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The Upanishads, Part 1 (SBE01), by Max Müller, [1879], at


1. Was it water really? Was it water? Yes, all this was water indeed. This (water) was the root (cause), that (the world) was the shoot (effect). He (the person) is the father, they (earth, fire, &c.) are the sons. Whatever there is belonging to the son, belongs to the father; whatever there is belonging to the father, belongs to the son. This was intended 2.

2. Mahidâsa Aitareya, who knew this, said: 'I know myself (reaching) as far as the gods, and I know the gods (reaching) as far as me. For these

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gods receive their gifts from hence, and are supported from hence.'

3. This is the mountain 1, viz. eye, ear, mind, speech, and breath. They call it the mountain of Brahman.

4. He who knows this, throws down the evil enemy who hates him; the evil enemy who hates him is defeated.

5. He (the Prâna, identified with Brahman) is the life, the breath; he is being (while the gîvâtman remains), and not-being (when the gîvâtman departs).

6. The Devas (speech, &c.) worshipped him (prâna) as Bhûti or being, and thus they became great beings. And therefore even now a man who sleeps, breathes like bhûrbhuh.

7. The Asuras worshipped him as Abhûti or not being, and thus they were defeated.

8. He who knows this, becomes great by himself, while the evil enemy who hates him, is defeated.

9. He (the breath) is death (when he departs), and immortality (while he abides).

10. And this has been said by a Rishi (Rv. I, 164, 38):--

11. 'Downwards and upwards he (the wind of the breath) goes, held by food;'--for this up-breathing, being held back by the down-breathing, does not move forward (and leave the body altogether).

12. 'The immortal dwells with the mortal;'--for through him (the breath) all this dwells together, the bodies being clearly mortal, but this being (the breath), being immortal.

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13. 'These two (body and breath) go for ever in different directions (the breath moving the senses of the body, the body supporting the senses of the breath: the former going upwards to another world, the body dying and remaining on earth). They increase the one (the body), but they do not increase the other,' i. e. they increase these bodies (by food), but this being (breath) is immortal.

14. He who knows this becomes immortal in that world (having become united with Hiranyagarbha), and is seen as immortal (in the sun) by all beings, yea, by all beings.


212:1 Having described how Prâna, the breath, and his companions or servants created the world, he now discusses the question of the material cause of the world out of which it was created. Water, which is said to be the material of the world, is explained by the commentator to mean here the five elements.

212:2 Cause and effect are not entirely separated, therefore water, as the elementary cause, and earth, fire, &c., as its effect, are one; likewise the worshipper, as the father, and the earth, fire, &c. as his sons, as described above. Mûla and tûla, root and shoot, are evidently chosen for the sake of the rhyme, to signify cause and effect.

213:1 Prâna is called the girih, because it is swallowed or hidden by the other senses (giranât). Again a mere play of words, intended to show that Brahman under the form of Prâna, or life, is to be meditated on.

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