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Vedic Hymns, Part I (SBE32), by Max Müller, [1891], at

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods).

1. Who are these resplendent men, dwelling together, the boys of Rudra, also 1 with good horses?

2. No one indeed knows their births, they alone know each other's birthplace.

3. They plucked each other with their beaks 1; the hawks, rushing like the wind, strove together.

4. A wise man understands these secrets 1, that Prisni, the great, bore an udder.

5. May that clan be rich in heroes by the Maruts, always victorious, rich in manhood!

6. They are quickest to go, most splendid with splendour, endowed with beauty, strong with strength.

7. Strong is your strength, steadfast your powers, and thus by the Maruts is this clan mighty.

8. Resplendent is your breath, furious are the minds of the wild host, like a shouting maniac 1.

9. Keep from us entirely your flame, let not your hatred reach us here.

10. I call on the dear names of your swift ones, so that the greedy should be satisfied 1, O Maruts,

11. The well-armed, the swift, decked with beautiful chains, who themselves adorn their bodies.

12. Bright are the libations for you, the bright ones, O Maruts, a bright sacrifice I prepare for the bright. In proper order came those who truly follow the order, the bright born, the bright, the pure.

13. On your shoulders, O Maruts, are the rings,

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on your chests the golden chains are fastened; far-shining like lightnings with showers 1, you wield your weapons, according to your wont.

14. Your hidden 1 splendours come forth; spread out your powers (names), O racers! Accept, O Maruts, this thousandfold, domestic share, as an offering for the house-gods 2.

15. If you thus listen, O Maruts, to this praise, at the invocation of the powerful sage, give him quickly a share of wealth in plentiful offspring, which no selfish enemy shall be able to hurt.

16. The Maruts, who are fleet like racers, the manly youths, shone like Yakshas 1; they are beautiful like boys standing round the hearth, they play about like calves who are still sucking.

17. May the bounteous Maruts be gracious to us, opening up to us the firm heaven and earth. May that bolt of yours which kills cattle and men, be far from us! Incline to us, O Vasus, with your favours.

18. The Hotri priest calls on you again and again, sitting down and praising your common gift, O Maruts. O strong ones, he who is the guardian of so much wealth, he calls on you with praises, free from guile.

19. These Maruts stop the swift, they bend strength by strength 1, they ward off the curse of the plotter, and turn 2 their heavy hatred on the enemy.

20. These Maruts stir up even the sluggard 1, even the vagrant 2, as the gods 3 pleased. O strong ones, drive away the darkness, and grant us all our kith and kin.

21. May we not fall away from your bounty, O

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[paragraph continues] Maruts, may we not stay behind, O charioteers, in the distribution of your gifts. Let us share in the brilliant wealth, the well-acquired, that belongs to you, O strong ones.

22. When valiant men fiercely fight together, for rivers, plants, and houses 1, then, O Maruts, sons of Rudra, be in battles our protectors from the enemy.

23. O Maruts, you have valued 1 the praises which our fathers have formerly recited to you; with the Maruts the victor is terrible in battle, with the Maruts alone the racer wins the prize.

24. O Maruts, may we have a strong son, who is lord among men, a ruler, through whom we may cross the waters to dwell in safety, and then obtain our own home for you 1.

25. May Indra then, Varuna, Mitra, Agni, the waters, the plants, the trees of the forest be pleased with us. Let us be in the keeping, in the lap of the Maruts; protect us always with your favours.

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Ascribed to Vasishtha. Verse 1 occurs in SV. I, 433 verse 10 in TS. II, 1, 11, 1; MS. IV, 11, 2; verse 12 in TB. II, 8, 5, 5; MS. IV, 14, 18; verse 13 in TB. II, 8, 5, 5; MS. IV, 14, 18; verse 14 in TS. IV, 3, 13, 6; MS. IV, 10, 5; verse 16 in TS. IV, 3, 13, 7; MS. IV, 10, 5; verse 19 in TB. II, 8, 5, 6; MS. IV, 14, 18. Metre, 1-11 Dvipadâ Virâg; 12-25 Trishtubh.

Verse 1.

Note 1. The SV. reads athâ for the older adhâ. Sanîkâ in the edition of the Bibl. Ind. is a misprint for sanîlâ.

Verse 3.

Note 1. Sva-pû is explained by Roth as possibly a broom, raising the dust. Grassmann translates it by light, Ludwig by blowing. I suggest to take it for *vapû, in the sense of beak or claw, from vap, which follows immediately. See note to I, 88, 4. I do not see how the other meanings assigned to svapû give any sense. Oldenberg therefore suggests pavanta, 'Sie strömten hell auf einander zu mit ihren svapûs.'

Verse 4.

Note 1. Sâyana explains etâ´ni ninyâ´ by svetavarnâni marudâtmakâni bhûtâni. He takes ûdhas as a locative.

Verse 8.

Note 1. Geldner translates: 'Der Spielmann des wilden Heeres ist wie ein Muni,' and adds, 'Aber was ist ein Muni im Veda?'

Verse 10.

Note 1. I read tripán for tripát of the Pada text, and refer vâvasânâ´h to the Maruts. The TS. has tripát, and the commentary explains it by triptim. The first line is Virâg, the second Trishtubh, and the Trishtubh metre is afterwards carried on.

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Verse 11.

This verse refers to the Maruts, not, as Ludwig thinks, to the priests. Dr. v. Bradke (Dyaus Asura, p. 65) proposes to join verses 10 and 11 into one Trishtubh, and possibly to insert â´ before huve. I doubt whether for the present such changes are justified. On the structure of this hymn, see Oldenberg, Prol. 96, Anm. 3; 200, Anm. 5.

Verse 13.

Note 1. TB. II, 8, 5, 6, reads vyrishtibhih (not vrishtibhih), and the commentator explains, vyrishtibhir âyudhaviseshair vyrishtyâkhyair, viseshena rokamânâh sthitâh. And again, rishtaya eva visishtatvâd vyrishtaya ity ukyante. Bollensen, Z. D. M. G. XLI, 501, conjectures rishtibhih for vrishtibhih, which is very ingenious. See also note 1 to II, 34, 2.

Verse 14.

Note 1. Budhnyã, explained by budhne bhavâni, and also by kâlapravrittâni.

Note 2. Grihamedhîya may refer to the Maruts as grihamedhâs or grihamedhinas; see RV. VII, 59, 10; VS. XXIV, 16. The grihamedhîyâ ishti in Sat. Br. XI, 5, 2, 4, is meant for the Maruts.

Verse 16.

Note 1. Yakshadsah is explained as wishing to see a sacrifice or feast. Ludwig retains this meaning. Grassmann translates, 'wie feurige Blitze funkeln.' Yaksha may mean a shooting star or any meteor, literally what shoots or hastens along; see VII, 61, 5. ná yâ´su kitrám dádrise ná yakshám; also note to V, 55, 1. But dris is not sadris. If we follow the later Sanskrit, yaksha would mean a class of spirits, followers of Kuvera, also ghosts in general. If this is not too modern a conception for the Rig-veda, we might translate yakshadris, 'appearing as ghosts' (see Kaus. Sûtra 95 in BR.), or, considering the expression átyah ná yamsat yakshabht víketâh, I, 190, 4, take it for a name of horses.

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Verse 19.

Note 1. Does not sáhasa â´ stand for sáhasâ â´, and not for sáhasah â´? Comp. Oldenberg, Prolegomena, 465 seq.

Note 2. On dadhanti, see Hübschmann, Indogerm. Vocal-system, p. 12.

Verse 20.

Note 1. On radhra, see Pischel, Ved. Stud. pp. 124 seq.

Note 2. Bhrimi is doubtful, but as it stands by the side of radhra, it seems to have a bad meaning, such as a vagrant, unsteady.

Note 3. The Vasus are often mentioned with the Âdityas and Rudras, see III, 8, 8; X, 66, 12; 128, 9. By themselves they became almost synonymous with the Devas. Thus in VII, ii, 4, we read that Agni became the master of all sacrifices, krátum hí asya Vásavah gushánta átha devâ´h dadhire havyavâ´ham, 'for the Vasus liked his wisdom, therefore the Devas made him the carrier of offerings.' See also V, 3, 10. pitâ´ Vaso yádi tát gosháyâse. In one passage, VI, 50, 4, Vasavah means the Maruts. In our passage it seems better to take it in the sense of gods, but we might also refer it to the Maruts.

Verse 22.

Note 1. With pâda b, compare VII, 70, 3 b.

Verse 23.

Note 1. I have taken bhû´ri kakra in the sense of magni facere, though I can find no analogous passages.

Verse 24.

Note 1. This verse has been well explained by Dr. v. Bradke, Dyaus Asura, p. 66. Svám ókah, our own home, occurs IV, 50, 8; V, 33, 4; VI, 41, 1; VIII, 72, 14. Abhyas means generally to obtain what is not our own. See also VII, 48, 2. Vah, which I have translated 'for you,' may also mean 'from you.'

Verse 25.

This verse is marked as a galita taken from VII, 34, 25, while the last pâda is a galita taken from VII, I, 25.

Next: VII, 57. To the Maruts (the Storm-gods)