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 XXXI. (The trigram representing) a mountain and above it that for (the waters of) a marsh form Hsien. The superior man, in accordance with this, keeps his mind free from pre-occupation, and open to receive (the influences of) others.

1. 'He moves his great toe:'--his mind is set on what is beyond (himself).

2. Though 'there would be evil; yet, if he abide (quiet) in his place, there will be good fortune:'--through compliance (with the circumstances of his condition and place) there will be no injury.

3. 'He moves his thighs:'--he still does not (want to) rest in his place. His will is set on 'following others:'--what he holds in his grasp is low.

4. 'Firm correctness will lead to good fortune,

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and prevent all occasion for repentance:'--there has not yet been any harm from (a selfish wish to) influence. 'He is unsettled in his movements:'(his power to influence) is not yet either brilliant or great.

5. 'He (tries to) move the flesh along the spine above the heart:'--his aim is trivial.

6. 'He moves his jaws and tongue:'--he (only) talks with loquacious mouth.

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 XXXII. (The trigram representing) thunder and that for wind form Hăng. The superior man, in accordance with this, stands firm, and does not change his method (of operation).

1. 'The evil attached to the deep desire for long continuance (in the subject of the first line)' arises from the deep seeking for it at the commencement (of things).

2. 'All occasion for repentance on the part of the subject of the second NINE, (undivided,), disappears:'--he can abide long in the due mean.

3. 'He does not continuously maintain his virtue:'--nowhere will he be borne with.

4. (Going) for long to what is not his proper place, how can he get game?

5. 'Such firm correctness in a wife will be fortunate:'--it is hers to the end of life to follow with an unchanged mind. The husband must decide what is right, and lay down the rule accordingly:--for him to follow (like) a wife is evil.

6. 'The subject of the topmost line is exciting himself to long continuance:'--far will he be from achieving merit.

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 XXXIII. (The trigram representing) the sky and below it that for a mountain form Thun. The superior man, in accordance with this, keeps small men at a distance, not by showing that he hates them, but by his own. dignified gravity.

1. There is 'the perilousness of the position shown by the retiring tail:'--but if 'no movement' be made, what disaster can there be?

2. 'He holds it as; by (a thong from the hide of) a yellow ox:'--his purpose is firm.

3. 'The peril connected with the case of one retiring, though bound,' is due to the (consequent) distress and exhaustion. 'If he were (to deal as in) nourishing a servant or concubine, it would be fortunate for him:'--but a great affair cannot be dealt with in this way.

4. 'A superior man retires notwithstanding his likings; a small man cannot attain to this.'

5. 'He retires in an admirable way, and with firm correctness there will be good fortune:'--this is due to the rectitude of his purpose.

6. 'He retires in a noble way, and his doing so will be advantageous in every respect:'--he who does so has no doubts about his course.

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 XXXIV. (The trigram representing) heaven and above it that for thunder form Tâ Kwang. The superior man, in accordance with this, does not take a step which is not according to propriety.

1. 'He manifests his vigour in his toes:'--this will certainly lead to exhaustion.

2. 'The second NINE, (undivided), shows that with firm correctness there will be good fortune:'--this is due to its being in the centre, (and its subject exemplifying the due mean).

3. 'The small man uses all his strength; in the case of the superior man it is his rule not to do so.'

4. 'The fence is opened and the horns are not entangled:'--(the subject of the line) still advances.

5. 'He loses his ram and hardly perceives it:'--he is not in his appropriate place.

6. 'He is unable either to retreat or to advance:'--this is owing to his want of care. 'If he realise the difficulty (of his position), there will be good fortune:'--his error will not be prolonged.

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 XXXV. (The trigram representing) the earth and that for the bright (sun) coming forth above it form Žin. The superior man, according to this, gives himself to make more brilliant his bright virtue.

1. 'He appears wishing to advance, but (at the same time) being kept back:'--all-alone he pursues the correct course. 'Let him maintain a large and generous mind, and there will be no error:'--he has not yet received an official charge.

2. 'He will receive this great blessing:'--for he is in the central place and the correct position for him.

3. 'All (around) trust him:'--their (common) aim is to move upwards and act.

4. '(He advances like) a marmot. However firm and correct he may be, his position is one of peril:'--his place is not that appropriate for him.

5. 'Let him not concern himself whether he fails or succeeds:'--his movement in advance will afford ground for congratulation.

6. 'He uses his horns only to punish (the rebellious people of) his city:'--his course of procedure is not yet brilliant.

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 XXXVI. (The trigram representing) the earth and that for the bright (sun) entering within it form Ming Î. The superior man, in accordance with this, conducts his management of men;--he shows his intelligence by keeping it obscured.

1. 'The superior man (is revolving his) going away:'--(in such a case) he feels it right not to eat.

2. 'The good fortune of (the subject of) the second SIX, divided,' is due to the proper fashion of his acting according to his circumstances.

3. With the aim represented by 'hunting in the south' a great achievement is accomplished.

4. 'He has (just) entered into the left side of the belly (of the dark land):'--he is still able to carry out the idea in his (inner) mind.

5. 'With the firm correctness of the count of Kî,' his brightness could not be (quite) extinguished.

6. 'He had at first ascended to (the top of) the sky:'--he might have enlightened the four quarters

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of the kingdom. 'His future shall be to go into the earth:'--he has failed to fulfil the model (of a ruler).

 XXXVII. (The trigram representing) fire, and that for wind coming forth from it, form KZăn. The superior man, in accordance with this, orders his words according to (the truth of) things, and his conduct so that it is uniformly consistent.

1. 'He establishes restrictive regulations in his household:--(he does so), before any change has taken place in their wills.

2. 'The good fortune attached to the second six, (divided),' is due to the docility (of its subject), operating with humility.

3. When 'the members of the household are treated with stern severity,' there has been no (great) failure (in the regulation of the family). When 'wife and children are smirking and chattering,' the (proper) economy of the family has been lost.

4. 'The family is enriched, and there is great

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good fortune:'--this is due to the docility (belonging to the subject of the line), and its being in its correct place.

5. 'The influence of the king extends to his family:'--the intercourse between them is that of mutual love.

6. 'The good fortune connected with the display of majesty' describes (the result of) the recovery of the true character.

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 XXXVIII. (The trigram representing) fire above, and that for (the waters of) a marsh below, form Khwei. The superior man, in accordance with this, where there is a general agreement, yet admits diversity.

1. 'He meets with bad men (and communicates with them):'--(he does so), to avoid the evil of their condemnation.

2. 'He happens to meet with his lord in a bye-passage:'--but he has not deviated (for this meeting) from the (proper) course.

3. 'We see his carriage dragged back:'--this is indicated by the inappropriateness of the position (of the line).

'There is no (good) beginning, but there will be a (good) end:'--this arises from his meeting with the strong (subject of the topmost line).

4. 'They blend their sincere desires together, and there will be no error:'--their (common) aim is carried into effect.

5. 'With his hereditary minister (he unites closely and easily) as if he were biting through a piece of skin:'--his going forward will afford ground for congratulation.

6. 'The good fortune symbolised by meeting with (genial) rain' springs from the passing away of all doubts.

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 XXXIX. (The trigram representing) a mountain, and above it that for water, form Kien. The superior man, in accordance with this, turns round (and examines) himself, and cultivates his virtue.

1. 'Advancing will conduct to (greater) difficulties, while remaining stationary will afford ground for praise:'--the proper course is to wait.

2. 'The minister of the king struggles with difficulty on difficulty:'--in the end no blame will be attached to him.

3. 'He advances, (but only) to (greater) difficulty; he remains stationary, and returns to his former associates:'--they, (represented in) the inner (trigram), rejoice in him.

4. 'To advance will (only be to) encounter (greater) difficulties; he remains stationary, and unites (with the subject of the line above):'--that is in its proper place and has the solidity (due to it in that position).

5. 'He struggles with the greatest difficulties, while friends are coming (to help him):'--he is in the central position, and possesses the requisite virtue.

6. 'To advance will (only) increase the difficulties, while his remaining stationary will (be productive of) great (merit):'--his aim is to assist the (subject of the line) inside of him.

'It will be advantageous to meet the great man:'--by his course he follows that noble (lord of the figure).

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 XL. (The trigram representing) thunder and that for rain, with these phenomena in a state of manifestation, form Kieh. The superior man, in accordance with this, forgives errors, and deals gently with crimes.

1. The strong (fourth) line and the weak line here are in correlation:--we judge rightly in saying that 'its subject will commit no error.'

2. 'The good fortune springing from the firm correctness of the second NINE, (undivided),' is due to its subject holding the due mean.

3. For 'a porter with his burden to be riding in a carriage' is a thing to be ashamed of. 'It is he himself that tempts the robbers to come:'--on whom besides can we lay the blame? (See Appendix III, i, 48.)

4. 'Remove your toes:'--the places (of this line

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and of the third and first) are all inappropriate to them.

5. When 'the superior man executes his function of removing (whatever is injurious to the idea of the hexagram),' small men will of themselves retire.

6. 'A prince with his bow shoots a falcon:'--thus he removes (the promoters of) rebellion.

 XLI. (The trigram representing) a mountain and beneath it that for the waters of a marsh form Sun. The superior man, in accordance with this, restrains his wrath and represses his desires.

1. 'He suspends his own affairs and hurries away (to help the subject of the fourth line):'--the (subject of that) upper (line) mingles his wishes with his.

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2. 'It will be advantageous for (the subject of) the second NINE, (undivided), to maintain his firm correctness:'--his central position gives its character to his aim.

3. 'One man, walking,' (finds his friend):--when three are together, doubts rise among them.

4. 'He diminishes the ailment under which he labours:'--this is matter for joy.

5. 'The great good fortune attached to the fifth six, (divided),' is due to the blessing from above.

6. 'He gives increase to others without taking from what is his own:'--he obtains his wish on a grand scale.

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 XLII. (The trigram representing) wind and that for thunder form Yî. The superior man, in accordance with this, when he sees what is good, moves towards it; and when he sees his errors, he turns from them.

1. 'If the movement be greatly fortunate, no blame will be imputed to him:'--though it is not for one in so low a position to have to do with great affairs.

2. 'Parties add to his stores:'--they come from beyond (his immediate circle) to do so.

3. 'Increase is given by means of what is evil and difficult:'--as he has in himself (the qualities called forth).

4. 'His advice to his prince is followed:'--his (only) object in it being the increase (of the general good).

5. '(The ruler) with sincere heart seeks to benefit (all below):'--there need be no question (about the result). '(All below) with sincere heart acknowledge (his goodness):'--he gets what he desires on a great scale.

6. 'To his increase none will contribute:'--this expresses but half the result. 'Many will seek to assail him:'--they will come from beyond (his immediate circle) to do so.

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 XLIII. (The trigram representing) heaven and that for the waters of a marsh mounting above it form Kwâi. The superior man, in accordance with this, bestows emolument on those below him, and dislikes allowing his gifts to accumulate (undispensed).

1. 'Without (being able to) succeed, he goes forward:'--this is an error.

2. 'Though hostile measures be taken against him, he need not be anxious:'--he pursues the course of the due mean.

3. 'The superior man looks bent on cutting off the culprit:'--there will in the end be no error.

4. 'He walks slowly and with difficulty:'--he is not in the place appropriate to him.

'He hears these words, but does not believe them:'--he hears, but does not understand.

5. 'If his action be in harmony with his central

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position, there will be no error:'--but his standing in the due mean is not yet clearly displayed.

6. 'There is the misery of having none on whom to call:'--the end will be that he cannot continue any longer.

 XLIV. (The trigram representing) wind and that for the sky above it form Kâu. The sovereign, in accordance with this, delivers his charges, and promulgates his announcements throughout the four quarters (of the kingdom).

1. 'Tied and fastened to a metal drag:'--(this

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describes the arrest of) the weak (line) in its advancing course.

2. 'He has a wallet of fish:'--it is right for him not to allow (the subject of the first line) to get to the guests.

3. 'He walks with difficulty:'--but his steps have not yet been drawn (into the course of the first line).

4. 'The evil' indicated by there being 'no fish in the wallet' is owing to (the subject of the line) keeping himself aloof from the people.

5. 'The subject of the fifth NINE, (undivided), keeps his brilliant qualities concealed:'--as is indicated by his central and correct position.

'(The good issue) descends (as) from Heaven:--'his aim does not neglect the ordinances (of Heaven).

6. 'He receives others on his horns:'--he is exhausted at his greatest height, and there will be cause for regret.

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 XLV. (The trigram representing the) earth and that for the waters of a marsh raised above it form Žhui. The superior man, in accordance with this, has his weapons of war put in good repair, to be prepared against unforeseen contingencies.

1. 'In consequence disorder is brought into the sphere of his union:'--his mind and aim are thrown into confusion.

2. 'He is led forward; there will be good fortune, and freedom from error:'--(the virtue proper to) his central place has not undergone any change.

3. 'If he go forward, he will not err:'--in the subject of the topmost line there is humility and condescension.

4. 'If he be grandly fortunate, he will receive no blame:'--(this condition is necessary, because) his position is not the one proper to him.

5. 'There is the union (of all) under him in the place of dignity:'--(but) his mind and aim have not yet been brilliantly displayed.

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6. 'He sighs and weeps:'--he does not yet rest in his topmost position.

 XLVI. (The trigram representing) wood and that for the earth with the wood growing in the midst of it form Shăng. The superior man, in accordance with this, pays careful attention to his virtue, and accumulates the small developments of it till it is high and great.

1. 'He is welcomed in his advance upwards, and there will be great good fortune:'--(the subjects of) the upper (trigram) are of the same mind with him.

2. 'The sincerity of the subject of the second NINE, undivided,' affords occasion for joy.

3. 'He advances upwards (as into) an empty city:'--he has no doubt or hesitation.

4. 'The king employs him to prevent his offerings on mount Khî:'--such a service (of spiritual Beings) is according to (their mind).

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5. 'He is firmly correct, and will therefore enjoy good fortune. He ascends the stairs (with all due ceremony):'--he grandly succeeds in his aim.

6. 'He blindly advances upwards,' and is in the highest place:--but there is decay in store for him, and he will not (preserve) his riches.

 XLVII. (The trigram representing) a marsh, and (below it that for a defile, which has drained the other dry so that there is) no water in it, form Khwăn. The superior man, in accordance with this, will sacrifice his life in order to carry out his purpose.

1. 'He enters a dark valley:'--so benighted is he, and without clear vision.

2. 'He is straitened amidst his wine and viands:'--(but) his position is central, and there will be ground for congratulation.

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3. 'He lays hold of thorns:'--(this is suggested by the position of the line) above the strong (line).

'He enters his palace, and does not see his wife:'--this is inauspicious.

4. 'He proceeds very slowly (to help the subject of the first line):'--his aim is directed to (help) that lower (line). Although he is not in his appropriate place, he and that other will (in the end) be together.

5. 'His nose and feet are cut off:'--his aim has not yet been gained.

'He is leisurely, however, in his movements, and is satisfied:'--his position is central and (his virtue) is correct.

'It will be well for him to be (as sincere as) in sacrificing:'-- so shall he receive blessing.

6. 'He is straitened as if bound with creepers: (his spirit and action) are unsuitable.

'(He says), "If I move, I shall repent of it." And he does repent (of former errors), which leads to good fortune:'--so he (now) goes on.

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 XLVIII. (The trigram representing) wood and above it that for water form Žing. The superior man, in accordance with this, comforts the people, and. stimulates them to mutual helpfulness.

1. 'A well so muddy that men will not drink of it:'--this is indicated by the low position (of the line).

'An old well to which the birds do not come:'--it has been forsaken in the course of time.

2. 'A well from which by a hole the water escapes, and flows away to the shrimps:'--(the subject of this second line has) none co-operating with him (above).

3. 'The well has been cleared out, but is not used:'--(even) passers-by would be sorry for this.

A prayer is made 'that the king were intelligent:'--for then blessing would be received.

4. 'A well the lining of which is well laid. There will be no error:'--the well has been put in good repair.

5. 'The waters from the cold spring are (freely) drunk:'--this is indicated by the central and correct position (of the line).

6. 'The great good fortune' at the topmost place

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indicates the grand accomplishment (of the idea in the hexagram).

 XLIX. (The trigram representing the waters of) a marsh and that for fire in the midst of them form Ko. The superior man, in accordance with this, regulates his (astronomical) calculations, and makes clear the seasons and times.

1. 'He is bound with (the skin of) a yellow ox:'--he should in his circumstances be taking action.

2. 'He makes his changes when some time has passed:'--what he does will be matter of admiration.

3. 'The change (contemplated) has been three times fully discussed:'--to what else should attention (now) be directed?

4. 'The good fortune consequent on changing (existing) ordinances' is due to the faith reposed in his aims.

5. 'The great man produces his changes as the tiger does when he changes his stripes:'--their beauty becomes more brilliant.

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6. 'The superior man produces his changes as the leopard does when he changes his spots:'--their beauty becomes more elegant.

'Small men change their faces:'--they show themselves prepared to follow their ruler.

 L. (The trigram representing) wood and above it that for fire form Ting. The superior man, in accordance with this, keeps his every position correct, and maintains secure the appointment (of Heaven).

1. 'The caldron is overturned, and its feet turned upwards:'--but this is not (all) contrary (to what is right).

'There will be advantage in getting rid of what was bad:'--thereby (the subject of the line) will follow the more noble (subject of the fourth line).

2. 'There is the caldron with the things (to be cooked) in it:'--let (the subject of the line) be careful where he goes.

'My enemy dislikes me:'--but there will in the end be no fault (to which he can point).

3. 'There is the caldron with (the places for) its

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ears changed:'--(its subject) has failed in what was required of him (in his situation).

4. 'The contents designed for the ruler's use are overturned and spilt:'--how can (the subject of the line) be trusted?

5. 'The caldron has yellow ears:'--the central position (of the line) is taken as (a proof of) the solid (virtue of its subject).

6. 'The rings of jade' are at the very top:--the strong and the weak meet in their due proportions.

 LI. (The trigram representing) thunder, being repeated, forms Kăn. The superior man, in accordance with this, is fearful and apprehensive, cultivates (his virtue), and examines (his faults).

1. 'When the (time of) movement comes, he will be found looking out with apprehension:'-- that feeling of dread leads to happiness.

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'He yet smiles and talks cheerfully:'--the issue (of his dread) is that he adopts (proper) laws (for his course).

2. 'When the movement approaches, he is in a position of peril:'--(a weak line) is mounted on a strong (one).

3. 'He is distraught amid the startling movements going on:'--(the third line) is in a position unsuitable to it.

4. 'Amid the startling movements, he sinks supinely in the mud:'--the light in him has not yet been brilliantly developed.

5. 'He goes and comes amid the startling movements, and (always) in peril:'--full of risk are his doings.

'What he has to do has to be done in his central position:'--far will he be from incurring any loss.

6. 'Amid the startling movements he is in breathless dismay:'--he has not found out (the course of) the due mean.

'Though evil (threatens), he will not fall into error:'--he is afraid of being warned by his neighbours.

 LII. (Two trigrams representing) a mountain, one over the other, form Kăn. The superior man, in


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accordance with this, does not go in his thoughts beyond the (duties of the) position in which he is.

1. 'He keeps his toes at rest:'--he does not fail in what is correct (according to the idea of the figure).

2. 'He cannot help him whom he follows:'(he whom he follows) will not retreat to listen to him.

3. 'He keeps the loins at rest:'--the danger (from his doing so) produces a glowing, heat in the heart.

4. 'He keeps the trunk of his body at rest:'--he keeps himself free (from agitation).

5. 'He keeps his cheek bones at rest:'--in harmony with his central position he acts correctly.

6. 'There is good fortune through his devotedly maintaining his restfulness:'--to the end he shows himself generous and good.

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 LIII. (The trigram representing) a mountain and above it that for a tree form Kien. The superior man, in accordance with this, attains to and maintains his extraordinary virtue, and makes the manners of the people good.

1. 'The danger of a small officer (as represented in the first line)' is owing to no fault of his in the matter of what is right.

2. 'They eat and drink joyfully and at ease:'--but not without having earned their food.

3. 'A husband goes and does not return:'--he separates himself from his comrades.

'A wife is pregnant, but will not nourish her child:'--she has failed in her (proper) course.

'It might be advantageous in resisting plunderers:'--by acting as here indicated men would preserve one another.

4. 'They may light on the flat branches:'--there is docility (in the line) going on to flexible penetration.

5. 'In the end the natural issue cannot be prevented. There will be good fortune:'--(the subject of the line) will get what he desires.

6. 'Their feathers can be used as ornaments. There will be good fortune:'--(the object and character of the subject of the line) cannot be disturbed.

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 LIV. (The trigram representing the waters of) a marsh and over it that for thunder form Kwei Mei. The superior man, in accordance with this, having regard to the far-distant end, knows the mischief (that may be done at the beginning).

1. 'The younger sister is married off in a position ancillary to that of the real wife:'--it is the constant practice (for such a case).

'Lame on one leg, she is able to tramp along:'--she can render helpful service.

2. 'There will be advantage in maintaining the firm correctness of a solitary widow:'--(the subject of

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the line) has not changed from the constancy (proper to a wife).

3. 'The younger sister who was to be married off is in a mean position:'--this is shown by the improprieties (indicated in the line).

4. (The purpose in) 'protracting the time' is that, after waiting, the thing may be done (all the better).

5. 'The sleeves of the younger sister of (king) Tî-yî, when she was married away, were not equal to those of her (half-)sister, who accompanied her:'--such was her noble character, indicated by the central position of the line.

6. '(What is said in) the sixth SIX, (divided),about there being nothing in the basket' shows that the subject of it is carrying an empty basket.

 LV. (The trigrams representing) thunder and lightning combine to form Făng. The superior man, in accordance with this, decides cases of litigation, and apportions punishments with exactness.

1. 'Though they are both of the same character, there will be no error:'--if the subject of this

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line seek to overpass that similarity, there will be calamity.

2. 'Let him cherish his feeling of sincere devotion, that it shall appear being put forth:'--it is by sincerity that the mind is affected.

3. 'There is an (additional) screen of a large and thick banner:'--great things should not be attempted (in such circumstances).

'He breaks his right arm:'--in the end he will not be fit to be employed.

4. 'He is surrounded by a screen large and thick:'--the position of the line is inappropriate.

'At midday he sees the constellation of the Bushel:'--there is darkness and no light.

'He meets with the subject of the line, undivided like himself. There will be good fortune:'--action may be taken.

5. 'The good fortune indicated by the fifth six, (divided),'is the congratulation (that is sure to arise).

6. 'He has made his house large:'--he soars (in his pride) to the heavens.

'He looks at his door, which is still, with no one about it:'--he (only) keeps himself withdrawn from all others.

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 LVI. (The trigram representing) a mountain and above it that for fire form Lü. The superior man, in accordance with this, exerts his wisdom and caution in the use of punishments and not allowing litigations to continue.

1. 'The stranger is mean and meanly occupied:'--his aim is become of the lowest character, and calamity will ensue.

2. 'He is provided with good and trusty servants:'--he will in the end have nothing of which to complain.

3. 'The stranger burns his lodging-house:'--and he himself also suffers hurt thereby. When, as a stranger, he treats those below him (as the line indicates), the right relation between him and them is lost.

4. 'The stranger is in a resting-place:'--but he has not got his proper position.

'He has the means of livelihood, and the axe:'--but his mind is not at ease.

5. 'In the end he will obtain praise and a (high) charge:'--he has reached a high place.

6. 'Considering that the stranger is here at the very height (of distinction),' with the spirit that possesses him, it is right he (should be emblemed by a bird) burning (its nest).

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'He loses his ox(-like docility) too readily and easily:'--to the end he would not listen to (the truth about the course to be pursued).

 LVII. (Two trigrams representing) wind, following each other, form Sun. The superior man, in accordance with this, reiterates his orders, and secures the practice of his affairs.

1. '(Now) he advances, (now) he recedes:'--his mind is perplexed.

It would be advantageous for him to have the

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firmness of a brave soldier:'--his mind would in that case be well governed.

2. 'The good fortune springing from what borders on confusion' is due to the position (of the line) in the centre.

3. 'The regret arising from the violent and repeated efforts to penetrate' shows the exhaustion of the will.

4. 'He takes game in his hunting, enough for the threefold use of it:'--he achieves merit.

5. 'The good fortune of (the subject of) the fifth NINE, undivided,' is owing to its correct position and its being in the centre.

6. 'The representative of penetration is beneath a couch:'--though occupying the topmost place, his powers are exhausted.

'He has lost the axe with which he executed his decisions:'--though he try to be correct, there will be evil.

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 LVIII. (Two symbols representing) the waters of a marsh, one over the other, form Tui. The superior man, in accordance with this, (encourages) the conversation of friends and (the stimulus of) their (common) practice.

1. 'The good fortune attached to the pleasure of (inward) harmony' arises from there being nothing in the conduct (of the subject of the line) to awaken doubt.

2. 'The good fortune attached to the pleasure arising from (inward sincerity)' is due to the confidence felt in the object (of the subject of the line).

3. 'The evil predicated of one's bringing around himself whatever can give pleasure' is shown by the inappropriateness of the place (of the line).

4. 'The joy in connexion with (the subject of) the fourth NINE, (undivided): is due to the happiness (which he will produce).

5. 'He trusts in one who would injure him:'--his place is that which is correct and appropriate.

6. 'The topmost SIX, (divided), shows the pleasure (of its subject) in leading and attracting others:'--his (virtue) is not yet brilliant.

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 LIX. (The trigram representing) water and that for wind moving above the water form Hwân. The ancient kings, in accordance with this, presented offerings to God and established the ancestral temple.

1. 'The good fortune attached to the first six, divided),'is due to the natural course (pursued by its subject).

2. 'Amidst the prevailing dispersion, he hurries to his contrivance (for security):'--he gets what he desires.

3. 'He has no regard to his own person:'--his aim is directed to what is external to himself.

4. 'He scatters the (different) parties (in the state), and there is great good fortune:'--brilliant and great (are his virtue and service).

5. 'The accumulations of the royal (granaries) are dispersed, and there is no error:'--this is due to the correctness of the position.

6. 'His bloody wounds are gone:'--he is far removed from the danger of injury.

p. 342

 LX. (The trigram representing) a lake, and above it that for water, form Kieh. The superior man, in accordance with this, constructs his (methods of) numbering and measurement, and discusses (points of) virtue and conduct.

1. 'He does not quit the courtyard outside his door:'--he knows when he has free course and when he is obstructed.

2. 'He does not quit the courtyard inside his gate. There will be evil:'--he loses the time (for action) to an extreme degree.

3. In 'the lamentation for not observing the (proper) regulations,' who should there be to blame?

4. 'The progress and success of the quiet and natural (attention) to all regulations' is due to the deference which accepts the ways of (the ruler) above.

5. 'The good fortune arising from the regulations enacted sweetly and acceptably' is due to (the line)

p. 343

occupying the place (of authority) and being in the centre.

6. 'The regulations are severe and difficult. Even with firm correctness there will be evil:'--the course (indicated by the hexagram) is come to an end.

 LXI. (The trigram representing the waters of) a marsh and that for wind above it form Kung Fû. The superior man, in accordance with this, deliberates about cases of litigation and delays (the infliction of) death.

1. 'The first NINE, (undivided), shows its subject resting (in himself). There will be good fortune:'--no change has yet come over his purpose.

2. 'Her young ones respond to her:'--from the (common) wish of the inmost heart.

3. 'Now he beats his drum, and now he leaves off:'--the position (of the line) is the appropriate one for it.

p. 344

4. 'A horse the fellow of which disappears:'--he breaks from his (former) companions, and mounts upwards.

5. 'He is perfectly sincere, and links others to him in closest union:'--the place (of the line) is the correct and appropriate one.

6. 'Chanticleer (tries to) mount to heaven:'--but how can (such an effort) continue long?

 LXII. (The trigram representing) a hill and that for thunder above it form Hsiâo Kwo. The superior man, in accordance with this, in his conduct exceeds in humility, in mourning exceeds in sorrow, and in his expenditure exceeds in economy.

1. 'There is a bird flying (and ascending) till the result is evil:'--nothing can be done to avoid this issue.

2. 'He does not attempt to reach his ruler:'--

p. 345

a minister should not overpass the distance (between his ruler and himself).

3. 'Some in consequence find opportunity to assail and injure him. There will be evil:'--how great will it be!

4. 'He meets the exigency (of his situation), without exceeding (the proper course):'--(he does so), the position being inappropriate (for a strong line).

'If he go forward, there will be peril, and he must be cautious:'--the result would be that his course would not be long pursued.

5. 'There are dense clouds, but no rain:'--(the line) is in too high a place.

6. 'He does not meet the exigency (of his situation), and exceeds (his proper course):'--(the position indicates) the habit of domineering.

 LXIII. (The trigram representing) fire and that for water above it form Kî Žî. The superior

p. 346

man, in accordance with this, thinks of evil (that may come), and beforehand guards against it.

1. 'He drags back his wheel:'--as we may rightly judge, there will be no mistake.

2. 'In seven days she will find it:'--for the course pursued is that indicated by the central position (of the line).

3. 'He was three years in subduing it:'--enough to make him weary.

4. 'He is on his guard all the day:'--he is in doubt about something.

5. 'The slaughtering of an ox by the neighbour in the east is not equal to (the small sacrifice of) the neighbour in the west:'--because the time (in the latter case is more important and fit).

'His sincerity receives the blessing:'--good fortune comes on a great scale.

6. 'His head is immersed; the position is perilous:'--how could such a state continue long?

 LXIV. (The trigram representing) water and that for fire above it form Wei Žî. The superior man, in accordance with this, carefully discriminates among (the qualities of) things, and the (different) positions they (naturally) occupy.

1. 'His tail gets immersed:'--this is the very height of ignorance.

p. 347

2. 'The second NINE, (undivided), shows good fortune arising from being firm and correct:'--it is in the central place, and the action of its subject thereby becomes correct.

3. '(The state of things is) not yet remedied. Advancing will lead to evil:'--the place (of the line) is not that appropriate for it.

4. (By firm correctness there is good fortune, and cause for repentance disappears:'--the aim (of the subject of the line) is carried into effect.

5. '(We see) the brightness of a superior man:--'the diffusion of that brightness tends to good fortune.

6. 'He drinks and gets his head immersed:'--he does not know how to submit to the (proper) regulations.


306:XXXI In various ways the waters of a marsh, placed high above the adjacent land, will descend to water and fertilise them. This symbolism agrees sufficiently well with the idea of influence passing between a superior and inferior party in relation with each other. There is nothing in the representation, however, to suggest particularly the relation between husband and wife; and the more I think of it, the more doubtful it becomes to me that king Wan intended by the trigrams of this figure to give the idea of man and wife. The application of the symbolism is sufficiently appropriate. The commentators see in it especially the lesson of humility--emptiness of self, or poverty of spirit--in order that the influences to which we are subjected may have free course.

Paragraph 1. What is beyond one's self is represented by line 4, a proper correlate of 1. There is the desire to influence; but it is ineffectively exhibited.

Paragraph 2. 'Compliance (with the circumstances of his condition and place)' is merely another way of 'being firm and correct.'

Paragraph 3. The language, 'What he holds in his grasp is low,' makes Kû Hsî and the older commentators generally understand low of lines 1 and 2, and their weak subjects. But 'following' leads the mind to the lines above, as the Khang-hsî editors point out. 'Low' is to be understood in the sense of 'mean.'

Paragraph 4. The 'being firm and correct' appears here as equivalent to the want of 'a selfish wish to influence.'

Paragraph 5. The triviality of the aim explains the ineffectiveness of the movement, but not its giving no occasion for repentance. That the mei which are moved are behind and above the region of the heart seems too mechanical and trivial an explanation.

307:XXXII How the interaction of wind and thunder symbolises the lesson of the hexagram, and especially the application in this paragraph of that symbolism, is a question I have not been able to solve.

Paragraph 1. The stress of what is said under line 1 is here made to lie on its being the first line of the figure.

Paragraph 2. Line 2 is in the centre of its trigram, and that position, here as often elsewhere, symbolises the course of its subject.

Paragraph 3. The Khang-hsî editors make the application here = 'nowhere can he bear (to remain).'

p. 308

From paragraph 5 it appears that what is right will vary in different cases. The lesson of the hexagram is perseverance in what is right in each particular case.

308:XXXIII Kû Hsî says:--'The sky is illimitable; a mountain is high, but has its limits; the union of these is an emblem of retiring.' I do not understand such embleming. Khăng-žze says:--'Below the sky is a mountain. The mountain rises up below the sky, and its height is arrested, while the sky goes up higher and higher, till they come to be apart from each other. In this we have an emblem of retiring and avoiding.' We feel somewhat as p. 309 if there were a meaning in this; but, as in many other cases, both the symbolism and its application are but dimly apprehended.

The symbolism of the various lines is sufficiently explained on the Text. Paragraph 5 is but a repetition of the Text without additional explanation.

309:XXXIV In illustration of the symbolism of the trigrams here, Khăng-žze says well:--'Thunder rolling above in the sky and making all things shake is the emblem of great power.' In passing on to its application he starts with a beautiful saying of antiquity, that 'the strong man is he who overcomes himself.' That this thought was in the mind of the writer of the paragraph on the Great Symbolism I can well believe; but the analogy between the natural and the moral and spiritual worlds in passing from the phenomenon of thunder to this truth is a thing to be felt, and that can hardly be described.

p. 310

Paragraph 1. 'This will lead to exhaustion;' and from that will follow distress and other evils.

The central position and the due moral mean in paragraph 2 is another instance of the felt analogy referred to above.

In paragraph 3 nothing is added to the Text; and on the symbolism nothing is said.

Paragraph 5. 'He is not in his appropriate place:' this is said simply because an odd place ought to be filled by a strong line.

310:XXXV The sun rising above the earth, and then travelling up to his meridian height, readily suggests the idea of advancing. On p. 311 the application of this symbolism, Hû Ping-wăn (Yüan dynasty) says:--'Of strong things there is none so strong as heaven; and hence the superior man after its pattern makes himself strong; of bright things there is none so bright as the sun, and after its pattern he makes himself bright.'

If the subject of line 1 had received an official charge, then when unrecognised by his sovereign, and obstructed in his progress, his correct course would have been to cease to advance, and retire from the office in which he was not allowed to carry out his principles.

There is nothing said on line 2 to explain particularly the symbolism of 'the grandmother' in the Text.

'The course of procedure' in paragraph 6 has still an element of force in it, which is more than 'the firm correctness' that was to king Wăn the ideal character of a feudal lord, and therefore his light is not yet that of the full-orbed sun.

312:XXXVI The application of the Great Symbolism here is in itself sufficiently natural; but this meaning of the hexagram hardly appears in the text, till we come to the sixth line.

Paragraph 1. 'He thinks it right not to eat;'--he does not purposely fast; but when he has nothing to eat, he does not complain. He thinks it right that it should be so in the case.

Paragraph 2. 'The proper fashion of acting' is suggested by the weak line's being in the central place.

Paragraph 3. 'The great achievement is accomplished;' but such achievement was not what prompted to action.

Paragraph 4. 'The idea in his inner mind' is the idea of withdrawing from the position and escaping; but the meaning is obscure. See on the Text.

313:XXXVII The Symbolism here is certainly far-fetched. 'As wind,' it is said,' comes first from fire, so does transforming influence emanate from the family.' But the subject of the hexagram is the regulation and not the influence of the family. Then the application is good for the superior man's cultivation of himself; but this again is only connected indirectly with the regulation of the family.

The sooner preventive measures are presented to the youthful mind the better; but does not prohibition imply that a change in the good will has taken place?

In paragraph 2 'docility' is suggested by the weak line. 'The humility' comes out of Sun, the upper trigram, whose attribute is pliant flexibility.

Yü Yen (Yüan dynasty) ingeniously observes on paragraph 4 that the riches of a family are not to be sought in its wealth, but in the affection and harmony of its members. Where these prevail, the family is not likely to be poor, and whatever it has will be well preserved.

The mention 'of mutual love' is unusual in Chinese writings, and must be considered remarkable here. 'The. husband,' says Khăng-žze, 'loves his helpmate in the house; the wife loves him who is the pattern for the family.' But however admirable the sentiment is, it comes from the mind of the writer, and is not drawn from the Text.

Paragraph 6. It is said on this, that the majesty is not designedly assumed or put on; but the effect of the character remoulded and perfected. The words of Mencius are aptly quoted in illustration of the lesson:--'If a man himself do not walk in the (right) path, it will not be walked in (even) by his wife and children.'

314:XXXVIII The application here of the Symbolism is correct, but neither of them comes up to the idea of disunion which is in Khwei.

The various paragraphs seem to need no illustration beyond what may be found in the notes on the Text.

315:XXXIX The Symbolism is described here a little differently from the form of it in Appendix I. Khăng-žze brings the same meaning out of it, however, in the following way:--'We have here a steep and difficult mountain, and again on the top of that there p. 316 is water; each of the two trigrams is an emblem of perilousness. There is peril, both above and below, in the figure; and hence it represents the difficulties of the state.' The application of the symbolism is illustrated by the words of Mencius, 'When we do not, by what we do, realise (what we desire), we must turn inwards and examine ourselves in every point.'

From the lesson in paragraph 2 we saw that the moral value of conduct is independent of failure or success. It is said, 'Though the difficulties be too great for him to overcome, the sage accepts his desire, in order to stimulate others to loyal devotedness.'

On paragraph 3, Khung Ying-tâ says:--'Of the three lines of the lower trigram only the third is yang, above the two others which are of the yin nature. They cling to it, and are represented as if rejoicing in it.

The view given of paragraph 4 is that of the Khang-hsî editors.

'The friends' in paragraph 5 are the subjects of the second line, the correlate of 5, and also of the two other lines of the lower trigram.

Sû Shih (A. D. 1036-1101) remarks on paragraph 6 that by 'the inside,' and 'the noble,' we are to understand the subject of line 5.

317:XL It is a common saying that thunder and rain clear the atmosphere, and a feeling of oppression is relieved. The last paragraph of Appendix I, however, leads us to understand the Symbolism of the phenomena of spring. The application seems to refer to the gentle policy of a conqueror forward to forgive the opposition of those who offer no more resistance.

The subject of line 2 is a minister or officer; and the Khang-hsî editors say that while straightforwardness, symbolised by the arrow, is the first duty of an officer, if he do not temper that quality by pursuing the due medium, which is symbolised by the yellow colour of the arrow, but proceed by main force, and that only, to remove what is evil, he will provoke indignation and rebellion. The 'three foxes' are not alluded to in this second paragraph.

On paragraph 4 the same editors say:--'The subject of this line is not in the central nor in an odd place; he has for his correlate the subject of line 1 and for his close associate that of line 3, both of which lines are weak in strong places. Hence it is said, that they are all in places inappropriate to them.'

What paragraph 5 says, that 'the small men retire,' means that believing in the sincerity of the ruler's determination to remove all evil men, they retire of themselves, or strive to conform to his wishes.

318:XLI 'The waters of a marsh are continually rising up in vapour to bedew the hill above it, and thus increase its verdure; what is taken from the marsh gives increase to the hill.' This is very far-fetched. In the application again the superior man acts only on himself, and for himself;--which has nothing to do with those of low degree giving to those above them. This application, however, agrees with what, as we have seen on the Text, was Khăng-žze's view of the meaning of the hexagram.

The explanation appended to paragraph 1 seems to be to account for the subject of line 1 hurrying away to the help of line 4.

'His aim' is to abide where he is, and help the subject of 5 by the exhibition of 'firm correctness.'

The Khang-hsî editors observe that paragraph 3 is true indeed of three men; and not of three men only, but of many repetitions of thought or action.

The same editors say on paragraph 5 that 'the blessing from above is explained, by many, of the oracles obtained through divining with the tortoise-shell; but that looking at the text on line 2 of the next hexagram, and that Tî (spoken of there) is the lord of all spirits, the term "above" here is most naturally explained of Heaven's mind, whose acceptance cannot be gainsaid by men or spirits.'

Khăng-žze says on paragraph 6, though I do not see the relevancy p. 319 of his remarks:--'Dwelling on high, and taking nothing from those below him, but on the contrary giving more to them, the superior man accomplishes his aim on a grand scale. The aim of the superior man is simply to be increasing what others have;--that and nothing else.'

319:XLII The Symbolism here is different from what we gather from the former Appendix. Sun no longer symbolises wood, but, as p. 320 it more commonly does, wind. Thunder and wind, it is supposed, increase each the other; and their combination gives the idea of increase. Then the application, good in itself, must be treated very nicely, as it is by the Khang-hsî editors, in order to make out any connexion between it and the Symbolism.

Paragraph 1. 'One in a low position should not move in great affairs;'--not a son, it is said, while his father is alive; nor a minister, while his ruler governs; nor a member of an official department, while its head directs its affairs. If such a one do initiate such an affair, only great success will excuse his rashness.

Paragraph 2. Line 5 is the proper correlate of 2; and its subject will be among the contributing parties. But others 'beyond' will be won to take part with him.

Paragraph 3. There is a soul of good even in men who seem only evil; and adversity may quicken it.

Paragraph 6. As in line 2 the attractive power of benevolence is shown, so in line 6 we have the repulsive power of selfishness exhibited. Mark the 'from beyond' in both paragraphs.

321:XLIII We can only understand the mounting of the waters of a marsh up into the sky of the phenomenon of evaporation; and certainly the waters so formed into clouds will be condensed, and come down again as rain. This may be taken as an image of dispersion, but not of displacement in the sense of the Text of the hexagram.

The first clause of the application follows naturally enough from the above interpretation of the Symbolism. Kû Hsî says he does not understand the second clause. Many critics adopt the view of it which appears in the translation.

Paragraph 2 does not mention the precautionary measures taken in the Text by the subject of the line, from which the conclusion would follow quite as naturally as from his central position. The Khang-hsî editors, however, say that the not having recourse lightly to force is itself the due course.

Line 3 responding, and alone of all the strong lines responding to 6, may appear at first irresolute, and not prepared for decided measures; but 1 in the end' its subject does what is required of him.

The contiguity of line 5 to the divided 6, is supposed to have some bad effect on its subject, so that while he does what his central position requires, it is not without an effort. 'If a man,' says Khăng-žze, 'cherish a single illicit desire in his mind, he has left the right way. The admonition here conveyed is deep.'

322:XLIV Wind, blowing all-under the sky, penetrates everywhere, and produces its natural effect; and it is a good application of this phenomenon that follows; but it has nothing to do with the meaning of Kâu and the interpretation of the hexagram, as taught in the Text. The Khang-hsî editors perceive this, and deal with the Symbolism after a method of their own, on which it is unnecessary to enter.

Paragraph 1. My supplement, 'This describes the arrest of,' is a conclusion from the whole of the Text on the line. All the commentaries have it.

In the 'Daily Lecture' it is said that the lesson of paragraph 2 is that 'the subject of the line should make the repression of 1 his own exclusive work, and not allow it to pass on to the subject of any of the other lines.' That view is rather different from the one indicated in my supplement.

'His steps have not been drawn into the course of the first p. 323 line:'--we have to supply, land therefore there will be no great error.'

Paragraph 4. See what is said on the Text. But that the subject of the line stands alone is owing, it is here implied, to his own impatience. If he could exercise forbearance, he would find a proper opportunity to check the advance of the subject of line 1.

The subject of line 5, while mindful of his task in the hexagram,--to repress the advance symbolised by 1,--yet keeps his wise plans concealed till the period of carrying them into execution, determined by the ordinances of Heaven, has arrived. Then comes the successful stroke of his policy as if it were directly from Heaven. The subject of line 6 really accomplishes nothing to repress the advance of the unworthy; but he keeps himself from evil communication with them. He is not to be charged with blameable error, though more and better might have been expected of him.

324:XLV What has this Great Symbolism to do with the idea and preservation of union? The question is answered in this way:--A marsh whose waters are high up above the earth must be kept in by banks and dykes, to keep them together, to preserve them from being dispersed. So the union of a people must be preserved by precautions against what would disturb and destroy it. Of such precautions the chief is to be prepared to resist attack from without, and to put down internal sedition.

Paragraph 3. The topmost line is the last in Tui, whose attribute is complacent satisfaction, appearing in flexibility or docility.

Paragraph 5. 'His mind and aim have not yet been brilliantly displayed:'--this is in explanation of the case that some may even still not have confidence in him.

Paragraph 6. The topmost position is that of the trigram; the subject of the line might bid farewell to all the work of the hexagram; but he cannot bear to do so.

325:XLVI See what has been said on the Great Symbolism in Appendix I. The application which is made of it here may be accepted, though it has nothing to do with the teaching of the Text about the gradual rise of a good officer to high social distinction and influence.

Paragraph x. Instead of finding in this the three lines of Khwăn and their subjects, Khăng-žze makes 'the upper' denote only line 2.

Paragraph 2. The subject of line 2 in his loyal devotion to 5 will do much good and benefit many; hence we have the words, affords occasion for joy.'

Paragraph 3. 'He has no doubt or hesitation:'--but this is presuming rather on his strength.

Paragraph 4. The Khang-hsî editors say:--'Such an employment of men of worth to do service to spiritual Beings is serving them according to their mind.'

Paragraph 6. When one has reached the greatest height, he should think of retiring. Ambition otherwise may overleap itself.

326:XLVII The first sentence of the Great Symbolism is constructed differently from any which has presented itself in the previous 46 hexagrams. Literally translated, it would be 'a marsh with no water is Khwăn;' and this might certainly suggest to us a condition of distress. But how does this come out of the trigrams? The upper one is Tui, representing a marsh; and the lower is Khân, representing water in a defile. The collocation of the two suggests the running of the water from the marsh or lake into the stream, which will soon empty the other. Such is the view which occurred to myself; and it is the same as that given by Kû Hsî:--'The water descending and leaking away, the marsh above will become dry.' The application is good in itself, but the concatenation between it and the Symbolism is hardly discernible.

p. 327

So stupid is the subject of line 1 that by his own act he increases his distress.

The Khang-hsî editors say that the 'ground for congratulation in paragraph 2 is the banqueting and sacrificing.' I rather think it is the measure of help, which it is intimated the subject will give in removing the straitness and distress of the time.

See the extract from the Khang-hsî editors on the symbolism of the third line of the Text.

The difficulties attending the symbolism of the Text of lines 4, 5, and 6 are not lightened by what we find in this Appendix.

328:XLVIII The Great Symbolism here may well enough represent a well, it being understood that the water which is above the wood is that raised by it for irrigation and other uses. What is said, moreover, in the application is more akin to the idea of the hexagram than in most of the other cases. It is certainly one way in which the ruler should nourish the people.

Ii is said on paragraph 1:--'Those who have a mind to do something in the world, when they look at this line, and its symbolism, will learn how they ought to exert themselves.'

Rather in opposition to what I have said on the Text of line 4, the 'Daily Lecture' observes here:--'The cultivation of one's self, which is represented here, is fundamental to the government of others.'

329:XLIX Wise men, occupying themselves with the determination of the seasons and questions of time, have in all ages based their judgments on the observation of the heavenly bodies. We find this insisted on in the first book of the Shû, by the ancient Yâo. But how this application of the Great Symbolism really flows from it, I must confess myself unable to discover. Once, however, when I was conversing about the Yî with a high Chinese dignitary, who was a well-read scholar also so far as his own literature was concerned, he referred to this paragraph as proving that all our western science had been known to Fû-hsî and Confucius!

What is said on the several lines is sufficiently illustrated in the notes on the Text.

330:L The Great Symbolism here has come before us in the treatise on the Thwan. Of the application of that symbolism I can only say that, as has been seen in many other hexagrams, while good enough in itself, it is far-fetched.

The same remark may be made on the explanation of the Text of the first line. I can myself do little more than guess at its meaning. The Khang-hsî editors observe that nothing is said about the case of the 'concubine' in the Text; but that it is covered by the following the more noble,' 'so condensed and complete are the words of the sage!'

The same editors find a pregnant sense in the conclusion of paragraph 2:--'There will be no fault in me to which my enemy can point, and his disposition to find fault will be diminished.'

'What was required of the caldron in the third line was that that line and line 5, instead of 6, should be correlates;' but there is little meaning in such a statement.

The subject of line 4 cannot be trusted again. He has failed in doing what was his proper work.

331:LI The account of the Great Symbolism here calls for no remark. Nor does the application of it; but may it not be too late to fear, and order anew one's thoughts and actions when the retributions in providence are taking place? Commentators are haunted by the shadow of this question; but they are unable rightly to meet it.

Paragraph 1 is the same as 2 in Appendix I.

Paragraph 4. Compare paragraph 4 of hexagram 21, Appendix II.

332:LII According to the view of the Khang-hsî editors, the application should be translated:--'The superior man, in accordance with this, thinks anxiously how he shall not go beyond the duties of his position.' It is difficult to decide between this shade of the meaning, and the more common one which I have followed.

The toes play a great part in walking; but they are here kept at rest, and so do not lose the correct idea of Kăn.

There is no correlation between lines 2 and 3, and thence the subject of 3 will hold on its upward way without condescending to 2.

Khăng-žze finds an unsatisfactory auspice in paragraph 4. Line 4 represents a great minister who should be able to guide all to rest where they ought to be; but he can only keep himself from agitation.

Yü Păn (Ming dynasty) says on paragraph 5:--'Words should not be uttered rashly. Then, when uttered, they will be found p. 333 accordant with principle. But it is only the master of the virtue belonging to the due mean who can attain to this.'

333:LIII The Khang-hsî editors, to bring out the suitability of the Great Symbolism and its application, say:--'A tree springing up on the ground is a tree as it begins to grow. A tree on a hill is high and large. Every tree when it begins to grow, shows its p. 334 branches and twigs gradually becoming long. Every morning and every evening show some difference; and when the tree is high and great, whether it be of an ordinary or extraordinary size, it has taken years to reach its dimensions. This illustrates the difference between the advance in Shăng (46) and that in Kien. Then the maintenance of extraordinary virtue in the application and the improvement of manners is a gradual process. The improvement of the manners, moreover, flows from the maintenance of the extraordinary virtue; which implies also a gradual operation and progress.'

Paragraph 1. The danger is the result of circumstances; the small officer has not brought it on himself.

Paragraph 2. Only the geese appear in this paragraph; but the writer is thinking of the advancing officer. I cannot but think that in the language and sentiment also there is an echo of the Shih King, 1, ix, ode 6.

The 'separation from his comrades' has respect to line 3 not finding its correlate in 6. 'The wife's failing in her proper course' has respect to the line being undivided and not in the centre.

Khăng-žze says, on paragraph 4, that humility and right-doing will find rest and peace in all places and circumstances.

Paragraph 5. 'The natural issue cannot be prevented:'--the wife will have a child minister and ruler will meet happily.

Paragraph 6. See on the Text. But it is difficult to see the aptness of the symbolism.

335:LIV Thunder rolling above is supposed to produce movement in the waters of the marsh below. The combination of this symbolism in Kwei Mei is recognised as an evil omen in the case which the name denotes. The application of it is not inappropriate.

Paragraph 1. 'It is the constant practice (for such a case)' seems to mean that an ancillary wife has no right to the disposition of herself, but must do what she is told. Thus it is that the mean position of the younger sister does not interfere with the service she can render.

The addition to the Text of 1 the purpose' in paragraph 4 is to show that the putting marriage off is on the part of the lady and not on the other side.

336:LV Lightning appears here as the natural phenomenon of which Lî is the symbol. The virtues attributed to the two trigrams are certainly required in the application of them which is subjoined; but that application has little or nothing to do with the explanation of the hexagram supplied by the Text.

I hardly understand the conclusion of paragraph 1. My translation of it is according to the view of Kû Hsî, if I rightly understand that.

Paragraph 2. It is by such sincerity that the mind is affected,--that is, the mind of the ruler occupying line 5.

p. 337

Line 3 has a correlate in 6, which is weak, and as it were out of the game. The light in 3 moreover is hidden. Hence the symbolism; and through the blindness of its subject his hurt, which unfits him to be employed.

The line undivided like 4 is 1; perhaps we might translate--'He meets with the subject of the parallel line.'

No one but himself has any confidence in the subject of line 6. He holds himself aloof from others, and they leave him to himself.

338:LVI Different attempts are made to bring the idea of a travelling stranger out of the trigrams Kăn and Lî; but none of them is satisfactory. Let Khung Ying-tâ's view serve as a specimen of them:--'A fire on a mountain lays hold of the grass, and runs with it over the whole space, not stopping anywhere long, and soon disappearing;--such is the emblem of the traveller.' The application may be derived well enough from the attributes of the trigrams; but does not fit in with the lessons of the Thwan and Hsiang.

The meanness of the subject of line 1 does not arise from the nature of his occupation; but from his mind and aim being emptied of all that is good and ennobling.

Strong and trusty servants are the most important condition for the comfort and progress of the traveller; and therefore it alone is resumed and expanded.

The subject of line 3 treats those below him with violence and arrogance, which of course alienates them from him.

'He has not got into his proper position' seems to say no more than that 4 is a strong line in an even place.

It is difficult to say what 'he has reached a high place' means. The fifth line is not in this hexagram the ruler's seat; but by his qualities and gifts the subject of it attracts the attention and regard of his friends and of his ruler.

The spirit that possesses the subject of line 6 is one of haughty arrogance, with which the humility that ought to characterise him cannot co-exist. His careless self-sufficiency has shut his mind against all lessons of wisdom.

339:LVII I have said on the Thwan that some commentators make the upper trigram symbolical of the ordinances of the ruler and the lower symbolical of the obedience of the people. E. g., Khăng-žze says:--'Superiors, in harmony with the duty of inferiors, issue their commands; inferiors, in harmony with the wishes of their superiors, follow them. Above and below there are that harmony and deference; and this is the significance of the redoubled Sun. When governmental commands and business are in accordance with what is right, they agree with the tendencies of the minds of the people who follow them.'

Paragraph 2 seems to say that the sincerity of purpose indicated by the central position of the second line conducts its subject to the right course, despite the many considerations that might distract him.

'The will is exhausted' in paragraph 3 intimates that 'the repeated efforts' made by its subject have exhausted him. He can now only regret his failures.

p. 340

What is said in paragraph 6 proceeds on a different view of the Text from that which I have followed.

340:LVIII The application of the Great Symbolism here will recall to many readers the Hebrew maxims in Proverbs xxvii. 17, 19. The sentiment of it, however, does not readily fit in to the teaching of the hexagram as set forth in the Text.

There is nothing in the conduct of the subject of line 1 to awaken suspicion. He has as yet taken no action; but it was not necessary to say anything like this about the subject of line 2, his central position being an assurance that he would never do anything of a doubtful character.

p. 314

Line 3 should be strong, and the desire of pleasure which is the idea of the hexagram leads its weak subject to the course which is so emphatically condemned.

Paragraph 5 is incomplete. Does the correctness and appropriateness of the position of the subject of the line afford any explanation of his trusting the subject of the weak line above, who would only injure him? It ought to keep him on the contrary from doing so. The commentators have seen this, and say that the paragraph is intended by way of caution.

The action of the hexagram should culminate and end in line 5. But the subject of it has not made brilliant attainment in the firmness and correctness by which the love of pleasure should be controlled.

341:LIX The 'in accordance with this' must be equivalent to--'to remedy the state of things thus symbolised.' What follows certainly p. 342 amounts to this, that the ancient kings considered the services of religion, sincerely and earnestly attended to, as calculated to counteract the tendency to mutual alienation and selfishness in the minds of men. How they operated to have this beneficial effect we are not told. Nor is it easy to account, for the extension of what is said in the Text about the establishment of the ancestral temple to the presentation also of offerings to God. Probably the writer had the same idea in his mind as in the Great Symbolism of hexagram 16, q. v.

'The natural course' pursued by the subject of line 1 is, probably, that required by the time.

'What the subject of line 2 desired' would be his success in counteracting the prevailing tendency to disunion.

The view given of paragraph 5 is that propounded by Kû Hsî.

For paragraph 6 see the note on line 6 under the Text.

343:LX Various explanations of the Great Symbolism have been attempted. E. g., Khăng-žze says:--'The water which a lake or marsh will contain is limited to a certain quantity. If the water flowing in exceed that, it overflows. This gives us the idea of Kieh.' What is found on the application of it is to my mind equally unsatisfactory.

The subject of line 1 knows when he might have free course and when he is obstructed, and acts accordingly. He is regulated by a consideration of the time.

The subject of line 1 ought not to act, and he is still. The subject of line 2 ought to act, and he also is still. The error and the effect of it are great.

The subject of line 3 shows by his lamentation how he blames himself.

The other three paragraphs are sufficiently explained in what is said on the Text.

344:LXI Dissatisfied with previous attempts to explain the Great Symbolism, the Khang-hsî editors say:--'The wind penetrates things. The grass and trees of the level ground are shaken and tossed by it; the rocky valleys and caverns in their sides have it blowing round about them; and it acts also on the depths of the collected waters, the cold of which disappears and the ice is melted before it. This is what makes it the emblem of that perfect sincerity which penetrates everywhere. The litigations of the people are like the deep and dark places of the earth. The kings examine with discrimination into all secret matters connected with them.. even those which are here mentioned, till there is nothing that is not penetrated by their perfect sincerity.' But all this is greatly strained. The symbolism of the eight trigrams gets pretty well played out in the course of the 64 hexagrams.

1. 'No change has come over the purpose:'--the sincerity, that is, perfect in itself and of itself, continues.

2. One bond of loving regard unites the mother bird and her young; so answers the heart of man to man.

345:LXII The Khang-hsî editors endeavour to show the appropriateness of the Great Symbolism in this way:--'When thunder issues from the earth, the sound of it comes with a rush and is loud; but when it reaches the top of a hill it has begun to die away and is small.' There is nothing in the Chinese about the hills being high; and readers will only smile at the attempted explanation. The application of the symbolism, or rather of the idea of the hexagram, is good, and in entire accordance with what I have stated that idea to be.

Nothing can be done to avoid the issue mentioned in paragraph 1, for the subject of the line brings it on himself.

Paragraph 2 deals only with the symbolism in the conclusion of what is stated under line 2. The writer takes the view which I have given on the Text.

For paragraphs 3 and 4 see the notes on the Text.

In line 5 the yin line is too high. If the line were yang, the auspice would be different.

346:LXIII Water and fire coming together as here, fire under the water, each element occupies its proper place, and their interaction will be beneficial. Such is the common explanation of the Great Symbolism; but the connexion between it and the application of it, which also is good in itself, is by no means clear.

The notes on the different lines present nothing that has not been dealt with in the notes on the Text.

347:LXIV In this last hexagram we have water below and fire above, so that the two cannot act on each other, and the Symbolism may represent the unregulated condition of general affairs, the different classes of society not harmonising nor acting together. The application follows naturally.

Kû Hsî and others suspect an error in the text of paragraph 1; yet a tolerable meaning comes from it as it stands.

The Khang-hsî editors observe on paragraph 2 that an undivided line in the second place, and a divided line in the fifth place, are both incorrect, and yet it is often said of them that with firm correctness in their subjects there will be good fortune;--such is the virtue of the central position. This principle is at last clearly enunciated in this paragraph.

Khăng-žze says:--'The subject of line 4 has the ability which the time requires, and possesses also a firm solidity. He can carry out therefore his purpose. There will be good fortune, and all cause for repentance will disappear. The smiting of the demon region was the highest example of firm correctness.'

Both the symbols in paragraph 6 indicate a want of caution, and an unwillingness to submit one's impulses to the regulation of reason and prudence.

Next: Section I