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The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30), by Hermann Oldenberg, [1892], at

p. 69


1. 1 Now (follows) the Godâna ceremony (or cutting of the beard), in the sixteenth year.

2. 2 The cutting of the hair (and the beard) has been explained by the (description of the) Kûdâkarana (II, 9).

p. 70

3. 3 The student has his hair (and beard) cut himself.

4. He has all the hair of his body shaven.

5. The sacrificial fee given by a Brâhmana consists of an ox and a cow,

6. That given by a Kshatriya, of a pair of horses,

7. That given by a Vaisya, of a pair of sheep.

8. Or a cow (is given by persons) of all (castes).

9. A goat (is given) to the person who catches up the hair.

10. 10 The Upanayana .(connected with the Godânavrata and the other Vratas) has been declared by the Upanayana (treated of above, II, 10).

11. 11 (The use of) a garment, however, which has not yet been washed, is not required (here),

12. Nor the adornment.

13. (One should) not initiate one who does not intend to keep the vow through one year.

14. Handing over to him (i.e. to the student) a staff, which should be made of (the wood of) a tree, he directs him (to observe the duties connected with his vow, in the following words):

15. 'Obey thy teacher, except in sinful conduct.

16. 'Avoid anger and falsehood,

17. 'Sexual intercourse,

18. 'Sleeping on high (bedsteads),

19. 'Performances of singing, dancing, &c., the use of perfumes and of collyrium,

p. 71

20. 'Bathing,

21. 'Combing the head, cleansing the teeth, washing the feet,

22. 'Shaving,

23. 'Eating honey and flesh,

24. 'Mounting a chariot yoked with cattle,

25. 'Wearing shoes in the village,

26. 'Svayam-indriya-mokanam.'

27. Wearing the girdle, going the rounds for alms, carrying a staff, putting fuel (on the fire), touching water, reverentially saluting (the teacher) in the morning: these are his standing duties.

28. 28 The Godâna-vrata, the Vrâtika-vrata, the Âditya-vrata, the Aupanishada-vrata, the Gyaishthasâmika-vrata (last) one year (each).

29. Touching water in the evening and in the morning (is prescribed) for these (Vratas).

30. 30 The Âditya-vrata, however, some do not undergo.

31. They who undergo it, wear one garment.

32. They allow nothing to be between (themselves and) the sun, except trees and (the roofs of) houses.

33. They do not descend into water deeper than knee-deep, except on the injunction of their teacher.


69:1 1, 1. After the description of the regular Upanayana here follow, in chaps. 1 and 2, statements regarding the special Vratas which the Vedic student has to undergo, or rather which he may undergo, in the time of his studentship. Comp. the corresponding statements on the Vratas of the Rigvedins, Sâṅkhâyana-Grihya II, 11 and 12. By the followers of the Sâma-veda the ceremony of the Godâna, or cutting of the beard (comp. Sâṅkhâyana I, 28, 19; Pâraskara II, 1, 7 seq.; Âsvalâyana I, 18), was put into connection with their system of Vratas; the undergoing of the Godânavrata enabled the student to study the Pûrvârkika of the Sâma-veda. In the commentary on Gobhila III, 1, 28 we find the following statements with regard to this Vrata as well as to the other Vratas mentioned in Sûtra 28: 'The Upanayana-vrata has been declared to refer to the study of the Sâvitrî (comp. Bloomfield's notes on Grihya-samgraha II, 42. 43); the Godâna-vrata, to the study of the collections of verses sacred to the gods Agni, Indra, and Soma Pavamâna (this is the Pûrvârkika of the Sâma-veda); the Vrâtika-vrata, to the study of the Âranyaka, with the exclusion of the Sukriya sections; the Âditya-vrata, to the study of the Sukriya sections; the Aupanishada-vrata, to the study of the Upanishad-Brâhmana; the Gyaishthasâmika-vrata, to the study of the Âgyadohas.' The Vratas were connected with a repetition of the Upanayana ceremony (Sûtras 10 seq.) in the way stated in my note on Sâṅkhâyana II, 12, 1.—Khâdira-Grihya II, 5, 1 seq.

69:2 Comp. Sâṅkhâyana I, 28, 19, 'The Godânakarman is identical with the Kûdâkarman.' Pâraskara II, 1, 7, At the Kesânta ceremony he says, "Hair and beard" (instead of "hair," as at the Kûdâkarana).'

70:3 At the Kûdâkarana the child sits in the mother's lap and others perform the rites for him.

70:10 See the note on Sûtra 1.

70:11 Comp. above, II, 10, 7.

71:28 The meaning of these expressions has been explained in the note on Sûtra 1.

71:30 According to the commentary some study the Sukriyas as a part of the Âranyaka; these do not undergo the Âditya-vrata. Others, for instance the Kauthumas, separate the Sukriyas from the Âranyaka and keep a special vow, the Âditya-vrata, by which they are enabled to study those texts.

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