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The Grihya Sutras, Part 1 (SBE29), by Hermann Oldenberg, [1886], at


1. At a Kaitya sacrifice he should before the Svishtakrit (offering) offer a Bali to the Kaitya.

2. If, however, (the Kaitya) is distant, (he should send his Bali) through a leaf-messenger.

p. 179

3. With the Rik, 'Where thou knowest, O tree' (Rig-veda V, 5, 10), let him make two lumps (of food), put them on a carrying-pole, hand them over to the messenger, and say to him, 'Carry this Bali to that (Kaitya).'

4. (He gives him the lump) which is destined for the messenger, with (the words), 'This to thee.'

5. If there is anything dangerous between (them and the Kaitya), (he gives him) some weapon also.

6. If a navigable river is between (them and the Kaitya, he gives him) also something like a raft with (the words), 'Hereby thou shalt cross.'

7. At the Dhanvantari sacrifice let him offer first a Bali to the Purohita, between the Brahman and the fire.


178:1 12, 1. There seems to be no doubt that Professor Stenzler is right in giving to kaitya in this chapter its ordinary meaning of religious shrine ('Denkmal'). The text shows that the Kaitya sacrifice was not offered like other sacrifices at the sacrificer's home, but that in some cases the offering would have to be sent, at least symbolically, to distant places. This confirms Professor Stenzler's translation of kaitya. Nârâyana  explains kaitya by kitte bhava, and says, 'If he makes a vow to a certain deity, saying, "If I obtain such and such a desire, I shall offer to thee an Âgya sacrifice, or a Sthâlîpâka, or an animal"—and if he then obtains what he had wished for and 'performs that sacrifice to that deity: this is a kaitya sacrifice.' I do not know anything that supports this statement as to the meaning of kaitya.

178:2 'He should make of a leaf a messenger and a carrying-pole.' Nârâyana.

It is not clear whether besides this image of a messenger there was also a real messenger who had to carry the Bali to the Kaitya, p. 179 or whether the whole rite was purely symbolical, and based on the principle: In sacris ficta pro veris accipiuntur.

179:3 Comp. Pâraskara III, 11, 10.

179:6 Pâraskara III, 11, 11,

179:7 Comp. above, chap. 3, 6.

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