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The Upanishads, Part 1 (SBE01), by Max Müller, [1879], at

p. 22


1. The syllable Hâu 2 is this world (the earth), the syllable Hâi 3 the air, the syllable Atha the moon, the syllable Iha the self, the syllable Π4 is Agni, fire.

2. The syllable Û is the sun, the syllable E is the Nihava or invocation, the syllable Auhoi 5 is the Visve Devas, the syllable Hiṅ is Pragâpati, Svara 6 (tone) is breath (prâna), the syllable Yâ is food, the syllable Vâg 7 is Virâg.

3. The thirteenth stobha syllable, viz. the indistinct syllable Huṅ, is the Undefinable (the Highest Brahman).

4. Speech yields the milk, which is the milk of speech itself to him who knows this Upanishad (secret doctrine) of the Sâmans in this wise. He becomes rich in food, and able to eat food 8,--yea, able to eat food.


22:1 The syllables here mentioned are the so-called stobhâksharas, sounds used in the musical recitation of the Sâman hymns, probably to fill out the intervals in the music for which there were no words in the hymns. These syllables are marked in the MSS. of the Sâma-veda, but their exact character and purpose are not quite clear.

22:2 A stobha syllable used in the Rathantara Sâman.

22:3 Used in the Vâmadevya Sâman.

22:4 The Sâman addressed to Agni takes the syllable î as nidhana.

22:5 The stobha syllables used in the Sâman addressed to the Visve Devas.

22:6 See Kh. Up. I, 4, 4.

22:7 The commentator takes vâg as a stobha, as a syllable occurring in hymns addressed to Virâg, and as implying either the deity Virâg or food.

22:8 wealthy and healthy.

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