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Vedic Hymns, Part I (SBE32), by Max Müller, [1891], at

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To Rudra.

1. We offer these prayers 1 to Rudra, the strong, whose hair is braided 2, who rules over heroes 3, that he may be a blessing to man and beast, that everything in this our village may be prosperous and free from disease.

2. Be gracious to us, O Rudra, and give us joy, and we shall honour thee, the ruler of heroes, with worship. What health and wealth father Manu acquired by his sacrifices, may we obtain the same, O Rudra, under thy guidance.

3. O bounteous Rudra, may we by sacrifice obtain the goodwill of thee, the ruler of heroes; come to our clans, well-disposed, and, with unharmed men, we shall offer our libation to thee.

4. We call down for our help the fierce Rudra, who fulfils our sacrifice, the swift, the wise; may he drive far away from us the anger of the gods; we desire his goodwill only.

5. We call down with worship the red boar of the sky, the god with braided hair, the blazing form; may he who carries in his hand the best medicines grant us protection, shield, and shelter!

6. This speech is spoken for the father of the Maruts, sweeter than sweet, a joy 1 to Rudra; grant to us also, O immortal, the food of mortals, be gracious to us and to our kith and kin!

7. Do not slay our great or our small ones, our

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growing or our grown ones, our father or our mother and do not hurt our own 1 bodies, O Rudra!

8. O Rudra, hurt us not in our kith and kin, nor in our own life, not in our cows, nor in our horses! Do not slay our men in thy wrath: carrying libations, we call on thee always.

9. Like a shepherd 1, I have driven these praises near to thee; O father of the Maruts, grant us thy favour! For thy goodwill is auspicious, and most gracious, hence we desire thy protection alone.

10. Let thy cow-slaying and thy man-slaying be far away 1, and let thy favour be with us, O ruler of heroes! Be gracious to us, and bless us, O god, and then give us twofold protection 2.

11. We have uttered our supplication to him, desiring his help; may Rudra with the Maruts hear our call. May Mitra, Varuna, Aditi, the River, Earth, and the Sky grant us this!

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Ascribed to Kutsa Âṅgirasa. Metre, 1-9 Gagatî; 10, 11 Trishtubh. Verse 1 = VS. XVI, 48; TS. IV, 5, 10, 1; MS. II, 9, 9 (yáthâ nah sám); verse 2 = TS. IV, 5, 10, 2; verse 7 = VS. XVI, 15; TS. IV, 5, 10, 2; verse 8 = VS. XVI, 16; TS. III, 4, 11, 2; IV, 5, 10, 3; MS. IV, 12, 6 (â´yushi; havíshmanto námasâ vidhema te); verse 10 = TS. IV, 5, 10, 3.

Verse 1.

Note 1. TS. reads imâ´m matím, and yáthâ nah sám.

Note 2. Kapardin is an epithet not only of Rudra, but also of Pûshan (VI, 55, 2; IX, 67, II), and of a Vedic clan, the Tritsus (VII, 83, 8) or Vasishthas; see Roth, Zur Literatur and Geschichte des Weda, pp. 94 seq.; Oldenberg, Z. D. M. G. XLII, p. 207. Kaparda is the name of a shell, and the hair twisted together in the form of a shell seems to have suggested the name of kapardin.

Note 3. Kshayád-vîra means 'ruling over heroes,' just as mandád-vîra (VIII, 69, 1) means 'delighting heroes.' This meaning is applicable to all passages where kshayád-vîra occurs, and there is no reason why we should translate it by 'destroyer of heroes,' which can hardly be considered as an epitheton ornans. No doubt, a god who rules and protects can also be conceived as punishing and destroying, and this is particularly the case with Rudra. Hence in certain passages Rudra may well be invoked as nrihán (IV 3, 6), just as we read of the Maruts (VII, 56, 17): 'May that bolt of yours which kills cattle and men be far from us! Incline to us, O Vasu, with your favours!' See Muir, ST. IV, p. 301, note.

Verse 2.

TS. reads âyagé and pránîtau. See Ludwig, Notes, p. 265.

Verse 6.

Note 1. On the meaning of vardhana and vridh in Zend, see Darmesteter, Ormazd, pp. 41, 6; 92, 1.

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Verse 7.

Note 1. TS. reads priyâ´ mâ´ nas tanúvah rudra rîrishah. Priya, dear, used like φίλος, in the sense of our own. See Bergaigne, III, 152.

Verse 8.

See Colebrooke, Misc. Ess. I, p. 141 (ed. 1837); and Svetâsvat. Up. in S. B. E. XV, p. 254, note. ´yushi for âyaú is supported by VS. and TS. I propose to read â´yau for âyaú. Bhâmitáh is supported by TS. and Svet. Up., while VS. reads bhâmínah, which Mahidhara refers to vîrâ´n. The last line is the same in RV. and VS., but the TS. reads havíshmanto námasâ vidhema te, while the Svet. Up. reads havishmantah sadasi tvâ havâmahe.

Verse 9.

Note 1. As to the simile, see RV. X, 127, 8, and Muir ST. IV, p. 304, note.

Verse 10.

Note 1. TS. reads drat te, goghná (°é), purushaghné, kshayádvîrâya, rákshâ for mrilâ´, deva brûhi.

Note 2. I take dvibárhâh, which stands for dvibárhah, as an adjective to sárma, or possibly as an adverb, see Lanman, p. 560. It can hardly refer to Rudra, as Grassmann supposes. See J. Schmidt, Pluralbildungen der Neutra, pp. 132 seq.

Next: II, 33. To Rudra, the Father of the Maruts (the Storm-gods)