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The Vedanta Sutras of Badarayana, Commentary by Sankara (SBE38), tr. by George Thibaut [1896] at

5. By (a nature) like that of Brahman (the soul manifests itself); (thus) Gaimini (opines); on account of reference and the rest.

It has been concluded that the clause, 'by its own nature,' means that the soul manifests itself by its own Self only, not by some other adventitious character. What has now to be inquired into is the specific qualities of that nature. Here the Sûtra at first states the opinion of the teacher Gaimini. According to him the soul's own nature is 'like that of Brahman,' i.e. it comprises all the qualities beginning with freeness from sin and concluding with truthfulness of conception (i.e. the qualities enumerated in Kh. Up. VIII, 7, 1), and also omniscience and omnipotence; and in this nature the soul manifests itself.--Why so?--Because this is known from reference 1 and the rest. For the reference

p. 409

to certain qualities made in VIII, 7, 1, teaches that the Selfhood of the Self is such (i.e. such as made up of those qualities).--Again, the passage, 'He there moves about eating, playing, rejoicing,' shows that the Self possesses lordly power; so also the passage, 'For him there is free movement in all worlds' (Kh. Up. VIII, 1, 6). And thus also there is justification for such designations as 'All-knowing; all-powerful.'


408:1 The commentators say that the 'and the rest' of the Sûtra comprises vidhi and vyapadesa, and give the following definitions. p. 409 Upanyâsa is the reference to something known (established elsewhere), which reference is made with a view to a vidhi, i.e. the establishing of something not yet known (upanyâso nâmoddesah sa kânyatra gñâtasyânyavidhânâyânuvâdah). Thus here the qualities--freeness from sin--are referred to as known, for the purpose of establishing the vidhi, 'That it is which we must search out.'--The passage, 'He there wanders about,' &c., is a vidhi; for it teaches what is not already known from elsewhere.--The mentioning of such qualities as omniscience and omnipotence is vyapadesa, i.e. simple expression of something known without reference to a vidhi.

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