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Index: M-P

Macalister, Professor, xxxviii n.

MacCulloch, Colonel, stamped out infanticide, 60.

Macdonell, Professor, date of Aryan invasion of India, xxx; on Vedic burial customs, xxxii; on origin of transmigration theory, xliii, 116; on Ribhus, 11; on moon bowl, 12; on Vayu, 25; on "path of fathers" and "path of the gods", 39; Yama hymn, 40; on monotheism of Mithra cult, 41, 87 n.; on Upanishadic doctrines, 88; the Kuru and Puru tribes, 155.

Macdonell and Keith, on Dasa and Dasyu, 70 n.

Macpherson, Major, infanticide custom, 60.

Mădăn, the love god, 151.

Măd´hyădesă. See Middle country.

Măd´ră, in story of Savitri, 44.

Madras, human sacrifices in, 88.

Madri (măd´ree), Queen, wife of King Pandu, 173; purchase of, 175; mother of two Pandavas, 176; performs suttee, 177.

Măghăd´hă´, Eastern Aryan kingdom, xxxix.

Magical control of gods and nature, 80, 84.

Magical formulas, in Atharvaveda, 85; in Scotland, 86 n.

Magyar language, xix.

Mahabharata (măhä´bhä″r´ătă), the, hero songs beginning of; xlvi; heroes and heroines of, xlvii; villains of, xlviii; cattle harrying in, 4 n.; Indra-Vritra battle in, 7 et seq.; Ruru and Savitri tales from, 43 et seq.; descriptions of the various heavens in, 57-59; religious need for a son in, 59, 60; Rakshasas like gorillas in, 66; demoniac Vartikas in, 68; purpose of horse sacrifices in, 92; smoke cleanses sins, 93; world's ages (yugas) in, 105; Markandeya's

p. 448

account of the yugas (world's ages) in, 112 et seq.; Vishnu and Brahma in, 123; early myths in, 124; Bhagavad-gita (Divine Song) in, 125 et seq.; Krishna appendix to, 129; history of Brahmanism enshrined in, 138; furnishes knowledge regarding Brahma, 139; Markandeya's account of the Deluge in, 140 et seq.; "Churning of the Ocean" in, 142; Shiva worshipped by Krishna in, 146; Shiva's gift of weapons in, 146; Vyasa as author of, 154; Kuru-Kshetra battlefield in Kuru country, 155; founded on tribal hero songs: heroes of, 156; compared with Iliad and date of origin of, 156; story of, 157 et seq.; Pandavas favoured in, 178 n.

Maha deva (măhä´dayvă), Shiva as, 146.

Maha-rishis (măhä´reesh″es), 102. See Rishis, the Celestial.

"Maltese cross" in Elam and Babylon, 155, 156.

Man, the first, Purusha as, 89; like the Teutonic Ymer, 90; like Chinese P’an Ku and Egyptian Ptah, 90 n.

"Man in the eye", the, soul as, 42.

Managarm, Teutonic moon devourer, Rahu the Indian, 64, 142.

Män´ăsă, snake goddess, 152.

Mandapala (măndă´pălä), the childless Rishi, refused entry to heaven, 59.

Măndara mountain, in "Churning of the Ocean" myth, 143.

Mani (man´ee), Germanic moon god, 36.

Manipur, Arjuna weds princess of, 226.

Măn´măt″hă, the love god, 151.

Mannus, Teutonic patriarch, 23.

Mănt´hără, the hunchback, plots against Rama, 385 et seq.; Satrughna desires to slay, 397.

Manu, laws of, reincarnation in, 13; Narayana creation myth in, 101 et seq.; celestial Rishis in, 102; transmigration doctrine in, 117; Gandharva marriage legalized in, 160; the Niyoga custom, 171; second marriages unlawful in, 369 n.

Manu (măn´oo), patriarch of Agni worshippers, 23; Yama and, 39 n.; eponymous ancestor of mankind, 101; different forms of, 102; in vedas and epics, 140; the story of the fish and the Deluge, 140 et seq.

Manus, the seven and fourteen, 102; fourteen reign during "day of Brahma", 105.

Mara, the love god, 151.

Maricha, the Rakshasa of Ceylon, Rama drives over ocean, 381; as the golden deer, 403; Rama slays, 404, 405.

Mărichi (mă´reech-ee, ch as in each), the rishi, the grandfather of Vishnu's dwarf incarnation, 154.

Märkăndey´ă, long-lived Indian sage, 112 et seq.; visit of to Pandavas during exile, 259.

Marriage customs, the choice of Savitri, 45, 46; capture, 60; Gandharva marriage, 160; Bhishma on various modes, 169; his capture of king's three daughters, 169, 170; Draupadi becomes joint wife of Pandavas, 222, 223; Arjuna and Ulúpí, and princess of Manipur, and Subhadra, 226-228; second marriages unlawful, 369 n.

Mars, horse sacrificed to, 92, 93.

Maruts (măr´oots), Indra's attendants, 5; in battle, 5, 6; Vayu and, 25; Rudras and, 26; in Indra's heaven, 58; at Dasaratha's horse sacrifice, 377.

Mătäli, Indris chariot driver, 256, 258, 259.

Maternity, Sasti goddess of; 152, 153.

Mathematics, Brahmans and study of, 83.

Măt´hurã, Krishna and king of, 128.

May customs, Buriats burn house of dead, xxxiv; "ram feast" of Devon, xlii.

Mead, the early Ayro-Indian, 77.

Mead of the gods (see Amrita and Soma), Teutonic and Hindu giants and, 36; as "water of life", 37.

Mediator, the, Mithra as, 30, 31.

Mediterranean race, xxvii; Brahmans of, xxviii; the new Brahmanical Pantheon, xl. See also Brown race.

Mediterranean racial type and customs in Britain, xlii.

Megas´thenes, the Greek ambassador in India, evidence of regarding Vishnu, Shiva, and Krishna, 122.

Memphis (mem´fis), "Hammer god" of, 3, 139.

Menăkä, the Apsara, 43, 69, 159, 160.

Merodach, Babylonian god, in creation myth, 90.

Meru (may´roo), 17. See Mount Meru.

Mesopotamia, Aryan gods in, 62.

p. 449

"Metal of heaven", iron the, 77.

Metaphysical thought, Brahmans and, 82.

Metempsychosis, doctrine of. See Transmigration of souls.

Mexico, ancient, 90.

"Middle Country" (Madhyadesa) of Northern India, xxxix; tribal struggles and hero songs of, xlvi; early Ayro-Indians in, 76, 83; centre of Brahmanic culture, 88; held by Panchalas, 155.

Milesian Age, in Irish mythology, 110 et seq.

Milk, Ocean of. See Sea of Milk.

Milkmaids (Gopis), Krishna and the, 129.

Milky Way, Arjuna travels by to Indra's heavens, 69, 256.

Mimer, the "wonder smith", Twashtri like, 4; well of, 37.

Mind, identified with soul, 101.

Miner´va, Saraswati as, 149.

Missionaries, the Buddhist, 133.

Mitanni (mi-tan´ee), Aryan settlement in, xxix; names of kings, xxx; kings as overlords of Assyria, xxx; deities of, xxxi, xxxii; military autocracy of, xxxvi; Kurds descendants of Aryans of, xxxviii, xxxix; Indra "hammer god" of, 3; Aryanized kingdom of, 31; Agni not a god in, 32; Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya gods of, 32; Aryan kings as overlords of Assyria, 62.

Mithila (mit´hilä), Janaka, father of Sita, rajah of, 375.

Mithra, in Vedic Age, xxxi; in Asia Minor, xxxii, 28; in Babylonian and Persian mythologies, 29; the Assyrian "metre" 30; as a "corn god", 30; as the mediator, 30, 31; as Fitzgerald's Jamshid (Yima), 40; monotheism of cult of, 41.

Mit´ră (Mithra), in Vedic Age, xxxi; in Asia Minor, xxxii; identified with Agni, 22; associated with Varuna, 28; as protector of hearth and home, 29; as Babylonian sun god, 29; Assyrian and Persian clues, 30; a god of Mitanni, 32; Surya as "the eye" of, 33; identified with Jamshid (Yima), 40; influenced by Babylonian beliefs, 40; plays flute in Paradise, 41; as an Asura, 61; god of the overlords of Assyria, 62.

Mohammedans, number of in India, xviii.

Moisture of life, saliva as, 37; creative tears of Prajapati, 100, 101.

Monastic orders, the Buddhist, Egyptian, and Christian, 133.

Money, name of coin derived from necklet, 78.

Mongolians, in India, xxv, xxvi, xxvii, xxviii; Turki and Ugrian tribes, xxix; "Father right" among, xxxi; burial customs of, xxxiv; horse sacrifice among, 90; cremation ceremony described, 91.

Monotheism, Mithra's cult and, 41.

Moon, worship of, xl; doctrine of transmigration and, 117; standing stones visited by women at phases of, 147; as source of growth and moisture (water of life), 37; as ripener of crops, 35; influence of on animate and inanimate nature, 35; mead of Teutonic and Hindu gods in, 36, 142 et seq.; horse sacrifice and phase of, 92, 313; race of the, King Bharata and descendants of, 157 et seq.; Damayantí compared to, 356; gender of in Europe and Africa, 356 n, 357 n.

Moon bowl, Twashtri shapes, 12.

Moon bride, 356.

Moon devourer, Rahu in India, dragon in China, and the wolf in Teutonic lore, 64, 144.

Moon god addressed with Rudra, 28; as sire of the sun, 29; Chandra as, 35; marriage of with sun maid, 37; Shiva as, 146.

Morocco, blondes in, xxix.

Mosso, A., broad heads invade Europe, xxxv.

Mother, the great, worship of, 13; in India, 148; Lakshmi as, 149.

Mother earth, invoked at burials, 115, 116.

"Mother of the Vedas", Vach as, 149.

"Mother right", recognized by brown (Mediterranean) race, xxx.

Mothers, the, Agni has ten, 20; two of Rajah Jarasandha, 229; and of Osiris, 229 n.

Moulton, Professor, on Mithra's origin, 30, 40 n; 41.

Mountain, the holy, addressed by Damayanti, 347.

Mountain giants, theory of origin of, 71.

Mount Meru (may´roo), Indra's heaven

p. 450

on, 4; Pandava princes journey to, 324 et seq.

Muir's Sanskrit texts, xxv, 39 n, 101 n; on Yugas, 104, 105 n.

Müller, Dr. Sophus, introduction into Europe of cremation rite, xxxv.

Müller, Max, his Aryan term, xx; on Aryan racial cradle, xxi; on Aryan language and race problem, xxiii et seq.

Music, Narada the patron of, 153.

Mycenæ, lords of, did not cremate dead, xxxvi.

Myres, Professor, on military aristocracies, xxxvi.

Mythical Ages. See World's Age.

Mythology of India, its special interest, xviii; distinction between religion and, 135.

Myths, rational explanation or criticized, 70, 71.


Nägă country, infanticide in, 60.

Nägăs, the snake deities, in Varuna's heaven, 59, 65; worship of among Aryans, 66; none in world's first age, 107; Surasa mother of, 414.

Năkülă, the Pandava, son of Madri and twin Aswins, 176; temporary death of, 263; journey of towards paradise, 324 et seq..

Nălă (of the Mahábhárata), "world guardians" in story of, 31; horse sacrifice in, 91, and purpose of, 92; the story, 328 et seq.; message of the swan, 330; gods desire Damayantí, 332; interview with Damayantí, 333-335; the swayamvara, 335-337; demon Kali plots against, 338-339; Kali enters, 340; gambling match with brother, 341, 342; exile of, 342, 343; deserts Damayanti, 344; the serpent Karkotaka, 353; is transformed, 354; as Vahuka, the charioteer, 355; Damayanti's search for, 358, 359; the second swayamvara, 360; journey to Rituparna, 360-363; Kali ejected, 362; Damayanti's maid interviews, 365-368; interview with Damayantí, 368-370; second gambling match and kingdom won back, 371-373.

Näla (of the Rámáyana), the green ape artisan, 418.

Năn´di, bull of Shiva, 147.

Narada (nä´rădă), the Devarishi, in story of Savitri, 45; descriptions of various heavens by, 57-9; a renowned teacher and musician, 153; message of to Pandavas, 321, 322; in story of Nala, 331; curses Karkotaka, 353; in the Rámáyana, 374.

Nãrãyana (när´äyänă), divine incarnation of world soul, 100; Brahma as, 101; colours of in various yugas (world's ages), 108; Markandeya's vision of at end of yugas, 114 et seq.; Vishnu as, 124.

Nasatya, in Asia Minor, xxxii, 32.

Natesa (nă-tesh´ă), the dancer, Shiva as, 147, 148.

Nature, feeling for in Sanskrit literature, xlvii; magical control of, 80.

Necklet, coin called after, 78.

Nectar, of the gods, soma as, 35; or Nagas, 66.

Neith (ne-ith), Egyptian "earth mother", 13.

Nemed's Age, in Irish mythology, 110 et seq.

Neolithic Age, European burial customs in, xxxiii; Indra as a god of, 2.

Nepthys (nep´this), as joint mother of Osiris, 229 n.

New Year celebrations, xliii.

Nifelhel (nĭfel´hel), xliv.

Night, Ratri goddess of, 34.

Night fairies, 70.

Nirriti, goddess of destruction, 67; region of in Brahmanas, 81.

Nirvänă, "eternal emancipation", Buddha's teaching regarding, 131 et seq.

Normans, xxxv, xxxvi.

Northern fair race, xxvii, xxviii, xxix.


Oak in Aryan languages, xxi.

Ocean of Milk, xl; the churning of the, 142 et seq. Also Sea of Milk.

Ocean, heaven of. See Varuna.

Odin (ō´din), xlv, 12, 13, 24, 36, 37.

Odyssey, the Mahábhárata compared with, 129, 156; the Rámáyana compared with, 139.

Offspring, religious need for, 59, 60.

Oldenberg, Professor, on Vedic burial customs, xxxii; on Agni's mothers, 20; on Agni and Mitra, 22; on Vishwamitra-Vasishtha problem, 154; on the Puru, Kuru, and other clans, 155.

Olympus, 4.

Om, the three Vedas and the Trinity, 111; Vishnu as, 126.

p. 451

Omar, Fitzgerald's, 40.

"Ord na Feinne", the Gaelic thunder hammer, 3.

Orkney, cremating invaders reach, xxxv.

Ormuzd, xxxiii.

Osiris (ō-sī´ris), xliv; Rajah Jarasandha has two mothers like, 229 n.

Ossianic (osh´e-an-ik), wife burning reference, xxxvii.

Oudh. See Ayodhya.

Owls as messengers of death, 41 Egyptian spirits as, 75.


Pachomios, the first Christian monk, 133.

Palæolithic Age, 71.

Palestine, cremation in, xxxvii; "hammer god" in, 3.

P’an Ku, China's "first man" and thunder god, 2; like Indra and Ptah, 9, 10; as chaos giant, 90 n, 148.

Panchala (păn-chäl´ă--ch as in change) tribe united with Kuru tribe, xxxix; Drupada becomes rajah of, 180; divided by Drona, 197; Drupada's son and daughter the hope of, 210; swayamvara of Draupadi at, 211 et seq.; Draupadi becomes joint wife of Pandavas at, 222.

Pandavas (pän´dăvăs), epic heroes, rivals of the Kauravas (Kurus), 156; the sons of Pritha and Madri, 176; as youthful rivals of the Kauravas, 177 et seq.; rivalries at the tournament, 185 et seq.; defeat Drupada for Drona, 195, 196; conquests by, 197; first exile of, 198 et seq.; sojourn in Eka-chakra, 206 et seq.; journey of to Panchala, 211, 212; Draupadi to be possessed by all, 219 et seq.; division of raj with Kauravas, 224; Arjuna's exile, 225; imperial sacrifice of at Indra-prastha, 228 et seq.; at the gambling match with Kauravas, 237 et seq.; exiled, 248 et seq.; second exile of, 249 et seq.; need of celestial weapons, 255; rescue of Duryodhana by, 259, 260; four brothers stricken down at holy pond by Dharma, 263 et seq.; end of forest exile, 263; in city of Virata, 266 et seq.; Kauravas declare exile of not completed, 268; preparations for the "great war", 270 et seq.; the Virata meeting of allies of, 270 et seq.; negotiations and preparations for war, 273 et seq.; war breaks out with Kauravas, 285 et seq.; triumph of mingled with grief, 310 et seq.; behold return of the dead warriors, 320, 321; gloom of last days of, 322; journey of five brothers and Draupadi to Indra's heaven, 323-327.

Pandu (pan´dü), son of Vyasa, 172; wives of when king, 173; story of doom of, 175 et seq.; in paradise, 327.

Pänis, aerial demons, enemies of Indra, 67.

Pantheism, the Upanishadic, 88. See Brahmă and World soul.

Paradise, the Indian, xlvii; dead walk to, or are transported to by fire, 39. Also see Heaven.

Parashara (păräsh´ără), the Brahman, father of Vyasa, 167.

Părăsü´-rämă (Rama with the axe), an incarnation of Vishnu, 136

Parjăn´ya, rain cloud as, 26.

Parmäda, the Brahman, discovers Nala, 359.

Parsees, number of, xviii; burial custom of, xxxiii.

Parthians, the, ancient Indians archers on horseback like, 187 n.

Pärth´olon's age, in Irish mythology, 110 et seq.

Păr´vătă, the rishi, rival of Narada, 153; in story of Nala, 331.

Parvati (pär´vătee), the goddess, wife of Shiva, 150; mother of Ganesa, 151; as mother of Kartikeya, 152; horse for sacrifice becomes mare owing to curse of, 314.

Pastoral life, the Aryan, 76.

Pätälă, Indian Fomorians confined in, 64; "Asura fire" in, 65; Danavas and Daityas dwell in, 256.

Patriarchal life in Vedic period, 77.

Patriarchs, the tribal, Bhrigu as a celestial rishi, 102.

Patroklos (pä-trōk´los), cremation of, xxxvi, xxxviii, 38.

Peacocks, Solomon obtained from India, 84.

Penance, power derived from, 85; Irish saint performs like Brahmans, 111.

Persia, as Aryan racial cradle, xix; Assyrian influence in mythology of, 62; horse sacrificed in, 93.

Persian Gulf, Ea, artisan god of, 12.

Persian language compared with Sanskrit, 61, 62.

p. 452

Persian mythology, Mithra in, 29, 30; Haoma (soma) in, 36.

Petrie, Professor Flinders, on monasticism in Egypt, 133.

Pharaoh, Rajah a god among men like a, 74 n.

Physician of the gods, 144.

Pig, the, treatment of in Asiatic, European, and African mythologies, 136.

Pigeon as a messenger of death, 41.

Pinches, Professor, 12, 29 n.

Pisachas (pe-shätch´ăs), devourers of dead bodies, 67.

Pitri´păti, "lord of the fathers" (dead) Yama is, 42.

Pit´ris, the spirits of ancestors, xxxviii; Yama king of the, 57, 58; worship of, 61, 102.

Pitris (Fathers), the land of, xxxii; childless Rishi sent back from, 59, 116.

Pleiades, wives of Rishis as, 153.

Pleistocene age, men of as elves and fairies, 71.

Plough, the, used by early Ayro-Indians, 76.

Poetry, God of, Ganesa as, 151.

Poets, priests were, 33, 78, 79, 80. See Rishi.

Pole Star, Brahman identified with, 145.

Pope Gregory the Great, 135.

Pork, prejudice against and where eaten, 136.

Posts, sacrificial, 93.

"Pot of Worth", 249 n.

Prabhasa (pră-bhä´să), city of, Arjuna in, 226.

Prădyum´nă, the love god, 151.

Prăhläd´ă, the demon king's son, story of, 135.

Prăjä´păti, the Creator, 94, 98; as the Chaos Boar, 136; divine incarnation of World Soul, 100; creative tears of, 100, for; rises from lotus like the Egyptian Horus, 101.

Prămădvără, in story of "The Brahman and his Bride", 43, 44.

Prayers, mantras as, 87.

Predestination, belief in, 42 et seq.

Prehistoric monsters, bones of and giant stories, 71.

Preserver, the, Vishnu as in Trinity, 119.

Preserver, Vishnu as child creator, 124.

Priesthood, rise of the, 80; four periods of Brahman's life, 81; how maintained, 82; as human gods, 84. See Rishi, Hari, Purohita, Brahman.

Priests, as poets and leaders, 33, 78, 79; caste of, 79. See Caste.

Prishata (prish´ätă), father of Drupada, 179.

Pritha (preet´hä), mother of Pandavas, 21; mother of, a nymph, 173; Surya, sun god, father of her son Karna, 174; choice of King Pandu at swayamvara, 175; mother of three Pandavas, 176; desires to perform suttee, 176, 177; at the tournament, 186 et seq.; the coming of Karna, 189 et seq.; in first exile of Pandavas, 200; flight of, 201; story of Bhima and the Rakshasas, 202 et seq.; sends Bhima to slay Vaka, 207; journeys with sons to Panchala, 211; exile of Arjuna, 225; Draupadi and Subhadra, 228; interview with Krishna, 282; reveals to Karna she is his mother, 283; Karna's promise, 284; her sorrow for the dead after "great war", 312; retires to forest, 319; return of the dead, 320, 321; perishes in jungle fire, 322; in Paradise, 327.

Prithivi (prit´hi-vee), Indian earth goddess, xxxi, 6; as a cow, 13; harvest offering to, 14; flees from Agni, 20, 148.

Psalms, burnt offerings, 121.

Ptah (tä), as "hammer god" of Egypt, 3; like Indra and Pa’n Ku, &c., 9, 10; as a chaos giant, 90 n; emerges from chaos egg like Brahma, 101, 114 n, 148.

Punjab, Aryan settlement in, xxix; date of invasion of, xxx; fire worshippers in, xxxii; Aryans of called "Westerners", xxxix, 1; Indra in and in Mitanni, 3; beliefs regarding after life in, 40; Aryans in Babylon before entering, 62; Aryan folk drift from, 76.

Punyajänas, "the good people", Yakshas as, 68.

Puränăs, the sacred poems, 124; Krishna in, 129; purpose of, 134, 135; Hinduism and, 135; the sacredness of, 139; old myths in, 140; the "Churning of the Ocean" in, 142.

Pürocha´na, secret agent of Duryodhana, 200; death of, 201.

Purōhită, family priest, 80; Vishwamitra as, 154.

p. 453

Pür´ü, tribal name of as eponymous king, 156; a Vedic tribe, merged in Kuru coalition, 155.

Pürüsh´ă, the "first man", and sacrifice of by gods, 89; compared with Ymer, 90; myth of, 95; Brahma identified with, 102; Saraswati as the female form of, 149; Rudra as, 150.

Pürüsh´ă-me″dha (human sacrifice), 88.

Push´kără, brother of Nala, wins kingdom at dice, 340, 34,, 342; kingdom won back from, 371-373.

Püt, the hell called, 41; fathers only are reserved from, 59.

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