlin and Leipzig, 1861-1879.

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER: Materialien zur Entwickelungs-geschichte des Sufismus. WZ, xiii, pp. 35 ff.

THEODOR NÖLDEKE: Sufi. ZDMG, xlviii, pp. 45 ff. On the derivation and early usage of the name Sufi.

ADELBERT MERX: Idee und Grundlinien einer allgemeinen Geschichte der Mystik. Heidelberg, 1893.

JOHN P. BROWN: The Derwishes or Oriental Spiritualism. London, 1868. A valuable but uncritical description of modern Turkish and Persian Darwishes.

SIR JAMES REDHOUSE: The Mesnevi of Jelal eddin ar-rumi translated into English. Book I. London, 1881. See, too, a translation by Whinfield, London, 1887, and an edition of selected ghazels from the Diwan with translation and valuable introduction by R. A. Nicholson, Cambridge University Press, 1898.

E. J. W. GIBB: A History of Ottoman Poetry. Vol. i. London, 1900. A valuable statement of the later Persian and Turkish mysticism and metaphysic on pp. 13-70.

E. H. PALMER: Oriental Mysticism. Cambridge, 1867.

CARRA DE VAUX: Avicenne. Paris, 1900. Contains an introductory sketch of philosophy and theology up to the time of Ibn Sina. Algazali. Paris, 1902. A continuation of the first.

A. VON KREMER: Uber die philosophischen Gedichte des Abul Ala Ma‘arry. Wien, 1888.

A. VON KREMER: Gedichte des Abu-i-Ala Ma‘arri. ZDMG, xxix, 304; xxx, 40; xxxi, pp. 471 ff.; xxxviii, 499 ff.

ABU-L-ALA AL-MA'ARRI: Letters Arabic and English, with notes, etc., edited by D. S. Margoliouth. Oxford, 1898. See, too, papers by R. A. Nicholson in JRAS, October, 1900, ff.; and by Margoliouth, for April, 1902.

E. FITZGERALD: The Ruba‘iyat of Omar Khayyam. With a commentary by H. M. Batson and a biographical Introduction by

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[paragraph continues] E. D. Ross. New York, 1900. The biography by Ross is the only at all adequate treatment of the life and times of Umar which yet exists. Of the Ruba‘iyat themselves there are several adequate translations, e.g. by Whinfield, Payne and Mrs. Cadell.

MARTIN SCHREINER: Zur Geschichte der Polemik zwischen Juden und Muhammedanem. ZDMG, xlii, pp. 591 ff. Deals with Ibn Hazm and Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi.

MARTIN SCHREINER: Beiträge zur Geschichte der theologischen Bewegungen in Islam. ZDMG, lii, pp 463 ff.; 513 ff.; liii, pp. 51 ff. A most valuable collection of materials with considerable gaps and imperfect digestion.

D. B. MACDONALD: The Life of al-Ghazzali. In the Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. xx, pp. 71-132.

D. B. MACDONALD: Emotional Religion in Islam as affected by Music and Singing. Being a translation of a book of the Ihya of al-Ghazzali. In JRAS for April and October, 1901, and January, 1902.

MIGUEL ASIN PALACIOS: Algazel, dogmatica, moral, ascetica. Zaragoza, 1901.

C. BARBIER DE MEYNARD: Traduction nouvelle du Traité de Ghazzali, intitulé Le Preservatif de l’Erreur. In JA, vii, 9, pp. 5 ff.

T. J. DE BOER: Die Widersprüche der Philosophie nach al-Ghazzali und ihr Ausgleich durch Ibn. Roshd. Strassburg, 1894.

A translation of al-Ghazzali's Tahafut has been begun by Carra de Vaux in Le Muséon, xxviii, p. 143 (June, 1899).

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER: Materialien zur Kenntniss des Almohadenbewegung in Nordafrika. ZDMG, xli, pp. 30 ff.

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER: Die Bekenntnissformeln der Almohaden. ZDMG, xliv, pp. 168 ff.

ROBERT FLINT: Historical Philosophy in France and French Belgium and Switzerland. New York, 1894. Contains an excellent estimate of Ibn Khaldun as a philosophical historian.

A. VON KREMER: Ibn Chaldun and seine Culturgeschichte der islamischen Reiche. Wien, 1879.

ERNEST RENAN: Averroes et l’Averroisme. III edition. Paris, 1861. Reviewed by Dozy in JA, 5, ii, pp. 93 ff. This review contains a curious description of a Parliament of Religions at Baghdad about A.D. 1000.

Philosophie end Theologie von Averroes. Aus dem Arabischen

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übersetzt von M.J. Müller. München, 1875. The Arabic text was published by Müller in 1859.

LEON GAUTHIER: Ibn Thofail-Hayy ben Yaqdhan, roman philosophique. Texte arabe . . . et traduction française. Alger, 1900. There is an earlier edition of Ibn Tufayl's romance by the younger Pocock with a Latin version. Oxford, 1671.

M. A. F. MEHREN: Correspondance du Philosophe Soufi Ibn Sa‘bin Abd oul-Haqq avec l’Empereur Frédéric II. de Hohenstaufen. In JA, vii, 14, pp. 341 ff.

S. GUYARD: Abd ar-Razzaq et son traité de la Prédestination et du libre arbitre. In JA, vii, 1, pp. 125 ff.

A. DE KREMER: Notice sur Sha’rany. In JA, vi, 11, pp. 253 ff.

G. FLUGEL: Scha‘rani und sein Werk uber die muhammadanische Glaubenslehre. ZDMG, xx, p. 1 ff.

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER: Beiträge zur Litteraturgeschichte der Shi‘a. Wien, 1874.

JAMES L. MERRICK: The Life and Religion of Mohammed, as contained in the Sheeah Traditions of the Ifyat-ul-Kuloob. Boston, 1850.

J. B. RULING: Beiträge zur Eschatologie des Islam. Leipzig, 1895.

L. GAUTHIER: Ad-dourra al-fakhira; la perle précieuse de Ghazali. Genève, 1878. In Arabic and French; a valuable account of Muslim eschatology.

M. WOLFF: Muhammedanische Eschatologie. Leipzig, 1872. In Arabic and German; an account of popular Muslim eschatology.

DEPONT ET CAPPOLANI: Les Confréries religieuses Musulmanes. Alger, 1897.

SNOUCK HURGRONJE: Les Confréries religieuses, la Mecque et le Panislamisme, in Revue de l’histoire des religions, xliv, pp. 262 ff.

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