Sacred Texts  Hinduism  Index  Previous  Next 
Buy this Book on Kindle

Thirty Minor Upanishads, tr. by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar, [1914], at

p. 216




The wise, having studied the Śāsṭras and reflected on them again and again and having come to know Brahman, should abandon them all like a firebrand. Having ascended the car of Om with Vishṇu (the Higher Self) as the charioteer, one wishing to go to the seat of Brahmaloka intent on the worship of Ruḍra, should go in the chariot so long as he can go. Then abandoning the car, he reaches the place of the Lord of the car. Having given up māṭrā, liṅga, 2 and paḍa, 3 he attains the subtle paḍa (seat or word) without vowels or consonants by means of the letter M without the svara (accent). That is called praṭyāhāra when one merely thinks of the five objects of sense, such as sound, etc., as also the very unsteady mind as the reins of Āṭmā. Praṭyāhāra (subjugation of the senses), ḍhyāna (contemplation), prāṇāyāma (control of breath), ḍhāraṇā (concentration), tārka 4 and samāḍhi are said to be the six parts of yoga. Just as the impurities of mountain-minerals are burnt by the blower, so the stains committed by the organs are burned by checking prāṇa. Through prāṇāyāmas should be burnt the stains; through ḍhāraṇā, the sins; through praṭyāhāra,

p. 217

the (bad) associations; and through ḍhyāna, the godless qualities. Having destroyed the sins, one should think of Ruchira (the shining). Ruchira (cessation), expiration and inspiration—these three are prāṇāyāma of (rechaka, pūraka and kumbhaka) expiration, inspiration and cessation of breath. That is called (one) prāṇāyāma when one repeats with a prolonged (or elongated) breath three times the Gāyaṭrī with its vyāhṛṭis and Praṇava (before it) along with the śiras 1 (the head) joining after it. Raising up the vāyu from the ākāś (region, viz., the heart) and making the body void (of vāyu) and empty and uniting (the soul) to the state of void, is called rechaka (expiration). That is called pūraka (inspiration) when one takes in vāyu, as a man would take water into his mouth through the lotus-stalk. That is called kumbhaka (cessation of breath) when there is no expiration or inspiration and the body is motionless, remaining still in one state. Then he sees forms like the blind, hears sounds like the deaf and sees the body like wood. This is the characteristic of one that has attained much quiescence. That is called ḍhāraṇā when the wise man regards the mind as saṅkalpa and merging saṅkalpa into Āṭmā, contemplates upon his Āṭmā (alone). That is called tārka when one makes inference which does not conflict with the Veḍas. That is called samāḍhi in which one, on attaining it, thinks (all) equal.

Seating himself on the ground on a seat of kuśa grass which is pleasant and devoid of all evils, having protected himself mentally (from all evil influences), uttering raṭha-maṇdala, 2 assuming either paḍma, svasṭika, or bhaḍra posture or any other which can be practised easily, facing the north and closing the nostril with the thumb, one should inspire through the other nostril and retain breath inside and preserve the Agni (fire). Then he should think of the sound (Om) alone. Om, the one letter is Brahman; Om should not be breathed out. Through this divine manṭra (Om), it should be done many times to rid himself of

p. 218

impurity. Then as said before, the manṭra-.knowing wise should regularly meditate, beginning with the navel upwards in the gross, the primary (or less) gross and subtle (states). The greatly wise should give up all (sight) seeing across, up or down, and should practise yoga always being motionless and without tremor. The union as stated (done) by remaining without tremor in the hollow stalk (viz., Sushumnā) alone is ḍhāraṇā. The yoga with the ordained duration of twelve māṭrās is called (ḍhāraṇā). That which never decays is Akshara (Om) which is without ghosha (third, fourth, and fifth letters from K), consonant, vowel, palatal, guttural, nasal, letter R and sibilants. Prāṇa travels through (or goes by) that path through which this Akshara (Om) goes. Therefore it should be practised daily, in order to pass along that (course). It is through the opening (or hole) of the heart, through the opening of vāyu (probably navel), through the opening of the head and through the opening of moksha. They call it bila (cave), sushira (hole), or maṇdala (wheel). 1

(Then about the obstacles of yogi). A yogin should always avoid fear, anger, laziness, too much sleep or waking and too much food or fasting. If the above rule be well and strictly practised each day, spiritual wisdom will arise of itself in three months without doubt. In four months, he sees the ḍevas; in five months, he knows (or becomes) Brahmanishtha; and truly in six months he attains Kaivalya at will. There is no doubt.

That which is of the earth is of five māṭrās (or it takes five māṭrās to pronounce Pārṭhiva-Praṇava). That which is of water of four māṭrās; of agni, three māṭrās; of vāyu, two; and of ākāś, one. But he should think of that which is with no māṭrās. Having united Āṭmā with manas, one should contemplate upon Āṭmā by means of āṭmā. Prāṇā is thirty 2 digits long. Such is the position (or range) of prāṇas. That is called Prāṇa which is the seat of the external prāṇas. The breaths by

p. 219

day and night are numbered as 1,13,180. 1 (Of the prāṇas) the first (viz.,) Prāṇa is pervading the heart; Apāna, the anus; Samāna, the navel; Uḍāna, the throat; and Vyāna, all parts of the body. Then come the colours of the five prāṇas in order. Prāṇa is said to be of the colour of a blood-red gem (or coral); Apāna which is in the middle is of the colour of Inḍragopa (an insect of white or red colour); Samāna is between the colour of pure milk and crystal (or oily and shining), between both (Prāṇa and Apāna): Uḍāna is apāṇdara (pale white); and Vyāna resembles the colour of archis (or ray of light). That man is never reborn wherever he may die, whose breath goes out of the head after piercing through this maṇdala (of the pineal gland). That man is never reborn.


216:1 The Upanishaḍ treating of Nāḍa (spiritual sound) which is Amṛṭa (nectar). Here Prāṇas are spoken of, as they produce Nāḍa within and without.

216:2 It is said to be the subtle, gross and other microcosmic bodies. It also means sign.

216:3 It is said to be the macrocosmic bodies of Virāt, etc. It means a word or letter.

216:4 In this classification, tārka is introduced newly. It means; the examination of the mind being attracted to objects and knowing that siḍḍhis are impediments to progress.

217:1 The vyāhṛṭis are Bhūḥ, Bhuvaḥ, etc., and the head is Om, Āpo, etc.

217:2 Lit., car-circle which is a mystical chakra or diagram for invoking the ḍevaṭā; but some commentators make raṭha mean Om: and maṇdala, the circle of Śiva.

218:1 There are four openings in the body; three from which the astral, the lower mental and the higher mental bodies escape: the last being of ṭurya.

218:2 As measured by the width of the middle finger: Yājñavalkya says, Prāṇa is 12 digits beyond the body.

219:1 One commentator makes it thus: Taking 21,600 for each of the five Prāṇas, we get 1,08,000: for the five sub-prāṇas, 5 × 1036 is 5,180. Hence the total is 1,13,180. Another commentator makes it 21,600 alone.

Next: 27. Varāha-Upanishaḍ of Kṛshṇa-Yajurveḍa