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Index: H-L

Habits of life, beliefs influenced by, xlv, xlvi.

Haddon, Dr., view on Aryans, xxix.

Hades, the organized, xxxviii, 38.; bird-like spirits in, 75.

Hags, Diti and Danu, mothers of giants and demons, 64; the Danava women, 65; Rakshasas as beautiful women, 67 (see Pisachas); in Scotland, 71; bird-like voices of, 75; the Babylonian chaos, 90; Arjuna terrifies in underworld, 257; Taraka slain by Rama, 380; Surpa-nakha woos Rama and brother, 400 et seq.; as guardians of Sita, 412; Surasa, ocean hag, 414; Sinhika, sea dragon, 414.

Hallowe’en celebrations, xliii.

Hallstatt civilization, cremation in Greece earlier than, xxxvi.

"Hammer gods", xxxi; Indra as, 1; attributes of, 2; of China, 2; of Scotland, Egypt, Greece, Rome; Asia Minor, Palestine, Babylon, &c., 3 et seq.; origin of, 70.

Hammurabi (-â´bi) Dynasty, overthrown by Kassites and Aryans, 62.

Hanuman (hăn´u-män), ape god, describes the Yugas to Bhima, 106, 107, 108, 109, 250, 251; Arjuna's standard the image of, 287; ape god, son of Vayu, 411; search of for Sita, 414; in Ravana's palace, 414; finds Sita, 415; conflict with Rakshasas, 416; escape of, 416; yellow as gold, 418; carries mountain to Ceylon, 421; restores Lakshmana, 422; death of Ravana, 423; accompanies Rama to Ayodhya, 425.

Haoma, the Persian soma, 36.

Hără, Shiva as, 147.

Hari, the illustrious, Vishnu as, 146.

Hari-Hara, Vishnu and Shiva as, 147 n.

Harris, Dr. Rendel, on twin-deities conceptions, 40.

Harvest bride, Jagadgauri as, 149.

Harvest moon, as ripener of crops, 35.

Hästin, King, 164.

Hastinapur (hăs-teen´ä-poor), city of, 164; Bhishma brings captured princess to, 170; Pandava and Kaurava princes in, 177 et seq.; Pandavas return to after marriage, 223, 224.

Hathor (hät´hor), Egyptian goddess, compared with Indian and Scottish deities, xli; goddess Kali like, 150.

Hawes, Mr. and Mrs., xxxviii n.

Heaven of Indra, 58; like Valhal, 59; dancing girls in, 69; Pandavas and Kauravas in, 327.

Heaven of Krishna, 323.

Heaven of Kuvera, 59.

Heaven of serpent worshippers, 66.

Heaven of Varuna, 59.

Heaven of Varna, 57; parents only admitted to, 59.

Hebrews, great sacred literature of, 103.

Hector, the Indian, xlviii.

Heimdal (hīm´dal), Teutonic god, like Agni, xlv, 20, 21, 22.

Hela, xliv, like Indian heavens, 59.

Heliopolis (hē-li-op´ol-is), 139.

Hell (see Put), Varna presides over, 42; parents only rescued from, 59; "threefold is the way to", 128; Yudhishthira's vision of, 326 et seq.

Herakles, Vishnu as, 122.

Hermitages, as universities, 82.

Hermits, as scholars, 82.

Hermit's son, tale of the, 394, 395.

Hero songs, epics developed from cycles of, 138.

Herodotus (her-od´otus), xliii; transmigration beliefs, xliv, 116, 118.

Heroines of Indian literature, xlvii.

p. 443

Hesiod, doctrine of world's ages, 109 et seq.

Hidimva (hed-eem´vă), the Rakshasa, slain by Bhima, 202-205.

Hinduism, cults of, xvii; ancient culture basis of, 88; currents of thought in, 102; transmigration doctrine in, 117, 118; Vishnu and Shiva cults, 124; Puranic beliefs and, 135.

Hindu-Kush, as a race-divider, xxvii.

Hindus, number of, xvii; Aryans and, xxiv; dead cremated by, xxxii.

Hindustan, Aryan aristocracy in, xxxvi; early Aryans displaced in by Kurus, Panchalas, and Bharatas, 155.

Hiranyapura (herăn´yă-poor″ă), flying island city of giants and demons, 65.

Hittites, Aryans and, xxix; peace treaty with Mitanni Aryans, xxxi; "Hammer god" of, 3; Mitannian relations with, 31; raid on Babylon and connection of Kassites with, 155, 156.

Hogg, Professor H. W., on Mithra problem, 30.

Hogs, Rakshasas ride in battle, 419.

Homeric burial customs, xxxvi, 38.

Homer's ghosts, like bats, 75.

Horse, Babylonian name of, xxix, 156; when introduced into Egypt and India, xxx; Aryans breeders and tamers of, 76; Creator assumes form of, 95, 102; the white (Kalki), the next incarnation of Vishnu, 137; Avatars of, 360.

Horse sacrifice, Buriats' offer to dead, xxxiv; prevalent in early times, 88; symbolism of, 90; among Mongolians, 90; to ensure fertility, 91; as atonement for sin, 92, 312, 426, 427; the Roman and Greek, &c., 92, 93; in Upanishadic creation myth, 94 et seq.; in myth of descent of Ganges, 152; "the horse speaks", 317; in Rámáyana, Dasaratha performs for offspring, 376; gods attend, 376, 377.

Horses, hymn to Indra for, 15, 16.

Horus (ho´rus), the Egyptian, Prajapati rises from lotus like, 101.

Hospitality, importance of in religious life, 81.

Hotri priests, reciters, 80.

Household fairy, Jara, the Rakshasa woman, as a, 229.

"House of clay", the grave as, xxxii, 115, 116.

Hrungner (hroong´ner), Scandinavian giant, 2, 64.

Human gods, priests as, 84.

Human sacrifice prevalent in early times, 88; recent instances of, 89; symbolism of, 95, 96.

Hunting period, the Aryans and, 76.

Hura (hoo´ra), the Persian mead, 77.

"Husband of his mother", 14.

Hyenas, Rakshasas ride in battle, 419.


Iliad, the civilization of, xlvii; the Mahábhárata book as long as and Odyssey, 129, 139, 156.

Immortality, achieved by knowledge of Brahmă, 99, 100.

India, reversion to type in, xli, xlii.

Indians, ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Celts, &c., and, 116 et seq.

Indo-European languages and peoples, xx, xxiv.

Indo-Germanic languages and peoples, xix; Müller prefers Aryan, xx; the Celtic theory, xxiii.

Indra (ind´ră), in Vedic age, xxxi; tribal aspect of, xxxii; brother of Agni, xxxiii, 19; goddess Durga rivals, xl; as "Hammer god", 1; his thunderbolt, 2; in Mitanni, 3, 32; "thunder-stone" of fashioned, 4; victory after birth, 4; attacks and slays drought demon, 5, 6; war song of, and hymn to, 6, 7; hammer of made from Rishi's bones, 7, 8; flight of in epic myth, 8; Bel Merodach and, 9; P’an Ku, Ptah, and, 9, 10; as world artisan, 10; Thor and, 11; Twashtri and, 11; a god of fertility, 12; parents of, 12; like Cronus, his father's slayer, 13; harvest offerings to, 14; as winner of god's race, 14, 15; as "friend of man", 15; cattle-lifters' hymn to, 15, 16; his human qualities, 17; dog and elephant of, 17, 18; Agni a drinker like, 23; attributes of absorbed by Agni and Vayu, 24; rain god and, 26; contrasted with Varuna, 27, 28; after redistribution of deities, 31; as discoverer of soma, 36; the heaven of, 58, 59; god of the overlords of Assyria, 62; reference to myth of in Brahmanas, 63; imprisons giants, 64; aerial city of, 65; hater of demon Panis, 67; dancing girls in heaven of, 69; made strong by the priests, 84; at horse sacrifice, 92; Vishnu source

p. 444

[paragraph continues] of strength of, 123; Krishna opposed to the worship of, 129; subject to Brahma, 134; cursed by Durvasas, 142; at "churning of the ocean" 143 et seq.; origin of the elephant of, 144; battle with Garuda, 145; "before his mother", 148; elephant of decapitated, 151; in myth of descent of Ganges, 152; Narada, the rishi, messenger of, 153; dread of Vishwamitra's creative power, 159, 160; Arjuna a son of, 176; guards Arjuna at the tournament, 191; Pandavas as five incarnations of, 222; heaven of attained by Kshatriyas, 230; welcomes Arjuna in Swarga, 256, 257; praises his warrior son, 258; adored by the Pandavas, 259; takes Karna's armour and ear-rings, 262; Karna uses weapon of, 301; at horse sacrifice of, 318; welcomes Yudhishthira to paradise and tests, 324 et seq.; Pandavas and Kauravas in paradise of, 327; in story of Nala, 331; a suitor of Damayantí, 332 et seq.; at Dasaratha's horse sacrifice, 376-377; appeal of to Brahma and Vishnu against Ravana, demon king, 377; becomes an ape, 377; Bali, ape king, son of, 411.

Indrajit (ind-ră´jit), the Rakshasa, in Ceylon war, 419 et seq.

Indrani (ind-rän´ee), wife of Indra, 17.

Indra-prastha (indră-prăst´ha), Pandavas build, 224, 225; Arjuna returns to, 228.

Indus river, the sea and, 83, 84.

Infanticide, in ancient and modern India, 60.

Inspiration, to draw in a spirit, 85.

"Iranian period", a convenient term, xxxi.

Iranian plateau as Aryan racial cradle, xix.

Iravat (eer´ä-văt), son of Arjuna and serpent nymph Ulúpí, 226; in great war, 286 et seq.; fall of, 293.

Ireland, doctrine of ages of universe in, xliv, 110 et seq.; transmigration of souls belief in, xliv; Tuan MacCarell legend in, 111 et seq.; Milesians of descended from god of death, 111; prejudice against pork in, 136.

Iron, early Ayro-Indians and, 77.

Iron Age, in Indian, Greek, and Celtic mythologies, 107 et seq.; the "´Black Age" in India, 108, 109; in Greek mythology, 109, 110; in Celtic mythology, 110 to et seq.

Isaiah, sacrifices condemned by, 132.

Ishtar (ish´tar), 13; bird-like spirits in legend of, 75.

Isis (ī´sis), festival of, xliii; Indian goddess Kali like, 150; as joint mother of Osiris, 229 n.

"Islands of the Blest", 59.

Italians, Brahmans resemble, xxvii.

Ivory, Solomon got from India, 84.


"Jack and Jill", as carriers of moon mead, 36.

Jăg´gănăth (Juggernaut), a Vishnu trinity, 136, 137; car of, 137.

Jain´ism, Upanishadic teachings and, 120; Vishnu prominent before rise of, 124; origin of and doctrines of, 133, 134.

Jamshid of Fitzgerald's Omar, 40.

Janaka (jăn´ăkă), Rama breaks Shiva's bow before, 382, 383.

Janeckpoor, 382 n.

Jărä, the household fairy, at birth of Jarasandha, 229.

Jarasandha (jă-rä-sund´hă), the rajah, has two mothers like Osiris, 229; the slaying of, 229-231.

Jatayus (jătä´yus), king of vultures, attempt to rescue Sita from Ravana, 406, 407; Rama finds, 409; revelation and death of, 410; brother of helps Rama, 413.

Jayadratha (jăy-ă-drăt´hă), the rajah, attempts to carry off Draupadi, 262; Bhima makes him a slave, 263; in great war, 297; fall of, 299, 300.

Jewel, the great, 311; the magic life-giving, 315.

Jones, Sir W., views of on Aryan problem, xix.

Jörd (yerd), mother of Thor, 13.

Jotuns (yē´toons), the Indian, 64, 65.

Jubainville, on world ages doctrine in Greek and Celtic mythologies, 110 et seq.

Juggernaut. See Jăgănăth.

Jumna river, mentioned in late Rigvedic period, 76, 83; Krishna as babe causes miracle at, 128, 129.

Jupiter, 3; the Indian, 12.

Justice, lord of, Varna as, 57. See Dharma.


Kä, the great unknown, 98.

p. 445

Kaegi, Adolf, on Vritra and "weather", 8; rain-charm hymn, 37.

Kaikeyi (ky-kay-yee´), wife of Dasaratha, 396; Bharata, son of, 378; plot against Rama, 384 et seq.; Rama exiled, 388; anger of Bharata, 396 et seq.

Kailä´să, mountain of Shiva, 146; Arjuna visits Shiva on, 255, 256.

Kali (kăl´e), the demon in Nala story, 67; personification of Kali Yuga, 338; plots against Nala, 338, 339; enters Nala and causes ruin of, 340, 341; causes Nala to desert wife, 344; serpent poisons, 353; ejected by Nala, 362.

Kali (kä´lee), the goddess, wife of Shiva, xl; like Egyptian and Scottish deities, xli, 150; as earth mother, 149; as slayer of enemies of gods, 149, 150.

Kălï Yugă, the Black or Evil Age, 104, 108, 109; in Greek and Celtic mythologies, 109 et seq.

Kălkï, the white horse incarnation of Vishnu, 137.

Kălpă, a "day" of Brahma, 105.

Kamadeva (kä-mă-devă), the love god, in story of the sun maiden, 72; the love god, Shiva consumes, 146; son of Vishnu and Lakshmi, 151.

Kandhs tribe, exogamy in, 60.

Kănsă, King of Mathura, 128.

Känvă, the Brahman, in the Shakuntala story, 158 et seq.

Karkotáka (kärkotă´ka), Naga serpent demi-god, 65; the serpent king, Narada's curse, 353; rescued by Nala, 354.

Kărnă, xlviii; Scef and Agni myths and, 21; the son of Surya, sun god, and Pritha, 174; babe set adrift in basket, 174; found by Radha in country of Anga, 176; rival of Arjuna at the tournament, 189, 190; challenges Arjuna, 191; made a rajah by Kauravas, 192; is put to shame by Pandavas, 193; the ally of Duryodhana, 194; rejected at Draupadi's swayamvara, 216; combat with Arjuna, 218, 2191 at the gambling match, 240 et seq.; advises Duryodhana to spy on exiled Pandavas, 259; vows to slay Arjuna, 261; Indra takes away celestial armour of, 262; plots against Pandavas, 269; at Hastinapur conference, 274 et seq.; Krishna's interview with, 282; Pritha reveals secret of birth to, 283; refuses to desert the Kauravas, 283, 284; refusal to fight while Bhishma is leader of Kauravas, 286; comes to fight after Bhishma's fall, 296; slays Ghatotkacha with Indra's weapon, 301; becomes leader of Kauravas, 302; combat with Arjuna and fall of, 304, 305; performance of funeral rites for, 312; in Indra's heaven, 327.

Kartikeya (kärtik´eyă), the war god, 152.

Käsi, Aryan tribe, xxxix; association of with Benares, 155; identification of with Kassites, 155, 156; king of, three daughters of captured by Bhishma, 169.

Kassites, their origin obscure, xxix; Aryans enter Babylon with, 3; associated with Aryans in Babylon, 62; identification of with Kasis of Benares, 155, 156.

Käs´yăpă, the pole star, 145.

Kauravas (kow´răvăs), as the Kurus, 156; sons of Dhritarashtra, 177; as youthful rivals of the Pandavas, 177 et seq.; rivalries at the tournament, 185 et seq.; failure of to defeat Drupada, 195, 196; first exile of their rivals, 198 et seq.; raj divided with Pandavas, 224; at Pandava imperial sacrifice, 232 et seq.; the gambling match with Pandavas, 237 et seq.; feasted by exiled Pandavas, 260; attack on Virata, 267; Arjuna defeats, 268; declare Pandavas' exile not ended, 268; opposed to Pandavas' return after exile, 270 et seq.; preparations for war, 273 et seq.; conference at Hastinapur, 273 et seq.; war breaks out, 285 et seq.; mourning for and funeral rites, 310 et seq.; return of the dead, 320, 321; in Indra's paradise, 325-327.

Kausalya (kow´săl-yä), wife of Dasaratha, 376; Rama son of, 378; Rama's exile, 390 et seq.; death of Dasaratha, 396; Bharata comforts, 397.

Keats, John, 25.

Keith, Dr., on Vedic burial customs, xxxii, 168 n.

Kesin (kay´sin), leads Asuras against Indra, 64.

Khnumu (knoo´moo), of Egypt, Indian Ribhus like, 11; the Egyptian god,

p. 446

chaos-egg myth in India and Egypt, 101.

Khonds tribe, human sacrifice in, 88.

Kichaka (kee-chăk´ă, ch as in change), loves Draupadi and Bhima slays, 267.

"King of the Elements", the Gaelic, 87.

Kings, in the Vedic Age, 78.

"Kinsman", the, Vishnu as, 123.

Knowledge, salvation by, doctrine of in Bhagavad-gita, 126 et seq.

Kósälä, Eastern Aryan kingdom, xxxix; Dasaratha, Ramas' father, rajah of, 375.

Kripa (kreepä), miraculous birth of, 192 n.; night slaughter in Pandava camp, 307-309.

Krishna (krish´nă), evidence of Greek ambassador, Megasthenes, regarding, 122; an avatara of Vishnu, 125; doctrines of his Bhagavad-gita (Divine Song), 126 et seq.; a son of Vasudeva, 128; father escapes with at birth, 128; the shepherd-lover of Gopis (milk-maids), 129; Juggernaut and, 136, 137; as teacher of Vaishnava faith, 138, 139; worship of Shiva by, 146; bride of an incarnation of Lakshmi, 149; nephew of Queen Pritha, 173; at swayamvara of Draupadi, 215 et seq.; gifts of to Pandavas, 223; Arjuna visits during exile, 226; Arjuna weds Subhadra, sister of, 227; expedition against Jarasandha, 229-231; at Pandava imperial sacrifice, 231, 232; slays Sishupala, rajah of Chedi, 233, 234; Sishupala an incarnation of Shiva, 234 n.; visits Pandavas during second exile, 251; at Abhimanyu's wedding, 269; at meeting of Pandava allies, 270 et seq.; promise to be Arjuna's charioteer, 273; as spokesman for Pandavas, 275; visit to Hastinapur, 276, 277; pleads with Kauravas for peace, 278; reproves Duryodhana, 280; plot to seize and transformation of, 281; departure from Hastinapur, 282; prophecy regarding the great war, 286; instruction of to Arjuna, 287, 288; miracle by on battlefield, 300; the Arjuna-Karna combat, 304, 305; at horse sacrifice, 317, 318, 319; closing days of and death, 322 et seq.

Kritä Yuga, length of, 104, 107; the White Age, 108, 109; in Greek and Celtic mythologies, 109 et seq.

Kritänă, "the finisher", Yama is, 42.

Krităvăr´măn, night slaughter in Pandava camp, 307-9; slain by Satyaki, 322.

Kshatriya caste. See Caste.

Kshăt´riyăs, the red, xxv; aristocratic caste, gods as Kshatriyas, 14; Brahmans become greater than, 84; origin of caste of in Purusha myth, 89; Buddhism and Jainism originate among, 120, 132; Brahmans achieve spiritual dominion over, 121, 136; destroyed by Vishnu's warrior incarnation, 136; Vishwamitra raised to Brahman caste, 154; Gandharva marriage for, 160.

Küberă, god of treasure, Bhima's journey to region of; 105; Bhima reaches lotus lake of; 109. See Kuvera.

Kumbha-Karna (koom´bhă-kăr´nă), the sleeping giant, 419; slain by Rama, 420.

Kurds, Armenians contrasted with, xxii; as descendants of Aryan raiders, xxxviii.

Kurma (koor´mă), king of tortoises, 143.

Kuru (koo´roo), the tribe called, united with the Panchala tribe, 155.

Kuru, King, as son of sun maiden and rajah Samvarana, 74, 156, 164.

Kuru-Kshetră, country of the Kurus and famous battlefield of, 155, 156; Pandavas and Kauravas assemble for battle, 286.

Kuru-Pănchälăs, kingdom of, xxxix; doctrinal influence of, xliv; late invasion of and nation of; 155; wars of in epic narrative, 156.

Kurus, the Kauravas of epic fame, 156.

Küsă, son of Rama and Sita, 426.

Kushna (koosh´nă), the demon, "the scorcher", 66.

Küveră, the heaven of, 59; demoniac hosts of; 68; like the Germanic Laurin, 251; Pandavas behold dwelling of; 258; advice of to Yudhishthira, 258. See Kubera.


Lăksh´mănă, xlviii; son of Duryodhana, in great war, 291, 292.

Laksh´mana, brother of Rama, 378; goes against demons, 379-81; goes into exile with Rama, 392 et seq.; story of the hag Surpa-nakha, 400 et seq.; the golden deer, 404; rape of Sita, 405 et seq.; searches with Rama

p. 447

for Sita, 408; revelation of the vulture king, 409; conflict with headless demon, 410; among the apes, 411 et seq.; in the Ceylon war, 418 et seq.; Sita's second banishment, 426.

Lakshmi (lăksh´mee), an earth goddess, xl; origin of in sea of milk, 144; as love goddess and Sri, 149; mother of the love god, 151; as daughter of Daksha, the rishi, 153, 154; Rukmini an incarnation of; 234 n.; Sita as, 427.

Lamb, sacrifice of in Devon, &c., and India, xlii.

Land laws, in Vedic period, 78.

"Land of the Fathers", paradise as, 39-41, 42 et seq.

Language, indication of nationality not race, xxiii.

"Language of Birds", significance of belief regarding, 75.

Lănkä (Ceylon), Ravana, demon king of, 65, 66, 377 et seq.

Lapps, fairies and elves as, 70 et seq.

"Last battle", in Teutonic and Indian lore, 65.

Latham, Dr. Robert Gordon, views of on Indo-European problem, xx.

Laurin (law-reen), the rose garden of, 251.

Lăvă, son of Rama and Sita, 426.

Leopard, Shiva wears skin of, 147.

Life, essence of, soma as, 37; sanctity of in Buddhism, 132; "cut off", belief regarding "the man in the eye" (soul), 42; air of (see Air of life).

Life, water of. See Water of life, Moisture of life, Mead of gods.

Life blood, spirit identified with, 37.

Life of life, the Brahma. See World soul.

Lightning, Shiva a god of, 146. See Agni, Indra, and Maruts.

Lincolnshire, the "gad whip" in, xlii.

Lion, horse for sacrifice becomes a, 314.

Lioness, King Bharata suckled by a,161.

Lions, Bharata as tamer of; 161.

Liquors, intoxicating, made by early Ayro-Indians, 77.

Literature, god of, Ganesa as, 151.

Lithuanian language, xx, xxi.

Loke (lō´kē), Dadyak the Indian, 12, 16.

"Long heads" in India, xxv, xxvi; burial customs of, xxxv.

Lotus, Prajapati rises from like the Egyptian Horus, 101; Brahmă rises from, 124.

Lotuses, the celestial, Bhima's journey for, 105 et seq.

Love, charms for, 86.

Love god, consumed by Shiva, 146; son of Vishnu and Lakshmi, names of, 151.

Luck, water spirits the source of, 148.

"Lunar Race", tribe of Bharatas as, xxxix; King Bharata and descendants belong to, 157 et seq.

Lunar worship, rebirth and, 117.

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