Sacred Texts  Miscellaneous  Index  Previous  Next 
Buy this Book at

The Grateful Dead, by Gordon Hall Gerould, [1908], at

p. 7



THE following list of variants of The Grateful Dead includes only such tales as have the fundamental traits. as sketched above, either expressed or clearly implied, Thus Der gute Gerhard, for example, is not mentioned because it has only the motive of The Ransomed Woman, while one of the folk-tales from Hungary is admitted because it follows in general outline one of the combined types to be discussed later, even though the burial of the dead is obscured. I cite by the short titles which will be used to indicate the stories in the subsequent discussion. The arrangement is roughly geographical.


In the apocryphal book of Tobit. According to Neubauer, The Book of Tobit, a Chaldee Text from a unique MS. in the Bodleian Library, 1878, p. xv, Tobit was originally written in Hebrew, although the Hebrew text preserved was taken from Chaldee. Neubauer (p. xvii) quotes Graetz, Geschichte der Juden, (2nd ed.) iv. 466, as saying that the book was written in the time of Hadrian, and he concludes that it cannot be earlier because it was unknown to Josephus. The correspondence with Sir Amadas, and thus with The Grateful Dead generally, seems to have been first noted by Simrock, p. 131 f., again by Köhler, Germania, iii. 203, by Stephens, p. 7, by Hippe, p. 142, etc.

p. 8


A. von Haxthausen, Transkaukasia, 1856, i. 333 f. A modern folk-tale. Reprinted entire by Benfey, Pantschatantra, i. 219, note, and by Köhler, Germania, iii. 202 f. A somewhat inadequate summary is given by Hippe, p. 143; a better one is found in Arch. f. slav. Phil. v. 43, by Köhler, who mentioned the tale again in Or. und Occ. ii. 328, and iii. 96. Summarized also by Sepp, p. 681, Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 228 f., and mentioned by Wilhelmi, p. 45.


Reischer, Schaare Jeruschalajim, 1880, pp. 86-99. Summarized by Gaster, Germania, xxvi. 200-202, and from him by Hippe, pp. 143, 144. A modern folk-tale from Palestine.


Landes, Contes et légendes annamites, 1886, pp. 162, 163, "La reconnaissance de l’étudiant mort." A modern folk-tale.


Radloff, Proben der Volkslitteratur der türkischen Stämme Süd-Siberiens, 1866, i. 329-331. See Köhler, Arch. f. slav. Phil. v. 43, note.


Cicero, De Divinatione, i. 27, referred to again in ii. 65 and 66. Retold by Valerius Maximus, Facta et Dicta, i. 7; after him by Robert Holkot, Super Libras Sapientie, Lectio 103; and again by Chaucer in the Nun's Priest's Tale, Cant. Tales, B, 4257-4294. For the relationship of Chaucer's anecdote to those in Latin see Skeat, note in his edition, Lounsbury, Studies in Chaucer, 1892, ii. 274, and Petersen, On the Sources of the Nonne Prestes Tale, 1898, pp. 106-117. Connected with The Grateful Dead by Freudenberg in a review of Simrock in Jahrbücher des Vereins von Alterthumsfreunden im Rheinlande, xxv. 172. See also Köhler, Germania iii. 209, Liebrecht in Heidelberger Jahrbücher der Lit. lxi. 449, 450, and Sepp. p. 680. Not treated by Hippe.


A. G. Paspati, Études sur les Tchinghianés ou Bohémiens de l’Empire Ottoman, 1870, pp. 601-605, Translated from Paspati

p. 9

by F. H. Groome, Gypsy Folk-Tales, 1899, pp. I-3. Summarized by Köhler, Arch. f. slav. Phil. v. 43 and carelessly by Hippe, p. 143. This tale was heard near Adrianople. Cited by Foerster, Richars li Biaus, p. xxviii, and by Wilhelmi, p. 45.


J. G. von Hahn, Griechische und albanesische Märchen, 1864, no. 53, pp. 288-295, "Belohnte Treue." Summarized in part by Hippe, p. 149. See also Liebrecht, Heid. Jahrbücher, lxi. 451, and by Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 243. This tale was found in northern Euboea.


Hans Strummed, Maltesische Märchen, Gedichte und Rätsel, 1904, no. 12, pp. 39-45.


Afansjew, Russische Volksmärchen, Heft 6, p. 323 f. Analyzed by Schiefner, Or. und Occ. ii. 174, 175, and after him by Hippe, p. 144, with some omissions. See Köhler, Or. und Occ. 93-103, and Sepp, p. 684.


Chudjakow, Grossrussische Märchen, Heft 3, pp. 165-168. Translation by Schiefner, Or. und Occ. iii. 93-96 in article by Köhler. In English by Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 229 ff. Summarized by Köhler, Arch. f. slav. Phil. v. 43, and (with an important omission) by Hippe, pp. 144, 145. See Köhler's notes in Gonzenbach, Sicilianische Märchen, ii. 250.


Reproduced from an illustrated folk-book in the Publications of the Society of Friends of Old Literature in St. Petersburg, 1880, no. 49. Summarized by V. Jagić, Arch. f. slav. Phil. v. 480, and by Hippe, p. 145. Jagić remarks that the tale must have been widely known in Russia in the eighteenth century, though clearly of foreign origin.


Dietrich, Russische Volksmärchen in den Urschrift gesammelt, 1831, no. 16, pp. 199-207. English translation, Russian Popular Tales. Translated from the German Version of Anton Dietrich,

p. 10

[paragraph continues] 1857, pp. 179-186. "Sila Zarewitsch und Iwaschka mit dem weissen Hemde." Like other tales in the collection this was taken from a popular print bought at Moscow. Mentioned by Benfey, Pantschatantra, i. 220, and by Köhler, Or. u. Occ. ii. 328.


P. V. Šejn, Materialien zur Kenntniss der russischen Bevölkerung von Nordwest-Russland, 1893, ii. 66-68, no. 33. Cited by Polívka in Arch. f. slav. Phil. xix. 251.


P. V. Šejn, work cited, ii. 401-407, no 227. Cited by Polívka, Arch. f. slav. Phil. xix. 262.


Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, 2nd ed. of his Servian folk-tales, 1870. Translated by Madam Mijatovies (Mijatovich), Serbian Folk-Lore, 1874, p. 96. Summarized from Servian by Köhler, Arch. f. slav. Phil. ii. 631, 632, and from him by Hippe, p. 145.


Summarized from Gj. K. Stefanović's collection, 1871, no. 15, by Jagić in Arch. f. slav. Phil. v. 40 f. with the title "Vlatko und der dankbare Todte." Thence by Hippe, p. 145.


Jagić in Arch. f. slav. Phil. v. 41 f, from Stojanović's collection, no. 31. Hippe's summary, p. 146, is exceedingly brief and faulty.


Jagić, Arch. f. slav. Phil. v. 42, from Matica, B. 105 (A.D. 1863, St. Novaković). Summary of this by Hippe, p. 146. Jagić calls the tale "Ein Goldfisch."


Krauss, Sagen und Märchen der Südslaven, 1883, I. 385-388, "Der Vilaberg." Summarized by Dutz, p. 11.

p. 11


Krauss, work cited, i. 114-119. "Fuhrmann Tueguts Himmelswagen." From the manuscript collection of Valjavec. Summarized by Dutz, p. 18, note 2.


Waldau, Böhmisches Märchenbuch, 1860, pp. 213-241. Mentioned by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 329, and by Hippe, p. 146. Summarized by the former, Or. und Occ. iii. 97 f.


K. W. Wójcicki, Klechdy, Staro.zytne podania i powieści ludowe, 2nd ed., Warsaw, 1851. Translated into German by F. H. Lewestam, Polnische Volkssagen und Märchen, 1839, pp. 130 ff; into English by A. H. Wratislaw, Sixty Folk-Tales from exclusively Slavonic Sources, 1889, pp. 121 ff.; and into French by Louis Leger, Recueil de contes populaires slaves, 1882, pp. 119 ff. Summarized by Köhler, Germania, iii. 200 f., and by Hippe, pp. 146 f. See also Sepp, p. 684, Dutz, p. 11, Groome, Gypsy Folk-Tales, p. 3, note, and Arivau, Folk-Lore de Proaza, 1886, p. 205.


Lydia Schischmánoff, Légendes religieuses bulgares, 1896, no. 77, pp. 202-209, 2 "Le berger, son fils, et l’archange."


L. Geitler, Litauische Studien, 1875, pp. 21-23. Analyzed by Köhler, Arch. f. slav. Phil. ii. 633, and after him briefly by Hippe, 3 p. 147, as his "Lithuanian II."


Köhler, Arch. f. slav. Phil. ii. 633 f. From Prussian Lithuania. Summarized by Hippe, p. 147, as his "Lithuanian III."

p. 12


G. Stier, Ungarische Sagen und Märchen, 1850, pp. 110-122. Mentioned by Köhler, Germania, iii. 202, and by Hippe, p. 147.


G. Stier, Ungarische Volksmärchen, 1857, pp. 153-167. Summarized by Köhler, Germania, iii. 199 f., and too briefly by Hippe, p. 148.


Arthur Schott, Neue walachische Märchen, in Hackländer and Hoefer's Hausblätter, 1857, iv. 470-473. Mentioned by Stephens, p. 10, Hippe, p. 147, and Benfey, Pantschatantra, ii. 532.


F. Obert. Romänische Märchen und Sagen aus Siebenbürgen, in Das Ausland, 1858, p. 117. Mentioned by Köhler, Germania, iii. 202, and by Hippe, p. 147.


Haltrich, Deutsche Volksmärchen aus dem Sachsenlände in Siebenbürgen, 1856, pp. 42-45. Analyzed by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 326, and incompletely by Hippe, p. 148. Mentioned by Stephens, p. 10, and Sepp, p. 684.


Schiefner, Or. und Occ. ii. 175 f., whence the analysis by Hippe, p. 148.


Reisen in mehrere russische Gouvernements in den fahren 1801, 1807 und 1815, 1830, v. 186-192, from Ein Ausflug nach Esthland im Junius 1807. Reprinted by Kletke, Märchensaal, 1845, ii. 60-62. Summarized by Dutz, p. 18, note 3.


Liebrecht, Germania, xxiv. 131, 132. Communicated by Schiefner from Suomen, Kansan Satuja, Helsingfors, 1866. Summarized by Hippe, pp. 148 f.


F. Maspons y Labrós, Lo Rondollayre: Quentos populars catalans, Segona Série, 1872, no. 5, pp. 34-37. Analyzed by

p. 13

[paragraph continues] Liebrecht, Heid. Jahrbücher der Lit. lxv. 894 (1872), and after him by Hippe, p. 151. Mentioned by d’Ancona, Romania, iii. 192, and by Foerster, Richars li Biaus, p. xxviii.


Duran, Romancero general, 1849-51, u. 299-302, nos. 1291, 1292. Summarized by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 323 f. and after him by Cosquin, Contes populaires, i. 215, and by Hippe, p. 151. 1 Mentioned by Sepp, p. 686.


Comedy in two parts, Don Juan de Castro. According to J. R. Chorley, Catálogo de comedias y autos de Frey Félix de Vega Carpio, p. 5, this play is to be found in Part xix. of the Comedias published in 1623 (later issues 1624, 1625, and 1627). A. Schaeffer, Geschichte des spanischen Nationaldramas, 1890, i. 141, says that the second part, called Las aventuras de don Juan de Alarcos, is in Part xxv. of Lope's comedies. The entire play is edited by Hartzenbusch, Comedias Escogidas de Lope de Vega, iv. 373 ff. and 395 ff. in the Biblioteca de autores españoles, lii. Schaeffer, pp. 141, 142, gives a careful summary of the play, and Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. too f., gives another. The latter is followed by Hippe, p. 151. Mentioned by Duran, Romancero general, ii. 299, by Sepp, p. 686, and by Wilhelmi, pp. 45 ff. and 60.


El Mejor Amigo el Muerto, by Luis de Belmonte, Francisco de Rojas, and Pedro Calderon de la Barca, in Biblioteca de autores españoles, xiv. 471-488, and in Comedias escogidas de los mejores ingenios de España, 1657, ix. 53-84. Analyzed by Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. 100 f., and briefly after him by Hippe, p. 151. Mentioned by Sepp, p. 686, and by Wilhelmi, pp. 60 f. Schaeffer, work cited, ii. 283 f., says that a play of this name was written by Belmonte alone in 1610, which was revised about 1627 with the aid of Rojas and Calderon.

p. 14


Contos e historias de proveito e exemplo, by Gonçalo Fernandez Trancoso, Parte 2, Cont. ii., first published in 1575 and frequently re-issued during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the edition published at Lisbon in 1693, our tale is found on pp. 45r.-60r.; and in that published at the same place in 1710, on pp. 110-177. Menéndez y Pelayo, Orígenes de la Novela (Nueva Biblioteca de autores españoles vii.), 1907, ii. lxxxvii ff., gives a bibliography, the table of contents, and a description of the work on the basis of seventeenth century editions; on p. xcv. he connects the tale above-mentioned with The Grateful Dead. See T. Braga, Contos tradicionaes do povo portuguez, 1883, ii. 63-128, who prints nineteen of the tales in abbreviated form, but not ours.


Johannes Junior (Gobius), Scala Celi, 1480, under Elemosina. Gobius was born in the south of France and lived about the middle of the fourteenth century. 2 Summary by Simrock, pp. 106-109. Mentioned by Hippe, p. 169.


Richars li Biaus, ed. W. Foerster, 1874. A romance written in Picardy or eastwards in the thirteenth century (Foerster, p. xxi). Analyzed by Köhler, Revue critique, 1868, pp. 412 ff., and Hippe, p. 155. Compared in detail with Lion de Bourges by Wilhelmi, pp. 46 ff.


An Old French romance known to exist in two manuscripts, the earlier dating from the fourteenth century, 3 the later from

p. 15

about the end of the fifteenth. 1 It has never been edited, but the portion which concerns us was analyzed in detail by Wilhelmi, pp. 18-38. This summary I have made the basis of my discussion. The romance was mentioned by P. Paris, Foerster, and Suchier (as cited in note below), Gautier, Les épopées françaises, 1st ed. 1865, i. 471-493, Ebert, Jahrbuch f. rom. und engl. Lit. iv. 53, 54, and Benfey, Pantschatantra, i. 220. A prose translation into German is found in manuscripts of the fifteenth century, which does not differ materially from the original. 2 This was printed in 1514, and summarized by F. H. von der Hagen, Gesammtabenteuer, 1850, i. xcvii-xcix, Simrock, pp. 104-106, and Hippe, p. 154. See E. Müller, Überlieferung des Herpin von Burges, 1905, who analyzes the work and treats its relations to Lion.


Olivier de Castille et Artus d’Algarbe, a French prose romance composed before 1472, according to Foulché-Delbosc (Revue hispanique, ix. 592). The first and second editions were printed at Geneva, the first in 1482, the second before 1492. 3 There exist at least three manuscripts of the work from the fifteenth century: MS. Bibl. nat. fran. 12574 (which attributes the romance to a David Aubert, according to Gröber, Grundriss der rom. Phil. ii. 1, 1145); MS. Brussels 3861; and Univ. of Ghent, MS. 470. The designs of the last have been reproduced, together with a summary of the text, by Heins and Bergmans, Olivier de Castille, 1896. An English translation was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1518. A translation from the second French edition into Castilian was made by Philippe Camus, which was printed thirteen times between 1499 and 1845. 4 The edition of 1499 has lately been reproduced in facsimile by A. M. Huntington, La historia de los nobles caualleros Oliueros de castilla y artus dalgarbe, 1902. A German translation from the French was made by Wilhelm Ziely in 1521, and this was translated into English by Leighton and Barrett, The History of Oliver and Arthur, 1903. From the

p. 16

[paragraph continues] German prose Hans Sachs took the material for his comedy on the theme (publ. 1556). A summary of Ziely's work is given by Frölicher, Thüring von Ringoltingen's "Melusine," Wilhelm Ziely's "Olivier und Artus" und "Valentin und Orsus," 1889, pp. 65 f., which is used by Wilhelmi, pp. 55, 56, in his comparison of the romance with Richars and Lion de Bourges. An Italian translation, presumably from the French, was printed three or four times from 1552 to 1622. 1 A summary of the story is given in Mélanges tirés d’une grande bibliothèque, by E. V. 1780, pp. 78 ff., with an incorrect note about the romance, reproduced by Hippe, pp. 155 f., with an analysis from the same source of the part of the tale belonging to our cycle. Robert Laneham in his list of ballads and romances, made in 1575, mentions Olyuer of the Castl. See Furnivall, Captain Cox, his Ballads and Books, Ballad Soc. 1871, vii. xxxvii and 30.


I. Mme. Angélique de Gomez, Histoire de Jean de Calais, 1723. Sketched in the Bibliothèque universelle des romans, Dec. 1776, pp. 134 ff. Köhler, Germania, iii. 204 ff., gives a summary of the work, which Mme de Gomez stated was "tiré d’un livre qui a pour titre: Histoire fabuleuse de la Maison des Rois de Portugal." A later anonymous redaction of this Jean de Calais exists in prints of 1970, 1776, and 1787, and it continued to be issued in the nineteenth century. Summarized by Hippe, pp. 156 f., and by Sepp, pp. 685 f. Mentioned by Köhler in Gonzenbach, Sicil. Märchen, ii. 250.

II. Bladé, Contes populaires de la Gascogne, 1886, ii. 67-90. This and the following folk-versions of Jean deserve careful consideration because of the interesting character of their variations.

III. J. B. Andrews, Folk-Lore Record, iii. 48 ff., from Mentone. See Liebrecht, Engl. Stud. v. 158, and Hippe, p. 157.

IV. and V. J. B. Andrews, Contes ligures, traditions de la Rivière, 1892, pp. 111-116, no. 26, and pp. 187-192, no. 41. These two versions differ slightly from one another, but more from the preceding.

p. 17

VI. P. Sébillot, Contes populaires de la Haute-Bretagne, 3me. série, 1882, pp. 164-171.

VII. Wentworth Webster, Basque Legends, 1877, pp. 151-154. See Luzel, Légendes chrétiennes, p. 90, note.

VIII. A. Le Bras, La légende de la mort chez les Bretons armoricains, nouv. éd., 1902, ii. 211-231.

IX. L. Giner Arivau, Folk-Lore de Proaza (Asturia), in Biblioteca de las tradiciones populares españolas, viii. 194-201 (1886).

X. Gittée and Lemoine, Contes populaires du pays Wallon, 1891, pp. 57-61.


Roman van Walewein, ed. Jonckbloet, 1846. Analyzed by G. Paris, Hist. litt. de la France, xxx. 82-84, and by W. P. Ker, The Roman van Walewein (Gawain) in Folk-Lore, V. 121-127 (1894). My analysis is a combination made from these two summaries.


Cosquin, Contes populaires de Lorraine, 1886, i. 208-212 (no. xix). Noted by Hippe, p. 157.


Cénac Moncaut, Contes populaires de la Gascogne, 1861, pp. 5-14, "Rira bien qui rira le dernier." Summarized by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 329. Mentioned by Hippe, p. 157, and by Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 239.


Novella di Messer Dianese e di Messer Gigliotto, ed. d’Ancona and Sforza, 1868. Analyzed by Liebrecht, Heid. Jahrbücher der Lit. lxi. 450 (1868), by d’Ancona, Romania, iii. 191, (reprinted in his Studj di critica e storia, 1880, p. 353), and by Hippe, p. 152. D’Ancona's summary is from Papanti, nov. xxi. The variant is of the fourteenth century, according to the writer of the introduction of the edition of 1868, p. 5. See also Foerster, Richars li Biaus, p. xxiv, and Wilhelmi, pp. 44 and 57.


D’Ancona, Romania, iii. 192, mentions the popular poem Istoria bellissima di Stellante Costantina figliuola del gran turco, la quale fu rubata da certi cristiani che teneva in torte suo padre e fu venduta 

p. 18

a un mercante di Vicenza presso Salerno, con molti intervalli e successi, composta da Giovanni Orazio Brunetto. I have not been able to find this poem and do not know how closely it accords with Dianese.


Notti piacevoli, notte xi, favola 2. Analyzed by Grimm, Kinder- und Hausmärchen, 1856, iii. 289; and rather too briefly by Simrock, pp. 98-100, and Hippe, p. 153. See Benfey, Pant. i. 221, Köhler in Gonzenbach, Sicil. Märchen, ii. 249, and Groome, Tobit and Jack, Folk-Lore, ix. 226 f., and Gypsy Folk-Tales, p. 3, note.


Notti piacevoli, notte v, favola 1. See Benfey, Pant. ii. 532.


G. Nerucci, Sessanta novelle popolari, 1880, pp. 430-437, no. lii. A folk-tale from the neighbourhood of Pistoia. See Webster, Basque Legends, pp. 182-187, Crane, Italian Popular Tales, p. 350, and Cosquin, Contes populaires, i. 215.


Ive, Novelline popolari rovignesi, 1877, p. 19. See d’Ancona, Studj di critica, 1880, p. 354, and the summary by Crane, Italian Popular Tales, 1885, no. xxxv. pp. 131-136, from whom, as Ive's collection has been inaccessible to me, I derive my knowledge of the story. Crane gives the title of Ive as Fiabe, etc., d’Ancona as above.


G. Bernoni, Tradizioni populari veneziane, 1875, pp. 89-96. Referred to by Crane, Italian Popular Tales, p. 350.


Laura Gonzenbach, Sicilianische Märchen, 1870, ii. 96-103. Summarized briefly by Hippe, pp. 153 f., and by Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 239 f.


Roméro and Braga, Contos populares do Brazil, 1885, no. x. pp. 215. See Cosquin, Contes populaires, i. 215.

p. 19


Wentworth Webster, Basque Legends, 1877, pp. 182-187. See Cosquin, Contes populaires, i. 215, and Luzel, Légendes chrétiennes, p. 90, note.


Webster, work cited, pp. 146-150. See Crane, Italian Popular Tales, p. 351.


Campbell, Popular Tales of the West Highlands, new ed. 1890, 11. 121-140, no. 32, "The Barra Widow's Son." Summarized by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 322 f., by Sepp, p. 685, by Hippe, p. 150, and by Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 235. See Köhler in Gonzenbach, Sicil. Märchen, ii. 249, and Groome, Gypsy Folk-Tales, p. 3, note.


W. Larminie, West Irish Folk-Tales and Romances, 1893, pp. 155-167, "Beauty of the World." Mentioned by Kittredge, Harvard Notes and Studies, viii. 250, note.


Douglas Hyde, Beside the Fire. A Collection of Irish Gaelic Folk-Stories, 1890, pp. 18-47, "The King of Ireland's Son." 1 Mentioned by Kittredge, place cited.


P. Kennedy, Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, 1866, pp. 32-38, "Jack the Master and Jack the Servant."


Souvestre, Le foyer breton, contes et récits populaires, nouv. ed. 1874, ii. 1-21. Analyzed by Simrock, pp. 94-98, by Sepp, p. 685, and in part by Hippe, p. 149. See Luzel, Légendes chrétiennes, i. 90, note.


F. M. Luzel, Légendes chrétiennes de la Basse-Bretagne, 1881, i. 68-90, "Le fils de Saint Pierre." Cited by von Weilen, Zts. f. 

p. 20

vergl. Litteraturgeschichte, N.F. i. 105. Analyzed in part by Hippe, pp. 149 f.


Luzel, work cited, ii. 40-58. Mentioned by von Weilen, place cited, and analyzed by Hippe, p. 150. The title, slightly misquoted by Hippe, is "Cantique spirituel sur la charité que montra Saint-Corentin envers un jeune homme qui fut chassé de chez son père et sa mère, sans motif ni raison."


P. Sébillot, Contes populaires de la Haute-Bretagne, 1880, pp. 1-8. Noted by Luzel, work cited, p. 90, note, and by Cosquin, Contes populaires, i. 215.


F. M. Luzel, Contes populaires de Basse-Bretagne, 1887, ii. 176-194, "La princesse Marcassa."


F. M. Luzel, work cited, ii. 209-230, "La princesse de Hongrie."


F. M. Luzel, work cited, i. 403-424, "Iouenn Kerménou, l’homme de parole."


Stephens, pp. 73 f., reprinted with translation from his Ett Forn-Svenskt Legendarium, 1858, ii. 731 f. This variant from 1265-1270 is analyzed by Hippe, pp. 158 f.


P. O. Bäckström, Svenska Folkböcker, 1845-48, ii. 144-156, from H—d (Hammarsköld) and I—s (Imnelius), Svenska Folksagor, 1819, i. 157-189. Bäckström also cites several editions of the folk-book, which he says is of native origin. Mentioned by Stephens, p. 8. Summarized by Liebrecht, Germania, xxiv. 130 f., and by Hippe, p. 158.


S. Grundtvig, Gamle Danske Minder i Folkemunde, 1854, pp. 77-80, "Det fattige Lig." Mentioned by Stephens, p. 8, by

p. 21

[paragraph continues] Hippe, p. 160, and by Wilhelmi, p. 45. Summarized by Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. 99.


Grundtvig, work cited, pp. 105-108, "De tre Mark." Summarized by Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. too. Cited by Hippe, p. 160, and Wilhelmi, p. 45.


Andersen, "Reisekammeraten," in Samlede Skrifter, xx. 54 ff. (1855). Found in most English editions of Andersen's tales as "The Travelling Companion." Based on Norwegian II. Analyzed by Sepp, p. 678. Cited by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 327, by Hippe, p. 159, and by Groome, Gypsy Folk-Tales, p. 3, note.


Asbjörnsen, Iuletraeet, 1866, no. 8, and Norske Folke-Eventyr, 1871, no. 99, pp. 198-201. Summarized by Liebrecht, Heid. Jahrbücher der Lit. lxi. 451 (1868), and by Hippe, p. 159. See Liebrecht, Germania, xxiv. 131.


Asbjörnsen, Illustreret Kalender, 1855, pp. 32-39, Iuletraeet, no. 9, and Norske Folke-Eventyr, no. 100, pp. 201-214. Translated by Dasent, Tales from the Fjeld, 1874, pp. 71-88. Cited by Stephens, p. 8, Liebrecht, Germania, xxiv. 131, and Groome, Gypsy Folk-Tales, p. 3, note. Somewhat inadequate summaries by Liebrecht, Heid. Jahrbücher der Lit. lxi. 452, Hippe, p. 159, and Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 230.


Árnason, Íslenzkar þjódsögur og Æfintýri, 1864, ii. 473-479. English translation in Powell and Magnusson, Legends Collected by Jón. Arnason, 1866, pp. 527-540. German translation in Poestion, Isländische Märchen, 1884, p. 274. Cited by Liebrecht. Heid. Jahrbücher, lxi. 451, and Germania, xxiv. 131, and by Wilhelmi, p. 45. Summary by Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. 101 f., and by Hippe, p. 159.


A. Ritterhaus, Die neuisländischen Volksmärchen, 1902, no. 57, pp. 232-235. From MS. 537, Landesbibliothek, Reykjavik.

p. 22


F. H. von der Hagen, Gesammtabenteuer, 1850, i. 105-128, no. 6. A poem of 866 lines from the fourteenth century. Summaries in Benfey, Pant. i. 221, in Simrock, pp. 100-103, and, with a rather bad error, in Hippe, p. 264. See Foerster, Richars li Biaus, p. xxiv. Compared with Richars, Oliver, and Lion de Bourges by Wilhelmi, pp. 56 f.


Der Junker und der treue Heinrich, ed. K. Kinzel, 1880. Previously edited and analyzed by von der Hagen, Gesammtabenteuer, iii. 197-255, no. 64. Summary by Simrock, pp. 103 f. Cited by Hippe, p. 165.


J. W. Wolf, Deutsche Hausmärchen, 1858, pp. 243-250, contributed by W. von Plönnies. Summary by Simrock, pp. 46-5i, by Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. 98, and by Sepp, p. 683. Cited by Hippe, p. 165.


W. von Plönnies in Zts. f. deutsche Myth. ii. 373-377. From the Odenwald. Summary by Simrock, pp. 51-54. See Hippe, p. 165. This is the story analyzed by Sepp, p. 688 f., though he also refers to Wolf's and Zingerle's tales.


E. Meier, Or. und Occ., 1852, no. 42. pp. 243-153. Summarized by Simrock, pp. 54-58, Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. 99, and Sepp, pp. 686 f. See Hippe, p. 165.


H. Pröhle, Kinder- und Volksmärchen, 1853, pp. 239-246. Summary by Simrock, pp. 58-62. See Hippe, p. 165.


Simrock, pp. 62-65, contributed by Zingerle, who afterwards printed it in the Zts. f. deutsche Myth. ii. 367 ff., in Sagen, Märchen und Gebräuche aus Tirol, 1859, pp. 444 f., and in Kinder- und Hausmärchen aus Tirol, 2nd ed., 1870, pp. 261-267. Analyzed without mention of source by Sepp, pp. 687 f. See Hippe, p. 165.

p. 23


Simrock, pp. 65-68, from Xanten. See Hippe, p. 165.


Simrock, pp. 68-75, from Xanten. See Hippe, p. 165.


F. Woeste, Zts. f. deutsche Myth. iii. 46-50, from Grafschaft Mark. Given by Simrock, pp. 75-80. Analyzed by Sepp, p. 685, who inadvertently speaks of it as "nach irischer Sage." See Hippe, p. 165.


Simrock, pp. 80-89, contributed by Zingerle, who afterwards printed it in Sagen, Märchen und Gebräuche aus Tirol, 1859, pp. 446-450, and in Kinder- und Hausmärchen aus Tirol, 2nd ed., 1870, pp. 254-260. See Stephens, p. 9, Hippe, pp. 165 f., and Wilhelmi, p. 45.


Simrock, pp. 89-94, from the foot of the Tomberg. Summarized by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 326. See Hippe, p. 166, and Wilhelmi, P. 45.


L. Strackerjan, Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogtum Oldenburg, 1867, ii. 308 ff. Cited by Hippe, p. 166, and by Foerster, Richars li Biaus, p. xxviii.


A. Ey, Harzmärchenbuch, 1862, pp. 64-74. Summary by Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. 96. Cited by Hippe, p. 166.


A. Ey, work cited, pp. 113-118. Summary by Köhler, Or. und Occ. iii. 97. Cited by Hippe, p. 166.


Ed. Weber, Metrical Romances, 1810, iii. 241-275, Robson, Three Early English Metrical Romances, 1842, pp. 27-56, Stephens, Ghost-Thanks, 1860. Stephens seems to have been the first to note the connection of Sir Amadas with The Grateful Dead. The romance, as it is preserved in two manuscripts of the fifteenth

p. 24

century, must accordingly have been composed as early as the second half of the preceding century. It contains 778 verses in the tail-rhyme stanza. Summarized by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 325, by Foerster, Richars li Biaus, pp. xxiv-xxvi, by Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 236, and by Hippe (with great care), pp. 160-164. Compared with Oliver by Wilhelmi, pp. 58 f.


Found without essential difference in several chapbooks, the earliest owned by the British Museum being entitled: The Second Part of | Jack and the Giants. | Giving a full Account of his victorious Conquests over | the North Country Giants; destroying the inchanted | Castle kept by Galligantus; dispersed the fiery Grif- | fins; put the Conjuror to Flight; and released not | only many Knights and Ladies, but likewise a Duke's | Daughter, to whom he was honourably married. Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1711. 1 Other editions with the story are: The History of Jack and the Giants, Aldermary Churchyard, London; same title, Bow Church Yard, London; same title, Cowgate, Edinburgh; The Pleasant and delightful History of Jack and the Giants, Nottingham, Printed for the Running Stationers, and The Wonderful History of Jack the Giant-Killer, Manchester, Printed by A. Swindells; all without date. The Newcastle edition was reprinted by Halliwell-Phillipps in Popular Rhymes and Nursery Tales, 1849, in which our tale appears at pp. 67-77. Apparently the British Museum copy dated 1711 is that owned by Halliwell-Phillipps. From his edition it has been reprinted by Groome, Folk-Lore, ix. 237 f., and summarized by Köhler, Or. und Occ. ii. 327 f., and Sepp, p. 685. See also Stephens, p. 8. Hippe, p. 164, and Wilhelmi, p. 45.


The Factor's Garland or The Turkey Factor, a tale in English verse, which may be regarded as a popular ballad, though by no

p. 25

means as a primitive one. It has often been reprinted as a chapbook or broadside. The library of Harvard University possesses copies of no less than eight different editions (see W. C. Lane, Catalogue of English and American Chap-Books and Broadside Ballads in Harvard College Library, 1905, nos. 809-815, 2420). An examination of these shows that they differ from each other in no essential point, though they vary considerably in statements of time. The British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books lists seven editions, all different from those at Harvard, with one possible exception. The popularity of the story, at one time at least, is thus strikingly illustrated. Another variant, reported from oral tradition, has been found in North Carolina. See the paper read by J. B, .Henneman before the Modern Language Association of America on Dec. 29, 1906.


George Peele, The Old Wives’ Tale (1590), published in 1595, Ed. by Dyce, 1828 and 1861, by Bullen, 1888, and by Gummere in Gayley's Representative English Comedies, 1903, pp. 349-382. See H. Dutz for an elaborate discussion of the connection of the play with our theme.


Philip Massinger (and Nathaniel Field), The Fair Penitent. First printed in 1632. Ed. A. Symons, Mermaid Series, 1889, ii. 87-182.


Nicholas Rowe, The Fair Penitent, The Dramatick Works of Nicholas Rowe Esq., 1720, vol. i.


10:1 I have to thank the kindness of Professor Leo Wiener for my knowledge of the content of Russian V. and VI., which he was good enough to translate for me from the dialect of White Russia.

11:1 What the two Bohemian variants contain, which are mentioned by Benfey, Pantschatantra, i. 221, note, by Stephens, p. 10, by Köhler, Germania, iii. 199-209, and Or. und Occ. ii. 328, note, and by Hippe, p. 146, I have been unable to ascertain.

11:2 On pp. 194-201 is found a curious "Écho de l’histoire de Tobie."

11:3 Hippe's first Lithuanian tale is a variant of The Water of Life and will be treated in another connection.

13:1 Hippe speaks of "zwei spanische Romanzen." Had he consulted the Spanish text or read Köhler's note more attentively, he would have seen that a single story runs through nos. 1291 and 1292 of the Romancero.

14:1 My attention was called to this variant by the kindness of Professor F. De Haan, and I was supplied with a first summary from the 1693 edition by the friendly aid of Professor G. T. Northup.

14:2 See Crane, Exempla of Jacques de Vitry, 1890, p. lxxxvi.

14:3 P. Paris, Manuscrits françois, 1840, iii. I, and Foerster, Richars li Blazes, 1874, p. xxvii, date it from the fifteenth century; Suchier, Oeuvres poétiques de Philippe de Beaumanoir, 1884, p. lxxxiv, and Wilhelmi, p. 15, from the fourteenth century.

15:1 P. Paris, place cited, and Foerster, place cited, say the sixteenth century, but Wilhelmi, place cited, the fifteenth.

15:2 See Wilhelmi, p. 43.

15:3 Foulché-Delbosc, pp. 589, 590.

15:4 Work cited, pp. 587, 588.

16:1 Place cited.

19:1 My attention was first called to this story by the kindness of Professor A. C. L. Brown.

24:1 An edition with an almost identical title "Printed and sold by Larkin How, in Petticoat Lane," of which a copy is in the Harvard College Library, does not contain our story.

24:2 My attention was called to this variant by the kindness of Professor Kittredge.

Next: Chapter III. Tales With the Simple Theme and Miscellaneous Combinations