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Vedic Hymns, Part I (SBE32), by Max Müller, [1891], at

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To the Maruts (the Storm-gods).

1. The Maruts charged with rain 1, endowed with fierce force, terrible like wild beasts 2, blazing 3 in their strength 4, brilliant like fires, and impetuous 5, have uncovered the (rain-giving) cows by blowing away the cloud 6.

2. The (Maruts) with their rings 1 appeared like the heavens with their stars 2, they shone wide like streams from clouds as soon as Rudra, the strong man, was born for you, O golden-breasted Maruts, in the bright lap of Prisni 3.

3. They wash 1 their horses like racers in the courses, they hasten with the points of the reed 2 on their quick steeds. O golden jawed 3 Maruts, violently shaking (your jaws), you go quick 4 with your spotted deer 5, being friends of one mind.

4. Those Maruts have grown to feed 1 all these beings, or, it may be, (they have come) hither for the sake of a friend, they who always bring quickening rain. They have spotted horses, their bounties cannot be taken away, they are like headlong charioteers on their ways 2.

5. O Maruts, wielding your brilliant spears, come hither on smooth 1 roads with your fiery 2 cows (clouds) whose udders are swelling; (come hither), being of one mind, like swans toward their nests, to enjoy the sweet offering.

6. O one-minded Maruts, come to our prayers, come to our libations like (Indra) praised by men 1!

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[paragraph continues] Fulfil (our prayer) like the udder of a barren cow 2, and make the prayer glorious by booty to the singer.

7. Grant us this strong horse for our chariot, a draught 1 that rouses our prayers, from day to day, food to the singers, and to the poet in our homesteads 2 luck 3, wisdom, inviolable and invincible strength.

8. When the gold-breasted Maruts harness the horses to their chariots, bounteous 1 in wealth, then it is as if a cow in the folds poured out 2 to her calf copious food, to every man who has offered libations.

9. Whatever mortal enemy may have placed us among wolves 1, shield us from hurt, ye Vasus! Turn the wheels with burning heat2 against him, and strike down the weapon of the impious fiend, O Rudras!

10. Your march, O Maruts, appears brilliant, whether even friends have milked the udder of Prisni, or whether, O sons of Rudra, you mean to blame him who praises you, and to weaken those who are weakening Trita, O unbeguiled heroes 1.

11. We invoke you, the great Maruts, the constant wanderers, at the offering of the rapid Vishnu 1; holding ladles (full of libations) and prayerful we ask the golden-coloured and exalted Maruts for glorious wealth.

12. The Dasagvas (Maruts?) 1 carried on 2 the sacrifice first; may they rouse us at the break of dawn. Like the dawn, they uncover the dark nights with the red (rays), the strong ones, with their brilliant light, as with a sea of milk.

13. With the (morning) clouds, as if with glittering red ornaments 1, these Maruts have grown great in the sacred places 2. Streaming down with rushing

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splendour 3, they have assumed their bright and brilliant colour.

14. Approaching 1 them for their great protection to help us, we invoke them with this worship, they whom Trita may bring near, like the five Hotri priests for victory 2, descending on their chariot to help.

15. May that grace of yours by which you help the wretched 1 across all anguish, and by which you deliver the worshipper from the reviler, come hither, O Maruts; may your favour approach us like a cow (going to her calf)!

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Hymn ascribed to Gritsamada. Metre, 1-14 Gagatî, 15 Trishtubh, according to the paribhâshâ in the Sarvânukramanî 12, 13. See also Ludwig, III, p. 59; Bergaigne, Recherches sur l’histoire de la liturgie védique, 1889, pp. 66 seq.; Oldenberg, Prolegomena, p. 144. None of its verses occurs in SV., VS., AV. The first verse is found in TB. II, 5, 5, 4, with three various readings, viz. tavishébhir ûrmíbhih instead of távishîbhir arkínah, bhrúmim instead of bhmim, and rípa instead of ápa.

Verse 1.

Note 1. Dhârâvarâ´h, a word of doubtful import, possibly meaning wishing for rain, or the suitors of the streams of rain. The Maruts are sometimes represented as varas or suitors; cf. V, 60, 4.

Note 2. Cf. II, 33, 11.

Note 3. Bergaigne, II, 381, translates arkínah by chantres, singers, deriving it, as it would seem, from arka which, as he maintains (Journ. Asiat. 1884, IV, pp. 194 seq.), means always song in the RV. (Rel. Véd. I, 279). This, however, is not the case, as has been well shown by Pischel, Ved. Stud. I, pp. 23 seq. Besides, unless we change arkinah into arkinah, we must connect it with arki, light. Thus we read VIII, 41, 8, arkínâ padâ´.

Note 4. Tavishébhir ûrmíbhih, the reading of the Taittirîyas, is explained by Sâyana by balavadbhir gamanaih. It may have been taken from RV. VI, 61, 2.

Note 5. On rigîshín, see I, 64, 125; I, 87, I.

Note 6. Bhmi seems to me a name of the cloud, driven about by the wind. The Taittirîyas read bhrúmim, and Sâyana explains it by megham dharnantas kâlayantah. In most passages, no doubt, bhrimi means quick, fresh, and is opposed to radhra, IV, 32, 2; VII, 56, 20. In I, 31, 16, as applied to Agni, it may mean quick. But in our passage that meaning is impossible, and I prefer the traditional

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meaning of cloud to that of storm-wind, adopted by Benfey and Roth. The expression 'to blow a storm-wind' is not usual, while dham is used in the sense of blowing away clouds and darkness. The cows would then be the waters in the clouds. It is possible, however, that Sâyana's explanation, according to which bhrimi is a musical instrument, may rest on some traditional authority. In this case it would correspond to dhámantahnám, in I, 85, 102.

Verse 2.

Note 1. On khâdin, see I, 166, 9, note 2. On rukma-vakshas, I, 64, 4, note 1. Golden-breasted is meant for armed with golden chest-plates. The meaning seems to be that the Maruts with their brilliant khâdis appear like the heavens with their brilliant stars. The Maruts are not themselves lightning and rain, but they are seen in them, as Agni is not the fire, but present in the fire, or the god of fire. Thus we read, RV. III, 26, 6. agnéh bhâ´mam marútâm ógah, 'The splendour of Agni, the strength of the Maruts,' i. e. the lightning. It must be admitted, however, that a conjecture, proposed by Bollensen (Z. D. M. G. XLI, p. 501), would improve the verse. He proposes to read rishtayah instead of vrishtayah. We should then have to translate, 'Their spears shone like lightnings from the clouds.' These rishtis or spears are mentioned by the side of khâdi and rukma in RV. V, 54, 11, and the compound rishtívidyutah is applied to the Maruts in I, 168, 5 and V, 52, 13. The difficulty which remains is abhríyâh.

Note 2. On dyâ´vo ná stribhih, see note to I, 87, 1.

Note 3. The second line is full of difficulties. No doubt the Maruts are represented as the sons of Rudra (V, 60, 5; VI, 66, 3), and as the sons of Prisni, fem., being called Psni-mâtarah. Their birth is sometimes spoken of as unknown (VII, 56, 2), but hardly as mysterious. Who knows their birth, hardly means more than 'the wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh.' Prisni as a feminine is the speckled sky, and the cloud may have been conceived

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as the udder at the same time that Prisni was conceived as a cow (I, 160, 3). Nothing seems therefore more natural than that we should translate, 'When Rudra had begotten you in the bright lap of Prisni.' The bright lap, sukrám û´dhah, is an idiomatic expression (VI, 66, 1; IV, 3, 10), and I see no reason why we should with Roth, K. Z. XXVI, 49, change the sukré of the padapâtha into sukráh and refer it to vshâ.

The real difficulty lies in ágani. Can it mean he begot, as Bergaigne (Religion Védique, III, 35) interprets it? Wherever ágani occurs it means he was born, and I doubt whether it can mean anything else. It is easy to suggest aganît, for though the third person of the aorist never occurs in the RV., the other persons, such as aganishta, ganishthâh, are there. But, as the verse now stands, we must translate, 'When Rudra was born for you, he the strong one in the bright udder of Prisni.' Could Rudra be here conceived as the son, he who in other passages is represented as the husband of Prisni? There is another passage which may yield the same sense, VI, 66, 3. vidé hí mâtâ´ maháh mahî´ sâ´, sâ´ ít psnih subhvẽ gárbham â´ adhât, 'for she, the great, is known as the mother of the great, that very Prisni conceived the germ (the Maruts) for the strong one.'

Verse 3.

Note 1. Ukshánte is explained by washing, cleaning the horses, before they start for a new race. See V, 59, I. ukshánte ásvân, followed by tárushante â´ rágah; IX, 109, 10. ásvah ná niktáhgî´ dhánâya; Satap. Br. XI, 5, 5, 13. Pischel (Ved. Stud. I, 189) supposes that it always refers to the washing after a race.

Note 2. Nadásya kárnaih is very difficult. Sâyana's explanation, meghasya madhyapradesaih, 'through the hollows of the cloud,' presupposes that nada by itself can in the RV. be used in the sense of cloud, and that karna, ear, may have the meaning of a hole or a passage. To take, as BR. propose, kárna in the sense of karná, eared, with long ears, would not help us much. Grassmann's

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translation, 'mit der Wolke schnellen Fittigen,' is based on a conjectural reading, nadasya parnaih. Ludwig's translation, 'mit des fluszes wellen den raschen eilen sie,' is ingenious, but too bold, for karna never means waves, nor nada river in the Rig-veda. The Vedârthayatna gives: 'they rush with steeds that make the roar,' taking karnaih for kartribhih, which again is simply impossible. The best explanation is that suggested by Pischel, Ved. Stud., p. 189. He takes nada for reed, and points out that whips were made of reeds. The karna would be the sharp point of the reed, most useful for a whip. I cannot, however, follow him in taking âsúbhih in the sense of accelerating. I think it refers to asva in the preceding pâda.

Note 3. Híranyasiprâh. Siprâ, in the dual sipre, is intended for the jaws, the upper and lower jaws, as in RV. I, 101, 10. ví syasva sípre, open the jaws. See Zimmer, Altindisches Leben, p. 249, note. RV. III, 32, I; V, 36, 2, sipre and hánû; VIII, 76, 10); X, 96, 9. sípre hárinî dávidhvatah; X, 105, 5. síprâbhyâm siprínîvân. In the plural, however, siprâh, V, 54, 11 (síprâh sîrshásu vítatâh hiranyáyîh), VIII, 7, 25, is intended for something worn on the head, made of gold or gold threads. As we speak of the ears of a cap, that is, lappets which protect the ears, or of the cheeks of a machine, so in this case the jaws seem to have been intended for what protects the jaws, and not necessarily for the real jaw-bones of an animal; used as an helmet, and afterwards imitated in any kind of metal. As to siprin it may mean helmeted or possessed of jaws. To be possessed of jaws is no peculiar distinction, yet in several of the passages where siprin occurs, there is a clear reference to eating and drinking; see VI, 44, 14; VIII, 2, 28; 17, 4; 32, 24; 33, 7; 92, 4; see also sípravân in VI, 17, 2. It is possible therefore that like susipra, siprin also was used in the sense of possessed of jaw-bones, i. e. of strong jaw-bones. Even such epithets as híranya-sipra, hári-sipra, híri-sipra may mean possessed of golden, possibly of strong jaws. (M. M., Biographies of Words, p. 263, note.) Roth takes hárisipra as yellow-jawed, hírisipra as golden-cheeked, or with golden helmet, hiranyasipra, with golden

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helmet. A decision between golden-jawed or golden-helmeted is difficult, yet golden-jawed is applicable in all cases.

In our passage we must be guided by dávidhvatah, which together with sípra occurs again X, 96, 9. sípre vâ´gâya hárini dávidhvatah, shaking the golden jaws, and it seems best to translate: O ye golden-jawed Maruts, shaking (your jaws), you go to feed.

Note 4. If we retain the accent in prikshám, we shall have to take it as an adverb, from prikshá, quick, vigorous, like the German snël. This view is supported by Pischel, Ved. Stud. I, 96. If, however, we could change the accent into pksham, we might defend Sâyana's interpretation. We should have to take pksham as the accusative of priksh, corresponding to the dative prikshé in the next verse. Priksh is used together with subh, ish, ûrg (VI, 62, 4), and as we have subham yâ, we might take pksham yâ in the sense of going for food, in search of food. But it is better to take prikshám as an adverb. In the next verse prikshé is really a kind of infinitive, governing bhûvanâ.

Note 5. Tradition explains the Prishatîs as spotted deer, but prishadasva, as an epithet of the Maruts, need not mean having Prishatîs for their horses, but having spotted horses. See Bergaigne, Rel. Véd. II, p. 378, note.

Verse 4.

Note 1. Ludwig translates: Zu narung haben sie alle dise wesen gebracht; Grassmann: Zur Labung netzten alle diese Wesen sie. Ludwig suggests kitrâya for mitrâya; Oldenberg, far better, mitrâyávah, looking for friends, like mitrâyúvah, in I, 173, 10.

Note 2. On vayúna, see Pischel in Vedische Studien, p. 301. But why does Pischel translate rigipyá by bulls, referring to VI, 67, 11?

Verse 5.

Note 1. Adhvasmábhih seems to mean unimpeded or smooth. Cf. IX, 91, 3.

Note 2. The meaning of índhanvabhih is very doubtful.

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Verse 6.

Note 1. Narâ´m ná sámsah, the original form of Narâsamsah, I take here as a proper name, Männerlob (like Frauenlob, the poet) referring to Indra. Bergaigne, I, p. 305, doubts whether Narâsamsa can be a proper name in our passage, but on p. 308 he calls it an appellation of Indra.

Note 2. Ásvâm iva, gives a sense, but one quite inappropriate to the Veda. It would mean, 'fill the cow in her udder like a mare.' I therefore propose to read asvãm iva (asuam iva), from asû, a cow that is barren, or a cow that has not yet calved. Thus we read, I, 112, 3. yâ´bhih dhenúm asvãm pínvathah, 'with the same help with which you nourish a barren cow.' Cf. I, 116, 22. staryãm pipyathuh gâ´m, 'you have filled the barren cow.' If asvãm iva dhenúm is a simile, we want an object to which it refers, and this we find in dhíyam. Thus we read, V, 71, 2; VII, 94, 2; IX, 19, 2, pipyatam dhíyah, to fulfil prayers. I know, of course, that such changes in the sacred text will for the present seem most objectionable to my friends in India, but I doubt not that the time will come when they will see that such emendations are inevitable. I see that in the appendix to the Petersburg Dictionary, s. v. asû, the same conjecture has been suggested.

Verse 7.

Note 1. Here again I have taken great liberties. Âpânám is explained by Sâyana as a participle for âpnuvantam. This participle, though quite correct (see Lindner, Altindische Nominalbildung, p. 54), does not occur again in the RV., nor does it yield a proper meaning. It could only mean, 'give us a horse to the chariot, an obtaining prayer, rousing the attention (of the gods) day by day.' Âpâna may mean a drinking or carousing, and I do not see why we should not take it in that sense. Sacrifices in ancient times' were often festivals; VII, 22, 3. imâ´ bráhma sadhamâ´de gushasva, 'accept these prayers at our feast.' If we suppose that âpâna refers to the drinking of Soma, then

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nothing is more appropriate than to call the drinking kitáyat, exciting, bráhma, a hymn. Anyhow I can discover no better meaning in this line. Grassmann, who knows that kitayati means to excite, yet translates: 'Gebt Gebet, das durchdringt, euch erinnernd Tag für Tag.' Ludwig: 'Das erfolgreiche brahma, das erinnernde tag für tag.' Possibly we should have to change the accent from âpâná to âpâ´na. Âpâná in IX, 10, 5 is equally obscure.

Note 2. On vrigana, see I, 165, 153. For fuller discussions of the various meanings of vrigana, see Geldner, Ved. Stud. I, 139; Oldenberg, Göttinger gel. Anzeigen, 1890, pp. 410 seq.; Ph. Colinet, Les principes de l’exégèse védique d’après MM. Pischel et Geldner, p. 28; Ludwig, Über Methode bei Interpretation des Rig-veda, 1890, pp. 27 seq.

Note 3. Saní means acquiring, success, luck, gain, and is often placed in juxtaposition with medhâ´, wisdom. If they are thus placed side by side, sank looks almost like an adjective, meaning efficient. RV. I, 18, 6. saním medhâ´m ayâsisham, 'I had asked for efficient, true, real wisdom,' or, 'I had asked for success and wisdom.' In such passages, however, as V, 27, 4. dádat rikâ´ saním yaté dádat medhâ´m ritâyaté, it is clear that saní was considered as independent and different from medhâ´ (rikâyaté = ritâyaté).

Verse 8.

Note 1. On sudâ´navah, see note to I, 64, 6. It must often be left open whether sudâ´nu was understood as bounteous, or as having good rain or good Soma.

Note 2. Pinvate, lit. to make swell or abound.

Verse 9.

Note 1. Vrikatâ´ti is an old locative of vrikatât, wolf-hood. To place us in wolf hood means to treat us as wolves, or as vogelfrei. Others take it to mean treating us as a wolf would treat us.

Note 2. Tápushâ kakríyâ. According to Lanman (p. 571) tápushâ might be taken as an acc. dual fem. I know,

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however, of no strictly analogous cases, and prefer to take tápushâ as an instrumental, this being its usual employment.

Verse 10.

Note 1. The second line is obscure. Neither Grassmann nor Ludwig nor Sâyana can extract any intelligible meaning from it. I have translated it, but I am far from satisfied. There may be an antithesis between the friends (the Maruts themselves, see V, 53, 2), milking the udder of Prisni, and the Maruts coming to blame their friends for not offering them sacrifices, or for offering them sacrifices in common with Indra. In the first case when they, as friends, milk the cloud, their approach is brilliant and auspicious. In the second case, when they come to blame those who ought to celebrate them, or those who are actually hostile to them by causing the ruin or decay of a friend of the Maruts, such as Trita, their approach is likewise brilliant, but not auspicious. Trita is a friend of the Maruts whom they assist in battle, and it is possible that this legend may be alluded to here. Sometimes Trita seems also connected with the third libation which was offered at sunset, just as Vishnu represented the second libation which was offered at noon a. Thus we read, VIII, 12, 16. yát sómam indra víshnavi yát vâ gha trité âptyé yát vâ marútsu mándase, 'whether you, Indra, enjoy the Soma near Vishnu, or near Trita Âptya, or among the Maruts.' Sâkapûni, as quoted by Yâska (Nir. XII, 19), explains the three steps of Vishnu as earth, sky, and heaven; Aurnavâbha distinguishes Samârohana, Vishnupada, and Gayasiras. But all this does not help us to disentangle our verse. It should be added that Bergaigne makes Tritám to be governed by duhûh (Rel. Véd. II, 327). We should then have to translate, 'or whether they milk Trita in order to blame the singer, to make them old who make

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others old, or who themselves become old.' This, however, does not help us much. Professor Oldenberg conjectures that possibly guratâ´m might be changed to gurátâ´m, and that the dual of the verb might refer to Rudra and Prisni; or we might read gurátâ for guráta, if it refers to Rudriyas. Návamânasya might also be used in the sense of making a noise (see I, 29, 5), and possibly návamânasya nidé might have been intended for shouting and laughing to scorn. But all this leaves the true meaning of the verse as unfathomable as ever.

Verse 11.

Note 1. Víshnor eshásya prabhrithé is obscure. At the offering of the rapid Vishnu is supposed to mean, when the rapid Vishnu offers Soma. The same phrase occurs again, VII, 40, 5. In VIII, 20, 3, we can translate, 'we know the strength of the Maruts, and of the hasting Vishnu, the bounteous gods.' In VII, 39, 5, the reading is víshnum eshâm. Bergaigne (II, 419) is inclined to take vishnu esha as Soma. We should then translate, 'at the offering of Soma.'

Verse 12.

Note 1. The Dasagvas are mentioned as an old priestly family, like the Aṅgiras, and they seem also, like the Aṅgiras, to have their prototypes or their ancestors among the divine hosts. Could they here be identified with the Maruts? They are said to have been the first to carry on the sacrifice, and they are asked to rouse men at the break of the day. Now the same may be said of the Maruts. They are often connected with the dawn, probably because the storms break forth with greater vigour in the morning, or, it may be, because the chasing away of the darkness of the night recalls the struggle between the darkness of the thunderstorm and the brightness of the sun. The matutinal character of the Maruts appears, for instance, in V, 53, 14 (usrí bheshagám), and their father Dyaus is likewise called vrishabháh usríyah, V, 58, 6. In the second line ûrnute, though in the singular, refers also to the Maruts in the plural; see Bergaigne, Mélanges Renier,

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[paragraph continues] Paris, 1886, p. 80. There still remain two difficult words, manáh and gó-arnasâ. The former (see Lanman, p. 501) may be taken as an adjective referring to the Dasagvas or Maruts, unless we take it as an adverb, quickly, like makshu. If we could change it into mahâ´, it would form an appropriate adjective to gyotishâ, as in IV, 50, 4. On gó-arnasâ all that can be said is that it mostly occurs where something is uncovered or revealed, so I, 112, 18; X, 38, 2.

Note 2. On yagñam vah, to carry on the sacrifice like a wagon, see Bergaigne, Rel. Véd. II, 259-260. See also RV. VIII, 26, 15; 58, 1, and yagña-vâhas.

Verse 13.

Note 1. In interpreting this obscure verse we must begin with what is clear. The arunâ´h añgáyah are the well-known ornaments of the Maruts, mentioned I, 37, 2, note; I, 64, 4, note, &c. The Maruts shine in these ornaments or paints, I, 85, 3; 87, 1; V, 56, 1; X, 78, 7. Though we do not know their special character, we know that, like the daggers, spears, and bracelets of the Maruts, they were supposed to contribute to their beautiful appearance. Again, we know that when the Maruts are said to grow (vavridhuh), that means that they grow in strength, in spirits, and in splendour, or, in a physical sense, that the storms increase, that the thunder roars, and the lightnings flash, see V, 55, 3; 59, 5. Now if it is said that the Rudras grew with kshonîs, as if with bright red ornaments, we must have in these kshonîs the physical prototype of what are metaphorically called their glittering ornaments. And here we can only think either of the bright morning clouds (referring to ushâ´h ná râmî´h arunh ápa ûrnute in the preceding verse), or lightnings. These bright clouds of heaven are sometimes conceived as the mothers (III, 9, 2. apáh mâtrî´h), and more especially the mothers of the Maruts, who are in consequence called Síndhu-mâtarah, X, 78, 6, a name elsewhere given to Soma, IX, 61, 7, and to the Asvins, I, 46, 2. It is said of a well-known hero, Purûravas (originally a solar hero), that as soon as he was born the women (gnâh) were there, and immediately afterwards

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that the rivers increased or cherished him, X, 95, 7. In other passages too these celestial rivers or waters or clouds are represented as women, whether mothers or wives (X, 124, 7). A number of names are given to these beings, when introduced as the companions of the Apsaras Urvasî, and it is said of them that they carne along like añgáyah arunáyah, like bright red ornaments, X, 95, 6. It seems clear therefore that the arunâ´h añgáyah of the Maruts have to be explained by the bright red clouds of the morning, or in more mythological language, by the Apsaras, who are said to be like arunáyah añgáyah. Hence, whatever its etymology may have been, kshonî´bhih in our passage must refer to the clouds of heaven, and the verse can only be translated, 'the Rudras grew with the clouds as with their red ornaments,' that is, the clouds were their red ornaments, and as the clouds grew in splendour, the Maruts grew with their splendid ornaments.

Professor Geldner arrived at a similar conclusion. In Bezzenberger's Beiträge, XI, p. 327, and more recently in Ved. Stud., p. 277, he assigned to kshonî the meaning of woman, which is quite possible, and would make it a synonym of the celestial gnâs. But he translates, 'the Maruts excite themselves with red colours as with women.' These are hardly Vedic thoughts, and the position of ná would remain anomalous. Nor should we gain much if we read to kshonayah arunebhih na añgibhih, 'these Rudras were delighted like wives by bright ornaments.' The bright ornaments have once for all a settled meaning, they are peculiar to the Maruts, and cannot in a Marut hymn be taken in any other sense.

Then comes the question, how is the meaning assigned to kshonî, namely cloud, or, as personified, Apsaras, applicable to other passages? In X, 95, 9, it seems most appropriate: 'So long as the mortal (Purûravas), longing for the immortal (Apsaras), does not come near with strength to those kshonîs, i. e. those Apsaras, or morning clouds, they beautified their bodies like ducks' (an excellent image, if one watches ducks cleaning themselves in the water), 'like sporting horses biting each other.' Geldner

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translates this verse somewhat differently, Ved. Stud. I, p. 276.

Having disposed of these two passages where kshonî occurs in the plural, we have next to consider those where it stands in the dual. Here kshonî always means heaven and earth, like rodasî, dyâvâprithivî, &c.

VIII, 7, 22. sám u tyé mahatî´h apáh sám kshonî´ sám u sû´ryam … parvasáh dadhuh. They, the Maruts, set the great waters (the sky), heaven and earth and the sun piecemeal (or, they put them together piece by piece).

VIII, 52, 10. sám índrah râ´yah brihatî´h adhûnuta sám kshonî´ sám u sû´ryam. Indra shook the great treasures, heaven and earth, and the sun.

VIII, 99, 6. ánu te súshmam turáyantam îyatuh kshonî´ sísum ná mâtárâ. Heaven and earth followed thy rapid strength, like mother-cows their calf.

II, 16, 3. ná kshonî´bhyâm paribhvẽ te indriyám. Thy strength is not to be compassed by heaven and earth.

If after this we look at the passage translated by Professor Geldner, I, 180, 5. apáh kshonî´ sakate mâ´hinâ vâm, we see at once that apáh and kshonî´ cannot be separated, and that we must translate, your Mâhinâ reaches heaven and earth and the sky. Mâhinâ, according to Professor Geldner, means the magnificent woman, namely Sûryâ, but it is possible that it may have been meant for 'mahimâ, your greatness reaches heaven and earth and the sky.' Apáh, which Professor Geldner translates 'from the water,' is the acc. plural, meaning the waters between heaven and earth, or the sky. It occurs again in connection with heaven and earth, the sun, heaven, and generally without any copula. Thus, VIII, 7, 22. apáh, kshonî´, sû´ryam, i. e. the waters (the sky), heaven and earth, the sun. I, 36, 8. ródasî apáh, heaven and earth and the waters; cf. V, 31, 6. Likewise I, 52, 12. apáh svãh paribhû´h eshi â´ dívam; V, 14, 4. ávindat gâ´h apáh svãh; VI, 47, 14. apáh gâ´h; cf. VI, 60, 2. VII, 44, 1. dyâ´vâprithivî´ apáh svãh, cf. X, 36, 1; IX. 90, 4; 91, 6.

There remain five passages where kshonîh occurs, and where Professor Geldner's conjecture that it means women

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holds good. In I, 54, 1, it may mean real women, or the women of the clouds. In I, 57, 4; 173, 7; VIII, 3, 10; 13, 17; also in X, 22, 9, women seems the most plausible translation.

Note 2. Rítasya sádanâni is almost impossible to translate. It may be the places in heaven where the Maruts are supposed to be, or the places where sacrifices are offered to them.

Note 3. Átyena pâ´gasâ has been explained in different ways. Sâyana renders it by always moving power; Grassmann by 'mit schnell erregtem Schimmer;' Ludwig, 'mit eilender kraft,' though he is no longer satisfied with this meaning, and suggests 'net for catching.' Roth has touched several times on this word. In the Allgemeine Monatsschrift of 1851, p. 87, he suggested for pâ´gas the meaning of 'impression of a foot or of a carriage, perhaps also reflection.' In his Notes on the Nirukta, p. 78 seq., he is very hard on the Indian commentators who explain the word by strength, but who never go conscientiously through all the passages in which a word occurs. He then still maintained that the word ought to be translated by track.

It seems, however, that the most appropriate meaning in the passages in which pâ´gas occurs is splendour, though of course a stream of light may be conceived as a bright train or path. In some the meaning of light seems quite inevitable, for instance, III, 15, I. ví pâ´gasâ prithúnâ sósukânah. Agni, shining with broad light.

VIII, 46, 25. â´ … yâhí makhâ´ya pâ´gase. Come hither, Vâyu, for strong light.

III, 14, 1. (agníh) prithivyâ´m pâ´gah asret. Agni assumed (or spread) splendour on earth.

VII, 10, 1. usháhgâráh prithú pâ´gah asret. (Agni,) like the lover of the dawn, assumed (or spread) wide splendour.

III, 61, 5. ûrdhvám madhudhâ´ diví pâ´gah asret. The dawn assumed rising splendour in the sky.

VII, 3, 4. ví yásya te prithivyâ´m pâ´gah ásret. Thou (Agni) whose splendour spread on earth.

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IX, 68, 3. abhivrágan ákshitam pâ´gah â´ dade. (Soma) approaching assumed imperishable splendour. This splendour of Soma is also mentioned in IX, 109, 21, and the expression that he shakes his splendour (vthâ kar) occurs IX, 76, 1; 88, 5. (Cf. Geldner, Ved. Stud. I, p. 117.)

In VI, 21, 7. abhí tvâ pâ´gah rakshásah ví tasthe, it would, no doubt, seem preferable to translate, 'the power of the Rakshas came upon thee,' but the ugrám pâ´gah, the fierce light, is not out of place either, while in most of the passages which we have examined, the meaning of power would be entirely out of place.

In I, 121, 11, heaven and earth seem to be called pâ´gasî, the two splendours. Pischel, Ved. Stud. p. 87, translates átyena pâ´gasâ by 'durch das stattliche Ross,' namely the Soma, but pâ´gas seems to be something that belongs to Soma, not Soma himself.

Verse 14.

Note 1. Grassmann suggests iyânâ´h instead of iyânáh.

Note 2. Abhíshtaye, for superiority or victory, rather than for assistance. Abhishtí, with accent on the last syllable, means conqueror or victorious; see RV. I, 9, 1; III, 34, 4; X, 100, 12; 104, 10.

Verse 15.

Note 1. On radhra and its various applications, see Pischel, Ved. Stud. I, p. 124.


305:a Oðinn is styled Thridi, by the side of Hâr and Tafnhâr (the high and the even high) as the Third High. At other times he is Tveggi (secundus). Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, vol. i, p. 162.

Next: V, 52. To the Maruts (the Storm-gods)