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The Upanishads, Part 1 (SBE01), by Max Müller, [1879], at


1. When he recites the Nishkevalya hymn addressed to Indra (Rv. X, 50), pra vo mahe, he inserts a Nivid 2 (between the fourth and fifth verses). Thus he clearly places strength in himself (in the sastra, in the bird, in himself).

2. They are Trishtubhs and Gagatîs.

p. 195

3. There they say: 'Why does he insert a Nivid among mixed Trishtubhs and Gagatîs 1?' But surely one metre would never support the Nivid of this day, nor fill it: therefore he inserts the Nivid among mixed Trishtubhs and Gagatîs.

4. Let him know that this day has three Nivids: the Vasa hymn is a Nivid, the Vâlakhilyas 2 are a Nivid, and the Nivid itself is a Nivid. Thus let him know that day as having three Nivids.

5. Then follow the hymns vane na vâ (Rv. X, 29) and yo gâta eva (Rv. II, 12). In the fourth verse of the former hymn occur the words anne samasya yad asan manîshâh, and they serve for the winning of proper food.

6. Then comes an insertion. As many Trishtubh and Gagatî verses 3, taken from the ten Mandalas and addressed to Indra, as they insert (between the two above-mentioned hymns), after changing them into Brihatîs, so many years do they live beyond the (usual) age (of one hundred years). By this insertion age is obtained.

7. After that he recites the Saganîya hymn, wishing that cattle may always come to his offspring.

8. Then he recites the Târkshya hymn 4. Târkshya is verily welfare, and the hymn leads to welfare. Thus (by reciting the hymn) he fares well 5.

p. 196

9. Then he recites the Ekapadâ (indro visvam vi râgati), wishing, May I be everything at once, and may I thus finish the whole work of metres 1.

10. In reciting the hymn indram visvâ avivridhan (Rv. I, 11) he intertwines the first seven verses by intertwining their feet 2. There are seven prânas (openings) in the head, and he thus places seven prânas in the head. The eighth verse (half-verse) he does not intertwine 3. The eighth is speech, and he thinks, May my speech never be intertwined with the other prânas. Speech therefore, though dwelling in the same abode as the other prânas, is not intertwined with them.

11. He recites the Virâg verses 4. Verily, Virâg verses are food, and they thus serve for the gaining of food.

12. He ends with the hymn of Vasishth5, wishing, May I be Vasishtha!

13. But let him end with the fifth verse, esha stomo maha ugrâya vâhe, which, possessing the word mahat, is auspicious.

14. In the second foot of the fifth verse the word dhuri occurs. Verily, dhuh (the place where the horse is fastened to the car) is the end (of the car). This day also is the end (of the sacrifice which lasts a whole year) 6. Thus the verse is fit for the day.

p. 197

15. In the third foot the word arka is auspicious.

16. The last foot is: 'Make our glory high as heaven over heaven.' Thus wherever Brahmanic speech is uttered, there his glory will be, when he who knows this finishes with that verse. Therefore let a man who knows this, finish (the Nishkevalya) with that verse.


194:1 He repeats the Sûdadohas verse no more. Comm.

194:2 Sentences like indro devah somam pibatu.

195:1 According to the Prakriti of the Agnishtoma they ought to be all Trishtubhs. Comm.

195:2 These hymns occur in the eighty Brihatî tristichs.

195:3 From the Samhitâ, which consists of ten thousand verses. Comm.

195:4 Rv. X, 178. Târksha Garuda being the deity of the hymn, it is called Târkshya.

195:5 Cf. I, 5, 3, 13

196:1 The Ekapadâ forms the last metre in this ceremony.

196:2 The first and last half-verses of the hymn are not to be intertwined. Of the remaining fourteen half-verses he joins, for instance, the fourth foot of the first verse with the second foot of the second verse, and so on. Comm.

196:3 Because nothing more follows. Comm.

196:4 Rv. VII, 22, 1-6.

196:5 Rv. VII, 24.

196:6 The last day is the udayanîyâtirâtra. Comm.

Next: I, 5, 3