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1. The (term of the) studentship for (learning the) Veda, as kept by the ancients, (is) forty-eight years, 1

2. (Or) twenty-four (years), or twelve for each Veda, 2

3. Or at the least one year for each Kânda, 3

4. Or until (the Veda has been) learned; for life is uncertain. 4

5. A passage of the revealed texts declares, 'Let him kindle the sacred fires while his hair is (still) black.' 5

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6. They do not put any (religious) restrictions on the acts of a (child) before the investiture with the girdle (is performed). For he is on a level with a Sûdra before (his second) birth through the Veda. 6

7. The number of years (must be calculated) from the conception. Let him initiate a Brâhmana in the eighth (year) after that, 7

8. A Kshatriya three (years) later (than a Brâhmana),

9. A Vaisya one year later than a (Kshatriya).

10. Spring, summer, and autumn are the seasons (for the initiation) according to the order of the castes. 10

11. (Let him perform the initiation reciting), according to the order (of the castes), a Gâyatrî, a Trishtubh, (or) a Gagatî (verse).

12. Up to the sixteenth, the twenty-second, and the twenty-fourth (years) respectively (the time for the initiation) has not passed. 12

13. The girdles (shall consist of a rope) made of Muñga grass, a bow-string, (or a rope) made of hemp. 13

14. The skins (shall be) those of a black antelope, of a spotted deer, (or) of a he-goat. 14

15. The staff shall reach the crown of the head, the forehead, (or) the tip of the nose, (and be made) of a tree fit for a sacrifice. The details have been stated above.  15

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16. Let him beg, (employing a formula) consisting of seven syllables, with the word bhavat in the beginning, with the word bhikshâ in the middle, and with the (verb expressing) the request at the end; and let him not pronounce loudly (the syllables) kshâ and hi. 16

17. A Brâhmana (student) shall ask for alms, placing (the word) 'Lady' first, a Kshatriya placing 17

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it in the middle, (and) a Vaisya placing it at the end (of the formula), from (men of) all castes.

18. The (persons fit to be asked) are Brâhmanas and so forth, who follow (their lawful) occupations.

19. Let him daily fetch fuel out of the forest and offer (it in the sacred fire). 19

20. (A student shall be) truthful, modest, and devoid of pride. 20

21. He shall rise before (his teacher in the morning) and go to rest after (him in the evening). 21

22. He shall never disobey the words of his teacher except (when he is ordered to commit) a crime causing loss of caste. 22

23. Let him converse with women so much (only) as his purpose requires. 23

24. Let him avoid dancing, singing, playing musical instruments, the use of perfumes, garlands, shoes, (or) a parasol, applying collyrium (to his eyes), and anointing (his body). 24

25. Let him take hold (of his teacher's) right (foot) with the right (hand), and of the left (foot) with the left hand. 25

26. If he desires long life and (bliss in) heaven, 26

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(he may act) at his pleasure (in the same manner) towards other holy (men), after having received permission from his teacher.

27. (Let him say), 'I N. N., ho! (salute thee),' touching his ears, in order to compose the internal organ. 27

28. (Let him embrace his teacher's leg) below the knee down to the feet. 28

29. (A student shall not embrace his teacher) when he (himself) is seated, or lying down, or impure, nor when (his teacher) is seated, lying down, or impure. 29

30. If he can (find water to sip), he shall not remain impure even during a muhûrta. 30

31. If he carries a load of fuel or holds a pot, flowers, or food in his hands, he shall not salute; nor (shall he do it) on similar occasions. 31

32. Let him not salute (the teacher) standing too close,

33. Nor, if he has reached the age of puberty, the young wives of brothers and the young wives of the teacher. 33

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34. To sit together with (these persons) in a boat, on a rock, on a plank, on an elephant, on the roof of a house, on a mat, or in wheeled vehicles is permissible. 34

35. (The pupil) must assist his teacher in making his toilet, shampoo him, attend him while bathing, eat his leavings, and so forth. 35

36. (But he) should avoid the remnants of food left by his (teacher's) son, though he may know the Veda together with the Aṅgas, 36

37. And to assist at the toilet of, to shampoo, to attend in the bath, and to eat the remnants of food left by a young wife of his (teacher).

38. Let him run after (his teacher) when he runs, walk after him when he walks, attend him standing when he stands. 38

39. Let him not sport in the water while bathing. 39

40. Let him swim (motionless) like a stick.

41. To study under a non-Brâhmanical teacher (is permitted) in times of distress. 41

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42. (The pupil shall) obey and walk after him as long as the instruction (lasts). 42

43. (According to some this is improper, because) just that (mutual relation) sanctifies both of them. 43

44. And (the behaviour) towards brothers, sons, and (other) pupils (of the teacher shall be regulated) in the same manner. 44

45. But officiating priests, a father-in-law, paternal and maternal uncles who are younger than (oneself must be honoured by) rising and (by being) addressed. 45

46. Kâtya (declares that) the salutation shall be returned. 46

47. For (the propriety of that rule) is apparent (from the story) about Sisu Âṅgirasa. 47


149:1 3. Âpastamba I, 1, 2, 12. Govindasvâmin gives four explanations of the adjective paurânam, 'kept by the ancients,' viz. 1. old, i.e. kept by the men of the Krita or Golden age; 2. revealed to and kept by the ancients, such as Manu; 3. found in the ancient, i.e. eternal Veda; 4. found in the known Itihâsas and Purânas.

149:2 Âpastamba I, 1, 2, 14-16.

149:3 Each Kânda, i.e. each of the seven books of the Taittirîya-samhitâ.

149:4 Manu III, 1.

149:5 The object of the Sûtra is to prove that the period of studentship must not be protracted too long, lest the duty of offering the Srauta Agnihotra be neglected.

150:6 Vasishtha II, 6; Gautama II, 1.

150:7-9. Vasishtha XI, 49-51.

150:10 Âpastamba I, 1, 1, 18.

150:12 Vasishtha XI, 71-73.

150:13 Vasishtha XI, 58-60. With this and the next two Sûtras the words 'according to the order of the castes' must be understood.

150:14 Vasishtha XI, 61-63.

150:15 Vasishtha XI, 55-57. The details referred to are to be p. 151 found in the Baudhâyana Grihya-sûtra II, 7, where the various kinds of trees from which the staff may be taken are specified. The Sûtra shows that the Grihya-sûtra preceded the Dharma-sûtra in the collection.

151:16 The text of this Sûtra is corrupt. I read, 'bhavatpurvâm bhikshâmadhyâmkñântâm karet saptâksharâm bhikshâm kshâm ka him ka na vardhayet' The various readings of the MSS. are, bhikshâm madhyâm yakkhâmm karet saptâksharâm bhim ka na vardhayet, C. T.;--yâkñâmm karet saptâksharamni kshâm ka bhim ka narvyayet, D.;-- yâkñâmm karet saptâksharâmstim rkshâ ba him na vardhayet, K.; yâkñâmm tikshâm karet saptâksharân kshâm ka him ka na vardhayan, M.; yâkanâskâmm karet saptâksharân bhikshâm ka him ka na vardhayet, C. I. The most serious corruption lies in the syllables following saptâksharâm, and I am not certain that my emendation bhikshâm is correct. The commentary on the first half of the Sûtra runs as follows: bhikshâmantram vyaktam evokkaret bhavakkhabdapûrvâm bhikshâsabdamadhyâmkñâpratipa[pâ]dakasabdâmm sabdâksharâm [saptâksharâm] ka evam hi bhavati bhikshâm dehi sampanno bhavati, 'let him pronounce distinctly the formula employed in begging, beginning with the word bhavat, having the word bhikshâ in the middle, and ending with the word conveying the sense of giving, and containing seven syllables. For thus (the formula), "Lady, give alms," becomes complete.' It is curious that Govinda says nothing about the form saptâksharâm and the feminine terminations of the other adjectives, which do not agree with mantram, a masculine.

151:17 Vasishtha XI, 68-70; Gautama II, 35. Govinda thinks that a student should, if possible, beg from people of his own caste. Three castes only are intended by the term 'from all castes.' But see Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 25; Gautama VII, 1 seqq.

152:19 Vishnu XXVIII, 4.

152:20 Gautama II, 8; Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 20.

152:21 Vishnu XXVIII, 13.

152:22 Âpastamba I, 1, 2, 19; Vasishtha VII, 10.

152:23 Âpastamba I, 1, 3, 16.

152:24 Vishnu XXVIII, 11; Vasishtha VII, 15.

152:25 Vishnu XXVIII, 15. The details regarding the times when this kind of salutation is to be performed are found Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 21 seqq.

152:26 The two copies of the commentary connect the clause, 'if he is desirous of long life and (bliss in) heaven,' with the preceding Sûtra. But see Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 15, where the identical words p. 153 occur. The commentary omits the remainder of the Sûtra, which all my MSS. give here, and inserts it below, after Sûtra 29.

153:27 Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 12; Vasishtha XIII. 44. Regarding the phrase,' in order to compose his internal organ,' see Manu II, 120.

153:28 Âpastamba I, 2, 5, 22. The meaning seems to be that the pupil is first to stroke his teacher's legs from the knee downwards, and then to take hold of it at the ankle.

153:29 Âpastamba I, 4, 14, 14-20.

153:30 Âpastamba I, 5, 15, 8.

153:31 Âpastamba I, 4, 14, 22. 'On similar occasions,' i.e. when he himself is engaged in the worship of the manes, of the gods, or of the fire, or when his teacher is occupied in that way.

153:33 The salutation which is meant, is probably the embrace of the feet; see also Gautama II, 32. Govinda thinks that the words samavâye 'tyantyasah, 'standing too close,' must be understood.

154:34 Govinda adds that to sit with young wives of his teachers on other occasions is sinful.

154:35 I read utsâdana, 'to shampoo,' while the MSS. have either a lacuna or read ukkhâdana, and the commentary âkkhâdana, which is explained by khattradhârana, 'to hold a parasol,' or malâpakarshana, 'to clean.' The kkha is, however, merely owing to a very common faulty pronunciation of tsa. Govinda remarks correctly that the word 'iti,' which follows the enumeration of the services to be performed by the pupil, has the force of 'and so forth.'

154:36-37. The meaning of the two Sûtras is that the pupil shall serve the son of his teacher, especially if he is learned, and aged wives of his teacher, but not eat their leavings. The explanation of anûkâna, 'who knows the Aṅgas,' is given by Baudhâyana, Grihya-sûtra I, 11, 4.

154:38 Âpastamba I, 2, 6, 7-9; Vasishtha VII, 12.

154:39-40. Âpastamba I, 1, 2, 30; Vishnu XXVIII, 5.

154:41 Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 25. Govinda combines this Sûtra with the next two and makes one of the three.

155:42 Âpastamba II, 2, 4, 26; Gautama VII, 2-3.

155:43 The words between brackets belong to Govinda.

155:44 I.e. if they are younger than oneself.

155:45 Instead of pratyutthâyâbhibhâshanam, '(shall be honoured by) rising and being addressed,' which is the reading of the two copies of the commentary and of M., the MSS. from the Dekhan and Gugarât read, pratyutthâyâbhivâdanam. The latter reading might be translated by 'shall be saluted by rising;' see Gautama VI, 9. Govinda says, in explanation of this rule: 'This restrictive rule also (refers) to teachers only, officiating priests, and the rest; to address (means) to use words such as "we come."

155:46 'Kâtya, i.e. a descendant of the Rishi Kata. He was of opinion that officiating priests and the rest must return the salute. As the return of a salute is prescribed for them, it is understood that the other (party) must salute.'--Govinda.

155:47 The story of Sisu Âṅgirasa is told, Manu II, 151-153.

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