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Vedic Hymns, Part II (SBE46), by Hermann Oldenberg [1897], at

p. 137



1. He was born in Manu's firm law 1, the Hotri, the best sacrificer, according to the will of the Usig2, Agni, according to his own will. Always listening to him who wishes to be his friend, like a treasure to him who aspires to renown, the unbeguiled Hotri sat down in the abode of food (on the altar); enveloped 3 (he sat down) in the abode of food.

2. We render him attentive 1, the promoter of sacrifice, on the path of Rita, by adoration with offerings, in the divine world, by (adoration) with offerings  2. In bringing us vigour he never becomes worn out with this body of his: he whom Mâtarisvan (has brought) to Manu from afar, the god whom he has brought from afar.

3. In his (own) way he moves in one moment round the terrestrial (space), the sudden devourer (emitting) his sperm, the bellowing bull emitting his sperm, the bellower 1, looking round with a hundred eyes, the god who quickly courses in the forests 2, taking his seat on the lower ridges, Agni, and on the highest ridges.

4. This highly wise Purohita, Agni watches sacrifice and service 1 house by house; by (the power of) his mind he is intent upon sacrifice. By (the power of) his mind helpful to him who desires food 2, he looks on all creatures, since he has been born, the guest adorned with ghee, (since) the helpful carrier (of the gods) 3 has been born.

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5. When through his (Agni's) power the bounties grow in strength, with the roar of Agni 1 as with that of the Maruts 2—like bounties offered to a vigorous man: then he by his greatness stirs up the gift of goods. May he protect us from misfortune and injury, from evil spell and injury.

6. The far-reaching 1 steward 2 has taken all goods 3 in his right hand, and strongly advancing does not let them loose; desirous of glory he does not let them loose. For every supplicant 4 thou hast carried the oblations to the gods 5. For every righteous one he procures a treasure; Agni opens both folds of the door (for him).

7. He has been established as the most blissful one in the enclosures of men, Agni, at the sacrifices, like a noble lord of the clans, a beloved lord of the clans at the sacrifices: he rules over the oblations of men to which nourishing power has been imparted 1. May he protect us from harm that comes from Varuna, from harm 2 that comes from the great god.

8. They magnify Agni the Hotri, the dispenser of goods. They have roused the beloved, the most shining steward 1 (of sacrifice); they have roused the carrier of oblations. The gods desirous of goods (have roused) him in whom all life dwells, who possesses all wealth, the Hotri, the worshipful sage, the lovely one for the sake of bliss; with praises (they have roused), desirous of goods, the lovely one.


The same Rishi and metre.—Verse 6 = TB. II, 5, 4, 4.

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Verse 1.

Note 1. As to dhárîmani, comp. IX, 86, 4, where it is said that the streams of Soma flow forward, 'dhárîmani;' Bergaigne, III, 219. 'Domain, precinct, sanctuary?' M. M.

Note 2. The Usigas (comp. above, I, 60, 2, note 1) are closely related to the Bhrigus; they are considered as the first sacrificers, the first worshippers of Agni. See Bergaigne, I, 57 seq.

Note 3. Enveloped in fuel and libations.

Verse 2.

Note 1. Comp. M. M.’s note, vol. xxxii, p. 437.

Note 2. Comp. Lanman, pp. 516, 518.

Verse 3.

Note 1. Prof. Max Müller translates the second and third Pâdas: 'again and again shouting, bellowing forth his sperm, yea, placing his sperm with bellowing.'

Note 2. Of course the fuel is alluded to.

Verse 4.

Note 1. Yagñásya adhvarásya, 'sacrifice and service;' comp. above, I, 1, 4, note 1.

Note 2. The translation is doubtful. If the denominative ishûy is derived from íshu, the meaning must be 'to fly like an arrow,' or possibly 'to shoot arrows.' But I do not think that the poet can have meant to say that Agni acts as a vedhâ´h and looks on all creatures 'for him who flies like an arrow,' or 'for him who shoots arrows.' We should rather have to write ishûyate without accent, so that the translation would be: 'By (the power of) his mind helpful (Agni) flies like an arrow; he looks on all creatures' (comp. VI, 3, 5, where it is said that Agni shoots arrows). But possibly ishûy, which is found only here, may be a synonym of ishudhy, see verse 6. It may be a denominative from ish, influenced by the type of verbs like rigûy, kratûy,

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vasûy, &c. Then the accent can be retained, and the translation would be as given in the text ('to him who desires food').

Note 3. On váhni, comp. above, I, 127, 8, note 1.

Verse 5.

Note 1. The cerebral n in avena clearly points to the correction of the text agnéh rávena.

Note 2. The Maruts are called bhogâ´h, V, 53, 16 (stuhí bhogâ´n, 'praise the liberal ones'). Here we have the corresponding abstract noun.

Verse 6.

Note 1. Víhâyas (comp. Bergaigne, Religion Védique, III, 287) seems to be formed like vímahas, víketas, vímanas. The meaning then will be 'of extended hâyas.' The substantive hâyas, which is not found in the texts separately, may be derived from gíhîte or from hinóti, and mean something like 'energy.' At all events it seems impossible to connect this adjective víhâyas with the substantive vihâyas, 'the aerial space,' belonging to the classical language.

Note 2. Comp. the remark above, I, 58, 7, note 2.

Note 3. I propose to read vísvâ ví-hâyâh aratíh vásû dadhe háste dákshine. Comp. IX, 18, 4. â´ yáhsvâni vâ´ryâ vásûni hástayoh dadhé.

Note 4. Comp. Pischel, Vedische Studien, I, 191.

Note 5. Comp. VIII, 19, 1. devatrâ´ havyám óhire.

Verse 7.

Note 1. Ilâ´ kritá seems to be identical with íshkrita.

Note 2. Regarding the metre, comp. Lanman, p. 383.

Verse 8.

Note 1. Comp. I, 58, 7, note 1.

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